Born in 1886, Harold Kainalu Long Castle was descended from successful Hawaii businessman, James Bicknell Castle, who was a partner of Castle & Cooke. Harold K.L. Castle purchased the title to 9,500 acres in the Kailua ahupua‘a in early 1917.
Economic development and human progress have led to a proliferation of manufactured chemicals and materials made from limited resources found in nature(i.e., minerals and metals,petroleum-based productsand natural gas). Long-term sustainability requires consideration of the availability of specific natural resources, energy, and water usage. NSF continues to support efforts that seek to improve the efficiency with which natural resources are used to meet human needs for products and services.