Literature Library

Currently indexing 7827 titles

Preventing shipping accidents: Past, present, and future of waterway risk management with Baltic Sea focus

Kulkarni K, Goerlandt F, Li J, Banda OValdez, Kujala P. Preventing shipping accidents: Past, present, and future of waterway risk management with Baltic Sea focus. Safety Science [Internet]. 2020 ;129:104798. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925753520301958
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Various national maritime authorities and international organizations show strong interest to implement risk management processes to decision making for shipping accident prevention in waterway areas. There is a recurring need for approaches, models, and tools for identifying, analysing, and evaluating risks of shipping accidents, and for strategies for preventively managing these in (inter-)organizational settings. This article presents a comprehensive review of academic work in this research area, aiming to identify patterns, trends, and gaps, serving as a guide for future research and development, with a particular focus on the Baltic Sea Region. To understand the links between research in the Baltic Sea area and the global community, a bibliometric analysis is performed, focusing on identifying dominant narratives and social networks in the research community. Articles from the Baltic Sea area are subsequently analysed more in-depth, addressing issues like the nature of the academic work done, the risk management processes involved, and the underlying accident theories. From the results, patterns in the historical evolution of the research domain are detected, and insights about current trends gained, which are used to identify future avenues for research.

Estimation of tsunami debris on seafloors towards future disaster preparedness: Unveiling spatial varying effects of combined land use and oceanographic factors

Matsuba M, Tanaka Y, Yamakita T, Ishikawa Y, Fujikura K. Estimation of tsunami debris on seafloors towards future disaster preparedness: Unveiling spatial varying effects of combined land use and oceanographic factors. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2020 ;157:111289. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X20304070
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

A large amount of tsunami debris from the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 was sunk on the seafloor and threatened the marine ecosystem and local communities' economy, especially in fisheries. However, few studies estimated spatial accumulations of tsunami benthic debris, comparing to their flows on the ocean surface. Here, a spatially varying coefficient model was used to estimate tsunami debris accumulation considering the spatial structure of the data off the Tohoku region. Our model revealed the number of vessels nearest the coast at the tsunami event had the highest positive impact, whereas the distance from the coast and kinetic energy influenced negatively. However, the effect of the proximity to the coast wasn't detected in the Sendai bay, indicating spatial dependency of these effects. Our model estimation provides the fundamental information of tsunami debris accumulation on the seafloor, supporting early reconstruction and risk reduction in marine ecosystems and local communities.

Prioritizing debt conversion opportunities for marine conservation

McGowan J, Weary R, Carriere L, Game ET, Smith JL, Garvey M, Possingham HP. Prioritizing debt conversion opportunities for marine conservation. Conservation Biology [Internet]. 2020 . Available from: https://conbio.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/cobi.13540
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Incentivized debt conversion is a financing mechanism that can assist countries with a heavy debt burden to bolster their long‐term domestic investment in nature conservation. The Nature Conservancy, an international conservation‐based nongovernmental organization, is adapting debt conversions to support marine conservation efforts by small island developing states and coastal countries. Prioritizing debt conversion opportunities according to their potential return on investment can increase the impact and effectiveness of this finance mechanism. We developed guidance on how to do so with a decision‐support approach that relies on a novel threat‐based adaptation of cost‐effectiveness analysis. We constructed scenarios by varying parameters of the approach, including enabling conditions, expected benefits, and threat classifications. Incorporating both abatable and unabatable threats affected priorities across planning scenarios. Similarly, differences in scenario construction resulted in unique solution sets for top priorities. We show how environmental organizations, private entities, and investment banks can adopt structured prioritization frameworks for making decisions about conservation finance investments, such as debt conversions. Our guidance can accommodate a suite of social, ecological, and economic considerations, making the approach broadly applicable to other conservation finance mechanisms or investment strategies that seek to establish a transparent process for return‐on‐investment decision‐making.

Article impact statement : Prioritizations that explicitly incorporate abatable and unabatable threats can improve conservation return on investment decision‐making.

Major Role of Surrounding Environment in Shaping Biofilm Community Composition on Marine Plastic Debris

Basili M, Quero GMarina, Giovannelli D, Manini E, Vignaroli C, Avio CGiacomo, De Marco R, Luna GMarco. Major Role of Surrounding Environment in Shaping Biofilm Community Composition on Marine Plastic Debris. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00262/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Plastic debris in aquatic environments is colonized by microbes, yet factors influencing biofilm development and composition on plastics remain poorly understood. Here, we explored the microbial assemblages associated with different types of plastic debris collected from two coastal sites in the Mediterranean Sea. All plastic samples were heavily colonized by prokaryotes, with abundances up to 1.9 × 107 cells/cm2. Microbial assemblages on plastics significantly differed between the two geographic areas but not between polymer types, suggesting a major role of the environment as source for the plastisphere composition. Nevertheless, plastic communities differed from those in the surrounding seawater and sediments, indicating a further selection of microbial taxa on the plastic substrates. The presence of potential pathogens on the plastic surface reflected the levels of microbial pollution in the surrounding environment, regardless of the polymer type, and confirmed the role of plastics as carriers for pathogenic microorganisms across the coastal ocean, deserving further investigations.

Influence of Storm Events on Chlorophyll Distribution Along the Oligotrophic Continental Shelf Off South-Western Australia

Chen M, Pattiaratchi CB, Ghadouani A, Hanson C. Influence of Storm Events on Chlorophyll Distribution Along the Oligotrophic Continental Shelf Off South-Western Australia. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00287/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The role of storm events in controlling chlorophyll distribution along the oligotrophic Rottnest continental shelf is examined data collected by autonomous ocean gliders combined with meteorological data. Spatial and temporal distribution of chlorophyll concentrations were obtained from a repeated transect across the shallow continental shelf that revealed complex relationships among wind events (e.g., differences in wind speed and direction) and chlorophyll concentrations. Data indicated that the water column responded rapidly to changes in wind speeds alternating between stratification, de-stratification and vice-versa over 1–3 days. Under low wind conditions (wind speeds < 7 ms–1), the water column was stratified and dense shelf water cascades (DSWC) was the dominant feature. The majority of DSWC events were associated with synchronous increases in chlorophyll and suspended sediment, often close to the seabed. During storm events (wind speeds > 15 ms–1) higher chlorophyll values were present throughout the vertically mixed water column. Maximum chlorophyll concentrations, more than double that due to climatology, were observed 1–3 days after the passage of storms subsequent to sediment re-suspension. Storm events, with an onshore component, promoted downwelling, the water column retained vertical stratification, and DSWC was present across the shelf. Here, DSWC intensified with higher chlorophyll in the cascaded water extending further offshore. It is concluded that wind speed and direction are the dominant parameters controlling the distribution of chlorophyll particularly during storm events.

A New Network for the Advancement of Marine Biotechnology in Europe and Beyond

Rotter A, Bacu A, Barbier M, Bertoni F, Bones AM, M. Cancela L, Carlsson J, Carvalho MF, Cegłowska M, Dalay MConk, et al. A New Network for the Advancement of Marine Biotechnology in Europe and Beyond. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00278/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine organisms produce a vast diversity of metabolites with biological activities useful for humans, e.g., cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-microbial, insecticidal, herbicidal, anticancer, pro-osteogenic and pro-regenerative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, cholesterol-lowering, nutritional, photoprotective, horticultural or other beneficial properties. These metabolites could help satisfy the increasing demand for alternative sources of nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals, food, feed, and novel bio-based products. In addition, marine biomass itself can serve as the source material for the production of various bulk commodities (e.g., biofuels, bioplastics, biomaterials). The sustainable exploitation of marine bio-resources and the development of biomolecules and polymers are also known as the growing field of marine biotechnology. Up to now, over 35,000 natural products have been characterized from marine organisms, but many more are yet to be uncovered, as the vast diversity of biota in the marine systems remains largely unexplored. Since marine biotechnology is still in its infancy, there is a need to create effective, operational, inclusive, sustainable, transnational and transdisciplinary networks with a serious and ambitious commitment for knowledge transfer, training provision, dissemination of best practices and identification of the emerging technological trends through science communication activities. A collaborative (net)work is today compelling to provide innovative solutions and products that can be commercialized to contribute to the circular bioeconomy. This perspective article highlights the importance of establishing such collaborative frameworks using the example of Ocean4Biotech, an Action within the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) that connects all and any stakeholders with an interest in marine biotechnology in Europe and beyond.

Changes in Sea-Ice Protist Diversity With Declining Sea Ice in the Arctic Ocean From the 1980s to 2010s

Hop H, Vihtakari M, Bluhm BA, Assmy P, Poulin M, Gradinger R, Peeken I, von Quillfeldt C, Olsen LMork, Zhitina L, et al. Changes in Sea-Ice Protist Diversity With Declining Sea Ice in the Arctic Ocean From the 1980s to 2010s. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00243/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The large declines in Arctic sea-ice age and extent over the last decades could have altered the diversity of sea-ice associated unicellular eukaryotes (referred to as sea-ice protists). A time series from the Russian ice-drift stations from the 1980s to the 2010s revealed changes in community composition and diversity of sea-ice protists from the Central Arctic Ocean. However, these observations have been biased by varying levels of taxonomic resolution and sampling effort, both of which were higher in the early years at drift stations on multiyear sea ice (MYI) in the Central Arctic Ocean. We here combine the Russian ice-drift station data with more recent data to (1) identify common sea-ice protists (in particular diatoms) in drifting sea ice of the Central Arctic Ocean; (2) characterize the potential change in such communities over 35 years in terms of species number and/or community structure; and (3) relate those shifts to relevant environmental factors. In terms of relative abundance, pennate diatoms were the most abundant sea-ice protists across the Arctic, contributing 60% on average of counted cells. Two pennate colony-forming diatom species, Nitzschia frigida and Fragilariopsis cylindrus, dominated at all times, but solitary diatom species were also frequently encountered, e.g., Cylindrotheca closterium and Navicula directa. Multiyear sea ice contained 39% more diatom species than first-year ice (FYI) and showed a relatively even distribution along entire sea-ice cores. The decrease in MYI over the last decades explained the previously reported decreases in sea-ice protist diversity. Our results also indicate that up to 75% of diatom species are incorporated into FYI from the surrounding sea ice and the water column within a few months after the initial formation of the ice, while the remaining 25% are incorporated during ice drift. Thus, changing freeze-up scenarios, as currently witnessed in the Central Arctic, might result in long-term changes of the biodiversity of sea-ice protists in this region.

Hurricane Frequency and Intensity May Decrease Dispersal of Kemp’s Ridley Sea Turtle Hatchlings in the Gulf of Mexico

DuBois MJ, Putman NF, Piacenza SE. Hurricane Frequency and Intensity May Decrease Dispersal of Kemp’s Ridley Sea Turtle Hatchlings in the Gulf of Mexico. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00301/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Environmental variability can be an important factor in the population dynamics of many species. In marine systems, for instance, whether environmental conditions facilitate or impede the movements of juvenile animals to nursery habitat can have a large influence on subsequent population abundance. Both subtle differences in the position of oceanographic features (such as meandering currents) and major disturbances (such as hurricanes) can greatly alter dispersal outcomes. Here, we use an ocean circulation model to explore seasonal and annual variation in the dispersal of post-hatchling Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii). We simulated the transport of 24 cohorts of young-of-the-year Kemp’s ridley sea turtles dispersing from the three primary nesting areas in the western Gulf of Mexico to describe variability in transport during the main hatching season and across years. We examined whether differences in transport distance among Kemp’s ridley cohorts could be explained by hurricane events. We found that years with high numbers of hurricanes corresponded to shorter dispersal distances and less variance within the first 6 months. Our findings suggest that differences in dispersal among sites and the impact of hurricane frequency and intensity could influence the survivorship and somatic growth rates of turtles from different nesting sites and hatching cohorts, either improving survival by encouraging retention in optimal pelagic habitat or decreasing survival by pushing hatchlings into dangerous shallow habitats. Considering such factors in future population assessments may aid in predicting how the potential for increasing tropical storms, a phenomenon linked to climate change, could affect Kemp’s ridley and other populations of sea turtles in the Atlantic Ocean.

Causes of Mortality in a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Population at Equilibrium

Ashley EA, Olson JK, Adler TE, Raverty S, Anderson EM, Jeffries S, Gaydos JK. Causes of Mortality in a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Population at Equilibrium. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00319/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardii) population in the Salish Sea has been at equilibrium since the mid-1990s. This stable population of marine mammals resides relatively close to shore near a large human population and offers a novel opportunity to evaluate whether disease acts in a density-dependent manner to limit population growth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of harbor seal stranding and necropsy findings in the San Juan Islands sub-population to assess age-related stranding trends and causes of mortality. Between January 01, 2002 and December 31, 2018, we detected 882 harbor seals that stranded and died in San Juan County and conducted necropsies on 244 of these animals to determine primary and contributing causes of death. Age-related seasonal patterns of stranded animals were evident, with pups found in the summer, weaned pups primarily recovered during fall, and adults and sub-adults recovered in summer and fall. Pups were the most vulnerable to mortality (64% of strandings). Pups predominantly died of nutritional causes (emaciation) (70%), whereas sub-adults and adults presented primarily with clinical signs and gross lesions of infectious disease (42%) and with non-anthropogenic trauma (27%). Primary causes of weaned pup mortality were distributed equally among nutritional, infectious, non-anthropogenic trauma, and anthropogenic trauma categories. Nutritional causes of mortality in pups were likely related to limitations in mid- and late-gestational maternal nutrition, post-partum mismothering, or maternal separation possibly related to human disturbance. Infectious causes were contributing factors in 33% of pups dying of nutritional causes (primarily emaciation–malnutrition syndrome), suggesting an interaction between poor nutritional condition and enhanced susceptibility to infectious diseases. Additional primary causes of harbor seal mortality were related to congenital disorders, predation, human interaction, and infections, including zoonotic and multidrug-resistant pathogens. Bottom-up nutritional limitations for pups, in part possibly related to human disturbance, as well as top-down predatory influences (likely under-represented through strandings) and infectious disease, are important regulators of population growth in this stable, recovered marine mammal population.

Assessing the Effects of Banana Pingers as a Bycatch Mitigation Device for Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

Omeyer LCM, Doherty PD, Dolman S, Enever R, Reese A, Tregenza N, Williams R, Godley BJ. Assessing the Effects of Banana Pingers as a Bycatch Mitigation Device for Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00285/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Bycatch is a significant cause of population declines of marine megafauna globally. While numerous bycatch mitigation strategies exist, acoustic alarms, or pingers, are the most widely adopted strategy for small cetaceans. Although pingers have been shown to be an effective measure for numerous species, there are some concerns about their long-term use. Bycatch is recognized as a persistent problem in waters around Cornwall, United Kingdom, where several cetacean species are resident, with harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) being the most-commonly sighted. In this study, we assessed the effects of a Banana Pinger (Fishtek Marine Limited) on harbour porpoises in Cornwall between August 2012 and March 2013. Two passive acoustic loggers (C-PODs; Chelonia Limited) were deployed 100 m apart to record cetacean activity during cycles of active and inactive pinger periods. Harbour porpoises were 37% less likely to be detected at the C-POD near the pinger when the pinger was active, while they were only 9% less likely to be detected 100 m further away. The effect of the pinger was constant over the study period at both C-PODs despite the temporal variation in harbour porpoise detections. In addition, we found no evidence of reduced pinger effect with changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, harbour porpoise detections at the C-POD near the pinger did not depend on the time elapsed since the pinger turned off, with harbour porpoises returning to the ensonified area with no delay. Together these results suggest that (1) harbour porpoises did not habituate to the pinger over an 8-month period, (2) the pinger effect is very localized, and (3) pinger use did not lead to harbour porpoise displacement over the study period, suggesting an absence of long-term behavioral effects. We suggest that the deployment of pingers on fishing nets would likely reduce net-porpoise interactions, thereby mitigating bycatch of harbour porpoises and potentially other cetacean species. As the small-scale fishery dominates in United Kingdom waters, there is an acute need for cost-effective mitigation strategies with concurrent monitoring to be implemented rapidly in order to address the problem of harbour porpoise, and more generally, cetacean bycatch.

Artificial Light at Night: A New Challenge in Microphytobenthos Research

Maggi E, Serôdio J. Artificial Light at Night: A New Challenge in Microphytobenthos Research. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00329/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been recently recognized as a globally widespread anthropogenic disturbance, characterized by different intensities and spectra, as well as spatial and temporal variability. Among marine organisms, those living on coastal areas are particularly exposed to artificial light. Some recent studies anticipated a potential for influences of ALAN on microphytobenthos (MPB) on rocky shores, either direct or indirectly mediated by trophic relationships. Here we emphasize the need for further investigations in different habitats, as well as on synergistic interferences with other stressors already impinging on coastal areas. The study of effects of ALAN poses new challenges in MPB research, including those related to the use of instruments for measuring both the light environment and the functioning of microbial photoautotrophs at night, and to the development of common monitoring approaches and manipulative experiments.

Assessments of 14 Exploited Fish and Invertebrate Stocks in Chinese Waters Using the LBB Method

Liang C, Xian W, Liu S, Pauly D. Assessments of 14 Exploited Fish and Invertebrate Stocks in Chinese Waters Using the LBB Method. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00314/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Due to limited data availability, only a small subset of the exploited fish and invertebrate populations have been assessed along Chinese coasts, which precludes comprehensive management of the fisheries. Here, we applied a length-based Bayesian biomass estimator (LBB) to 14 fish and invertebrate stocks in China’s coastal waters to estimate their growth, length at first capture and current relative biomass (B/B0B/BMSY) from length-frequency (LF) data. Of the 14 populations assessed, one have collapsed, nine are grossly over-exploited, and three are overfished. Moreover, 13 populations have smaller mean lengths at first capture (Lc) than the optimal length at first capture (Lc_opt), indicating that they are suffering from growth overfishing. Thus, larger mesh sizes in commercial fishery would increase both the catch and biomass for these species, given current levels of fishing mortality. Our results confirm that fishery resources in China’s coastal waters are strongly depleted, and that stricter management measures are needed to restore the abundance of China’s marine fisheries resources.

Meta-Analysis Reveals Artificial Reefs Can Be Effective Tools for Fish Community Enhancement but Are Not One-Size-Fits-All

Paxton AB, Shertzer KW, Bacheler NM, G. Kellison T, Riley KL, J. Taylor C. Meta-Analysis Reveals Artificial Reefs Can Be Effective Tools for Fish Community Enhancement but Are Not One-Size-Fits-All. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00282/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Approaches toward habitat conservation and restoration often include supplementing or enhancing existing, degraded, or lost natural habitats. In aquatic environments, a popular approach toward habitat enhancement is the introduction of underwater human-made structures or artificial reefs. Despite the nearly global prevalence of artificial reefs deployed to enhance habitat, it remains debated whether these structures function similarly to comparable natural reefs. To help resolve this question, we conducted a literature review and accompanying meta-analysis of fish community metrics on artificial reefs within the coastal ocean and made comparisons with naturally-occurring reference reefs (rocky reefs and coral reefs). Our findings from a synthesis of 39 relevant studies revealed that, across reef ecosystems, artificial reefs support comparable levels of fish density, biomass, species richness, and diversity to natural reefs. Additional analyses demonstrated that nuances in these patterns were associated with the geographic setting (ocean basin, latitude zone) and artificial reef material. These findings suggest that, while artificial reefs can mimic natural reefs in terms of the fish assemblages they support, artificial reefs are not one-size-fits-all tools for habitat enhancement. Instead, artificial reefs should be considered strategically based on location-specific scientific assessments and resource needs to maximize benefits of habitat enhancement.

Interactions Between a Large Marine Protected Area, Pelagic Tuna and Associated Fisheries

Curnick DJ, Collen B, Koldewey HJ, Jones KE, Kemp KM, Ferretti F. Interactions Between a Large Marine Protected Area, Pelagic Tuna and Associated Fisheries. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00318/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The efficacy of large marine protected areas (MPA) for the conservation of mobile pelagic species is widely debated. Here, we quantified spatial and temporal trends in standardized catch per unit effort (CPUE) of two target pelagic species, yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) in the Indian Ocean to analyze the impact of the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) MPA’s creation in 2010. We applied generalized additive mixed effects models to historical BIOT longline fishery logbooks and official catch and effort statistics from the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) to standardize CPUEs and to evaluate long-term trends and distribution patterns across the equatorial Indian Ocean. We find that trends in population indices from within BIOT prior to the MPA’s establishment mirror those of the wider Indian Ocean. We also suggest that there may be behavioral plasticity within the yellowfin tuna stock, with some individuals possibly undertaking alternative migration patterns or exhibiting residency behavior within BIOT. Yet, we find no direct evidence of any improvement in standardized CPUE indices of either species in the area surrounding the BIOT MPA, nearly 8 years after its establishment. The average size of yellowfin and bigeye tunas caught both increased after the MPA’s establishment. These patterns were also evident across the equatorial Indian Ocean, suggesting that any MPA effect is in combination with other regional drivers, such as behavioral changes in the fishing fleets in response to the threat of Somali Piracy. We therefore conclude that BIOT MPA may be providing local conservation value to tunas, but it is not significant enough to halt the overall regional decline in yellowfin tuna stocks. Thus, we emphasize that large MPAs should be considered in conjunction with other fishery management regulations and wider regional processes, rather than as a silver bullet, in order to provide the conservation and management benefits needed for mobile species like tunas.

Mangrove Rehabilitation and Restoration as Experimental Adaptive Management

Ellison AM, Felson AJ, Friess DA. Mangrove Rehabilitation and Restoration as Experimental Adaptive Management. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00327/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Rehabilitated and restored mangrove ecosystems have important ecological, economic, and social values for coastal communities. Although a sine qua non of successful mangrove rehabilitation or restoration projects is accurate attention to local hydrology and basic biology of mangrove trees and their associated fauna, their long-term success depends on far more axes, each with their own challenges. Rehabilitation projects: are planned, designed, executed, and managed by people with diverse backgrounds and different scientific and socio-political agendas; need to be responsive to these multiple stakeholders and agents who hold different values; are often influenced by laws and treaties spanning local to international scales; and must be able to adapt and evolve both geomorphologically and socioeconomically over decades-to-centuries in the context of a rapidly changing climate. We view these challenges as opportunities for innovative approaches to rehabilitation and restoration that engage new and larger constituencies. Restored mangrove ecosystems can be deliberately designed and engineered to provide valuable ecosystem services, be adaptable to climatic changes, and to develop platforms for educating nonspecialists about both the successes and failures of restored mangrove ecosystems. When mangrove rehabilitation or restoration projects are developed as experiments, they can be used as case-studies and more general models to inform policy- and decision-makers and guide future restoration efforts. Achieving this vision will require new investment and dedication to research and adaptive management practices. These ideas are illustrated with examples from mangrove restoration and rehabilitation projects in the Indo-West Pacific and Caribbean regions, the two hotspots of mangrove biodiversity and its ongoing loss and degradation.

A Comparison of the Diagnostic Accuracy of in-situ and Digital Image-Based Assessments of Coral Health and Disease

Burns JHR, Weyenberg G, Mandel T, Ferreira SB, Gotshalk D, Kinoshita CK, Marshall MJ, Del Moral NAV, Murphy SJ, Pascoe KH, et al. A Comparison of the Diagnostic Accuracy of in-situ and Digital Image-Based Assessments of Coral Health and Disease. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00304/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The prevalence of coral disease is steadily increasing throughout the global ocean, and there is a growing need for efficient methods for detecting and monitoring coral health. At present, coral health assessments are primarily conducted using in-situ surveys, which record visual observations of disease in the field. Recent technological advancements allow researchers to instead collect high-resolution imagery of benthic habitats, and these images can be used in conjunction with digital tools to assess the health of coral colonies at a later time. However, little is known about the relative efficacy or diagnostic accuracy of these two approaches. This study contrasts the diagnostic accuracy of in-situ and digital methodologies for detecting diseases and adverse health conditions affecting corals. Multiple 1 m2 plots are surveyed on coral reefs located on both the windward and leeward side of Hawaii Island. For each plot, an in-situ visual analysis of coral health is conducted by a diver and images are collected and rendered into a high-resolution orthomosaic for subsequent digital analysis. Both methods assess the same coral colonies, resulting in paired health diagnoses for multiple health conditions. Lacking a gold-standard diagnosis of health conditions, a latent class model is used to estimate the sensitivity (true positive rate) and specificity (true negative rate) of both methods. We find that in-situ assessments of coral health have a higher sensitivity and lower specificity in detecting health conditions when compared to digital analyses based on orthomosaics. However, the effect size is relatively modest, indicating that while the in-situ method provides a more sensitive diagnostic approach, the techniques are of comparable accuracy, and should both be considered viable methods of characterizing and monitoring coral health.

Fine-Scale Coral Connectivity Pathways in the Florida Reef Tract: Implications for Conservation and Restoration

Frys C, Saint-Amand A, Le Hénaff M, Figueiredo J, Kuba A, Walker B, Lambrechts J, Vallaeys V, Vincent D, Hanert E. Fine-Scale Coral Connectivity Pathways in the Florida Reef Tract: Implications for Conservation and Restoration. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00312/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Connectivity between coral reefs is critical to ensure their resilience and persistence against disturbances. It is driven by ocean currents, which often have very complex patterns within reef systems. Only biophysical models that simulate both the fine-scale details of ocean currents and the life-history traits of larvae transported by these currents can help to estimate connectivity in large reef systems. Here we use the unstructured-mesh coastal ocean model SLIM that locally achieves a spatial resolution of ~100 m, 10 times finer than existing models, over the entire Florida Reef Tract (FRT). It allows us to simulate larval dispersal between the ~1,000 reefs composing the FRT. By using different connectivity measures and clustering methods, we have identified two major connectivity pathways, one originating on the westernmost end of the outer shelf and the other originating on the inner shelf, North of the Lower Keys. We introduce new connectivity indicators, based on the PageRank algorithm, to show that protection efforts should be focused on the most upstream reefs of each pathway, while reefs best suited for restoration are more evenly spread between the Lower and Upper Keys. We identify one particular reef, North of Vaca Key, that is a major stepping stone in the connectivity network. Our results are the first reef-scale connectivity estimates for the entire FRT. Such fine-scale information can provide knowledge-based decision support to allocate conservation and restoration resources optimally.

Understanding Gender and Factors Affecting Fishing in an Artisanal Shellfish Fishery

Purcell SW, Tagliafico A, Cullis BR, Gogel BJ. Understanding Gender and Factors Affecting Fishing in an Artisanal Shellfish Fishery. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00297/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Fishing strategies, effort and harvests of small-scale fishers are important to understand for effective planning of regulatory measures and development programs. Gender differences in fishing can highlight inequities deserving transformative solutions, but might mask other important factors. We examined fishing modes, fishing frequency, catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE), resource preferences and perceptions of fishery stock among artisanal gastropod (trochus) fishers in Samoa using structured questionnaires and mixed effects models. The fishery has an extremely modest carbon footprint of 18–23 tons of CO2 p.a., as few fishers used motorized boats. Trochus (Rochia nilotica), an introduced gastropod, was the second-most harvested resource, after fish, despite populations only being established in the past decade. Daily catch volume varied according to gender and villages (n = 34), and was also affected by fishing effort, experience, assets (boat), and fishing costs of fishers. Boat users had much higher CPUE than fishers without a boat. Fishers who practised both gleaning and diving caught a greater diversity of marine resources; effects that explained otherwise seeming gender disparities. Trochus tended to be ranked more important (by catch volume) by women than men, and rank importance varied greatly among villages. Local ecological knowledge of fishers informed the historical colonization of trochus around Samoa and current trends in population abundance. Fishing efficiency, catch diversity and perspectives about stocks were similar between fishermen and fisherwomen, when accounting for other explanatory variables. Greater importance of these shellfish to women, and gender similarities in many of the fishing responses, underscore the need to ensure equal representation of women in the decision making in small-scale fisheries.

Cryobanking of Fish and Shellfish Egg, Embryos and Larvae: An Overview

Diwan AD, Harke SN, Gopalkrishna , Panche AN. Cryobanking of Fish and Shellfish Egg, Embryos and Larvae: An Overview. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00251/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Number of attempts have been made to cryopreserve fish and shellfish gametes. Success has been achieved to establish only sperm banks in case of some commercially important fish. In shellfish, also particularly in shrimps, though the sperm cryopreservation was successful, no attempts were made to develop sperm banks. As far as cryopreservation of egg and embryos of fish and shellfish is concerned, less research efforts were made with limited success. Number of reasons have been given for the failure of egg/embryo cryopreservation and the main barriers speculated are low membrane permeability in the eggs, the large yolk mass of the oocyte, and the presence of compartments in early developing embryos. These factors result in ice crystal formation during the freezing process. In addition, the oocytes and embryos are prone to chilling injuries unrelated to ice crystal damage. There are number of other problems reported by several researchers in the egg/embryo cryobanking protocols which are elaborately discussed in the present paper. There is an urgent need to develop a viable cryobanking technology for fish egg/embryos to enhance fish production in captive condition. Attempts to cryopreserve larvae of aquatic animals is another challenge occurring in the recent past. The aim of the present review is to collect comprehensive information on the efforts so far made on fish and shellfish egg and embryo cryobanking; and to assess the challenges in the development of viable technology and plan for future research for making this technology viable and cost effective.

A Baseline for the Blue Economy: Catch and Effort History in the Republic of Seychelles’ Domestic Fisheries

Christ HJ, White R, Hood L, Vianna GMS, Zeller D. A Baseline for the Blue Economy: Catch and Effort History in the Republic of Seychelles’ Domestic Fisheries. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00269/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1334659_45_Marine_20200521_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The adoption of sovereign blue bonds by the Republic of Seychelles, hereafter referred to as Seychelles, focuses on resource sustainability and illustrates options for island countries to use their ocean resources for years into the future. The fishing industry is one of the main pillars of Seychelles’ economy and is of crucial importance for domestic food- and employment-security. In order to promote long-term ecological sustainability and economic viability of domestic fisheries, accurate and long-term baseline information is required. Such baseline data were derived here with a reconstruction of the Seychelles’ domestic fisheries catches and fishing effort within its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) from 1950 to 2017, coupled with resulting Catch Per Unit Effort data (CPUE). The total reconstructed domestic catch was approximately 1.5 times larger than the baseline as reported by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) on behalf of Seychelles from 1950 to 2017 after adjustment for fully domestic catches within the EEZ. Domestic catches (i.e., excluding the large-scale industrial pelagic catches) increased by over 500% throughout the time period, growing from 1,900 t⋅year−1 in the 1950s to around 11,200 t in 2017. The major targeted taxa were jacks (Carangidae), tuna-like fishes (Scombridae) and snappers (Lutjanidae). Total fishing effort in the form of fishing capacity grew from 21,500 kWdays in 1950 to over 3.4 million kWdays in 2017. The resultant artisanal CPUE displayed a declining trend over time, suggesting a potential decline in relative abundance of fish populations within the Seychelles EEZ or targeted fishing areas.

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