By Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara, Tethys Research Institute, giuseppe [at] disciara.net
More than 20 years ago (1991), under the impetus of the highest concern for the survival of cetacean populations in the Mediterranean, strongly impacted by human activities (most notably bycatch in pelagic driftnets), with colleagues I lobbied for the establishment of a large (87,000 km2) marine mammal sanctuary in the region’s NW portion, covering an area containing critical habitat of several cetacean species. Subsequently (1999), the Pelagos Sanctuary was formally established by a treaty among France, Italy and Monaco, and was later included in the list of Specially Protected Areas of Mediterranean Importance (SPAMIs) under the purview of the Barcelona Convention. As the world’s first MPA established in the high seas, Pelagos has served significantly the purpose of attracting attention to the need of protecting Areas Beyond Natural Jurisdiction (ABNJ).
Today, however, 13 years after its designation, I cannot state that the Pelagos Sanctuary has been doing much for the local populations of whales and dolphins. It has never been properly managed — in fact there is no management body. Trying to overcome the sense of frustration caused by this condition, I think that this impasse needs to be overcome through some lateral thinking.
The situation of marine protection of the Mediterranean is different today from when the idea of Pelagos was first conceived, in the early ‘90s. First, driftnets are no longer the main threat to cetaceans, having been made illegal (although some pockets of illegal use still persist in southern Italy, Morocco and Turkey, which are causing cetacean mortality). Second, in the frame of a process that will eventually cause international waters to become extinct in the Mediterranean, Pelagos lies no longer in ABNJ, being now within France’s Mediterranean EEZ and Italy’s Ecological Protection Zone. Third, the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic (ACCOBAMS), under the Convention on Migratory Species, has come into force since 2002, with a wide regional membership and the mandate of protecting cetaceans everywhere in the Mediterranean, not just inside the borders of Pelagos.
So, has Pelagos served its function, and should it now be sent to retirement? I don’t think so, particularly because of the local sense of pride that it has generated during the years (more that 40 coastal municipalities in France and Italy have deliberated to be partners of the Pelagos Sanctuary). However, I think that its nature could be modified to best meet the current and future challenges.
A proposal: reduce and enlarge Pelagos
This could perhaps be achieved by simultaneously reducing and enlarging Pelagos. Let me clarify. I would first reduce it by limiting its purview over areas that really contain cetacean critical habitat, thereby leaving outside wide portions of marine surface, currently included inside Pelagos’ perimeter, that have little or no significance for cetacean conservation. At the same time, I would include within Pelagos other areas containing cetacean critical habitat throughout the Western Mediterranean – from Gibraltar all the way to the Sicily Strait - thereby transforming Pelagos into a Western Mediterranean network of marine mammal core conservation areas. We now have the ecological information needed to accomplish this task. In turn, this network would contribute to strengthen the bases for the identification of EBSAs (CBD’s Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas) in the region. In addition, it would serve as an introduction to the implementation of a Marine Spatial Planning scheme whereby all human activities in the Mediterranean that are currently impairing or threatening marine mammal conservation – such as navigation, military, oil exploration, fishing – will be made to coexist with environmental protection.
Perhaps by going in this direction it will be easier to give the Pelagos Sanctuary a more meaningful and manageable character. I admit that the idea is still pretty raw, and will need quite more tinkering to make its implementation possible, or even desirable, within the current Mediterranean governance complexity. This is the reason why I am posting it on OpenChannels: to seek comments and suggestions which will help to understand whether the idea has potential, and eventually make progress with it.
Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara is an ecologist and conservationist who has bridged the worlds of marine science, conservation and policy over a 40-year career. He is president of the Tethys Research Institute (www.tethys.org) and publishes the Wave Action blog (www.disciara.net).