Literature Library

Currently indexing 6678 titles

Effects of CO2 concentration on a late summer surface sea ice community

McMinn A, Müller MN, Martin A, Ugalde SC, Lee S, Castrisios K, Ryan KG. Effects of CO2 concentration on a late summer surface sea ice community. Marine Biology [Internet]. 2017 ;164(4). Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00227-017-3102-4
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Annual fast ice at Scott Base (Antarctica) in late summer contained a high biomass surface community of mixed phytoflagellates, dominated by the dinoflagellate, Polarella glacialis. At this time of the year, ice temperatures rise close to melting point and salinities drop to less than 20. At the same time, pH levels can rise above 9 and nutrients can become limiting. In January 2014, the sea ice microbial community from the top 30 cm of the ice was exposed to a gradient of pH and CO2 (5 treatments) that ranged from 8.87 to 7.12 and 5–215 µmol CO2 kg−1, respectively, and incubated in situ. While growth rates were reduced at the highest and lowest pH, the differences were not significant. Likewise, there were no significant differences in maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) or relative maximum electron transfer rates (rETRmax) among treatments. In a parallel experiment, a CO2 gradient of 26–230 µmol CO2kg−1 (5 treatments) was tested, keeping pH constant. In this experiment, growth rates increased by approximately 40% with increasing CO2, although differences among treatments were not significant.. As in the previous experiment, there was no significant response in Fv/Fm or rETRmax. A synchronous grazing dilution experiment found grazing rates to be inconclusive These results suggest that the summer sea ice brine communities were not limited by in situ CO2 concentrations and were not adversely affected by pH values down to 7.1.

Anchoring damages to benthic organisms in a subtropical scuba dive hotspot

Giglio VJ, Ternes MLF, Mendes TC, Cordeiro CAMM, Ferreira CEL. Anchoring damages to benthic organisms in a subtropical scuba dive hotspot. Journal of Coastal Conservation [Internet]. 2017 ;21(2):311 - 316. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11852-017-0507-7
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

The physical damages to benthic organisms caused by boat anchorages were assessed in the Arraial do Cabo Marine Extractive Reserve (ACMER), Brazil. It is one of the most visited scuba diving sites along the southwestern Atlantic. Through underwater visual observations, we analyzed if benthic organisms were damaged by anchors and/or anchor cabling at two dive sites. A total of 112 anchorages were sampled. Damages to benthic organisms were observed 139 times, mainly affecting epilithic algal matrix, the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum, and the fire coral Millepora alcicornis. Damages caused by anchor cables were significantly higher than those caused by anchors at one site. A significant difference between benthic organisms damaged was observed only for P. caribaeorum, caused by the anchor’s cable. We present evidence that, at current visitation levels, anchors are a relevant stressor to benthic organisms at dive sites in ACMER.

Ocean acidification: assessing the vulnerability of socioeconomic systems in Small Island Developing States

Schmutter K, Nash M, Dovey L. Ocean acidification: assessing the vulnerability of socioeconomic systems in Small Island Developing States. Regional Environmental Change [Internet]. 2017 ;17(4):973 - 987. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10113-016-0949-8
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Ocean acidification poses an increasing threat to marine ecosystems and also interacts with other anthropogenic environmental drivers. A planned response strategy could minimize exposure of socioeconomic systems to potential hazards and may even offer wider advantages. Response strategies can be informed by understanding the hazards, assessing exposure and assessing risks and opportunities. This paper assesses exposure of key socioeconomic systems to the hazards of ocean acidification and analyzes the risks and opportunities of this exposure from Small Island Developing States (SIDS) perspectives. Key socioeconomic systems that are likely to be affected by ocean acidification are identified. A risk analysis matrix is developed to evaluate the risks or opportunities arising from ocean acidification. Analysis of the matrix reveals similarities and differences in potential adaptive responses at global and regional levels. For example, while ocean acidification poses significant threats to SIDS from more frequent toxic wild-caught seafood events and, potentially destruction of coral reef structure and habitat, SIDS may have a relative advantage in aquaculture and an important role to play in global marine ecosystem conservation.

From data rich to data-limited harvest strategies—does more data mean better management?

Dichmont CM, Fulton EA, Gorton R, Sporcic M, L. Little R, Punt AE, Dowling N, Haddon M, Klaer N, Smith DC. From data rich to data-limited harvest strategies—does more data mean better management?. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2016 :fsw199. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article-abstract/74/3/670/2741995/From-data-rich-to-data-limited-harvest-strategies?redirectedFrom=fulltext
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $42.00
Type: Journal Article

Harvest strategies (HSs) have been applied to many data-rich fisheries, and are now increasingly being applied in data-limited situations. These have been evaluated using simulation frameworks, including management strategy evaluation (MSE), but few studies have considered the full spectrum from data-rich to data-limited strategies, in the context of the risk-cost-catch trade-off. This involves evaluating whether the cost of implementing a HS, the risk to the resource and catch taken from the resource have been appropriately balanced, given the value of the resource. HSs implemented for Australian Commonwealth fisheries were placed in eight tiers, ranging from data-rich to data-limited, and their performance evaluated using an MSE based on a full end-to-end ecosystem model. Generally, the risk to the resource increased as fewer data were available, due to biases in the assessments and slow response times to unexpected declines in resource status. The most data-rich tiers maximize discounted catches and profits over a 45-year projection period. However, the opportunity costs response is variable, and shows that the benefit of short-term high catches have to be compensated by resource recovery in the long term. On average, more data leads to improved management in terms of risk of being overfished and not reaching a target, but this requires lower initial catches to recover the resources and lower short-term discounted profits.

A new marine measure enhancing Zostera marina seed germination and seedling survival

Sousa AI, Valdemarsen T, Lillebø AI, Jørgensen L, Flindt MR. A new marine measure enhancing Zostera marina seed germination and seedling survival. Ecological Engineering [Internet]. 2017 ;104:131 - 140. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925857417301702
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Seagrass global distribution has declined in the last decades due to many causes, and the implementation of recovery programmes as well as the development of new restoration techniques are needed. This work describes the development of an innovative restoration measure to enhance Zostera marina (eelgrass) seed germination and seedling survival in sediments inhabited by lugworms (Arenicola marina) and its validation in mesocosm experiments. The technique consists of placing 3 cm thick biodegradable coconut fibre mats (membrane) in the surface sediment to exclude the negative effects of sediment reworking (burial of seeds and destabilization/burial of seedlings). Two different flume mesocosm experiments were setup to test for: i) the effect of membranes on burial of Z. marina seeds; ii) the effect of membranes on survival and growth of Z. marina seedlings. The experiments were run for 8 and 10 weeks, respectively. Results show that the membrane was effectively preventing critical burial of Z. marina seeds as all seed mimics placed on the surface initially were recovered from 0 to 4 cm depth in the plots with membrane, while in the absence of the membrane, all seeds were buried to below the critical depth of 5–6 cm. The membrane also significantly enhanced the survival of Z. marina seedlings. The initial seedling density was in both cases 30/m2 and the final density was 26.0 ± 3.3/m2 with membrane versus 8.0 ± 1.6/m2without membrane. This new marine restoration measure showed to be effective on the reduction of the physical stress imposed by sediment reworking lugworms on Z. marina recovery, as a membrane keeps seeds at optimal depth for germination and protects seedlings from burial and erosion. In comparison to other measures, this new restoration technique is a low-tech nature-based solution. The results clearly show that this restoration technique can support Z. marina recovery through seeds and seedling protection. In this way, this technique contributes to decrease Z. marina vulnerability and increase its natural recovery potential and stability.

Offshore Wind Energy: Good Practice in Impact Assessment, Mitigation and Compensation

Lüdeke J. Offshore Wind Energy: Good Practice in Impact Assessment, Mitigation and Compensation. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management [Internet]. 2017 :1750005. Available from: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S1464333217500053
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.00
Type: Journal Article

Aiming towards good practice in the planning and approval of offshore wind farms suggestions are provided for the amendment of environmental impact assessment (EIA), an effective marine spatial planning and the establishment of marine compensation measure. The investigation is focused on the situation in Germany as a frontrunner in ecological research on offshore wind energy. After 10 years of research in Germany, it is timely to offer a synopsis of the results especially regarding the successful investigations of mitigation measures. The results are based on published data collected in Germany over the last 10 years, as well as international research. The outcomes of the research were validated by interviewing experts using the Delphi method.

Key findings for good practice in impact assessment, mitigation and compensation:

1. EIAs should focus on decision-relevant subjects of protection (i.e. specific bird species and harbour porpoises).

2. There is a strong necessity for thresholds for the approval process.

3. Exclusion of OWFs in hotspots of sensitive species.

4. Application of state-of-the-art mitigation measures particularly against underwater noise to avoid damages of the hearing of porpoises.

5. The introduction of marine compensation measures is strongly suggested.

Expert-based ecosystem services capacity matrices: Dealing with scoring variability

Campagne CSylvie, Roche P, Gosselin F, Tschanz L, Tatoni T. Expert-based ecosystem services capacity matrices: Dealing with scoring variability. Ecological Indicators [Internet]. 2017 ;79:63 - 72. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X17301619
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Capacity matrices are widely used for assessment of ecosystems services, especially when based on participatory approaches. A capacity matrix is basically a look-up table that links land cover types to ecosystem services potentially provided. The method introduced by Burkhard et al. in 2009 has since been developed and applied in an array of case studies. Here we adress some of the criticisms on the use of capacity matrices such as expert panel size, expert confidence, and scoring variability.

Based on three case-study capacity matrices derived from expert participatory scoring, we used three different approaches to estimate the score means and standard errors: usual statistics, bootstrapping, and Bayesian models. Based on a resampling of the three capacity matrices, we show that central score stabilizes very quickly but that intersample variability shrinks after 10–15 experts while standard error of the scores continues to decrease as sample size increases. Compared to usual statistics, bootstrapping methods only reduce the estimated standard errors for small samples. The use of confidence scores expressed by experts and associated with their scores on ecosystem services does not change the mean scores but slightly increases the standard errors associated with the scores on ecosystem services. Here, computations considering the confidence scores marginally changed the final scores. Nevertheless, many participants felt it important to have a confidence score in the capacity matrix to let them express uncertainties on their own knowledge. This means that confidence scores could be considered as supplementary materials in a participatory approach but should not necessarily be used to compute final scores.

We compared usual statistics, bootstrapping and Bayesian models to estimate central scores and standard errors for a capacity matrix based on a panel of 30 experts, and found that the three methods give very similar results. This was interpreted as a consequence of having a panel size that counted twice the minimal number of experts needed. Bayesian models provided the lowest standard errors, whereas bootrapping with confidence scores provided the largest standard errors.

These conclusions prompt us to advocate when the panel size is small (less than 10 experts), to use bootstrapping to estimate final scores and their variability. If more than 15 experts are involved, the usual statistics are appropriate. Bayesian models are more complex to implement but can also provide more informative outputs to help analyze results.

Fish-based indicators of estuarine condition that do not require reference data

Tweedley JR, Warwick RM, Hallett CS, Potter IC. Fish-based indicators of estuarine condition that do not require reference data. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272771417301014
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The species composition of fish communities in 15 microtidal estuaries in south-western Australia, ranging from permanently-open to normally-closed, is shown to be related to the geomorphological and hydrological regimes and not to environmental condition. This study then explored the effectiveness of using qualitative taxonomic distinctness and ABC curves for fish data as indicators of the environmental condition in nearshore, shallow waters of these estuaries and, in the case of taxonomic distinctness, also of their offshore, deeper waters. Neither of these indices require spatial or temporal reference data, which may be either prohibitively expensive and time-consuming to collect or unavailable. Taxonomic distinctness, in both nearshore and offshore waters, varied consistently among estuaries in relation to their recorded environmental status, and is thus a good indicator of overall estuarine condition. ABC analyses, however, did not prove a good measure of the environmental condition of the estuaries, because their results largely reflect differences in accessibility of the estuary to marine estuarine-opportunist species and especially those that grow to a larger size. It is concluded that taxonomic distinctness indices provide a rapid and cost-effective method for assessing the environmental condition of estuaries, particularly those with limited spatial or temporal reference data.

Artificial defences in coastal marine ecosystems in Chile: Opportunities for spatial planning to mitigate habitat loss and alteration of the marine community structure

Aguilera MA. Artificial defences in coastal marine ecosystems in Chile: Opportunities for spatial planning to mitigate habitat loss and alteration of the marine community structure. Ecological Engineering [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925857417301866
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Many coastal habitats are actually replaced with hard infrastructures which alter the taxonomic/functional structure of natural ecosystems worldwide. Few information about habitat loss and species composition in South American coasts are available compared with other coasts. Here, I examine the distribution and identity of coastal artificial infrastructures, especially artificial breakwaters, present along the coast of Chile and the proportion of natural habitat loss derived from their construction. Differences in species taxonomic/functional composition in artificial breakwaters and natural habitats present in northern Chile are also examined. I also propose/discuss opportunities for coastal planning based on habitat rehabilitation and ecological engineering in Chile, which could guide future marine infrastructures construction. An important proportion of natural habitat has been replaced by artificial coastal defences along the coast of Chile, accounting for about 200 km of total coastal length. Given their specific uses and functions, artificial granite breakwaters are one of the most important coastal infrastructures present in Chile (62% of the total of artificial breakwaters present). Differences in taxonomic/functional structure between artificial breakwaters and natural adjacent habitats are significant, and appear related to contrasting spatial heterogeneity. Artificial infrastructures like granite breakwaters can facilitate presence of native and non-native species, which live in the marine-terrestrial interphase (crabs, rats). The present study highlights how the recent proliferation of coastal artificial infrastructures is replacing important natural habitats in Chile, and how the taxonomic/functional structure of coastal ecosystems can be negatively impacted. Furthermore, this study showed how artificial infrastructures can have direct consequences for human-health security and specific guidelines can be conducted to buffer impacts on ecosystem structure to match social livelihood and wellness.

An approach to ecosystem-based management in maritime spatial planning process

Ansong J, Gissi E, Calado H. An approach to ecosystem-based management in maritime spatial planning process. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;141:65 - 81. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117302284
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Sustainable development is the framing concept assuring that resources are exploited while maintaining the ability of these natural resources to provide for future generations. With human dependence on marine resources increasing, Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) has been identified as a suitable approach to ensure sustainable development. In order to achieve this, the core principles and elements of EBM should be operational in the maritime/marine spatial planning (MSP) process to ensure that human activities in marine space are ordered to attain ecological, economic and social objectives. However, policies from various states and organizations sometimes do not set a clear precedence for translating principles of EBM and present different and complex approaches to an ecosystem-based marine spatial planning (EB-MSP). Again, a feasible methodology for EBM to be operational in MSP is still vague. This paper therefore presents results from a survey and review of MSP initiatives in Europe, Asia and the Americas. Results showed that essential MSP steps and elements such as adaptive management, setting of planning boundaries, understanding and analysing the ecosystem and future conditions are not fully operational. This paper focuses on a methodology for EB-MSP and gives recommendations on how to ensure that EBM is operational at each stage of an MSP process. It stresses the importance of setting planning boundaries beyond jurisdictional borders to consider bio/eco-regions and cover near-shore waters, the need to have a cross-sector integration, understanding the ecosystem through having an ecosystem service perspective and having a legal framework to ensure that results from monitoring and evaluating of plans are adapted through review and revision.

Picturing a place by the sea: Geovisualizations as place-based tools for collaborative coastal management

Newell R, Canessa R. Picturing a place by the sea: Geovisualizations as place-based tools for collaborative coastal management. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;141:29 - 42. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117302156
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Effective coastal management is integrative and aims to incorporate the wide variety of user needs, values and interests associated with coastal environments. This requires understanding how different user groups relate to coastal environments as ‘places’, imbued with values and meanings, rather than simply ‘spaces’. Accordingly, tools and techniques that can capture and convey place-based information have potential for supporting coastal management strategies. This suggests a role for geovisualizations that inclusively reflect the range of values and meanings through immersion and realism. The current paper aims to advance coastal geovisualization research by firstly, examining relationships with, understandings of, and behaviours toward coastal places, and secondly, using this insight to create recommendations for building geovisualizations that can effectively facilitate collaboration among conflicting user groups. The paper identifies different coastal user groups using a cultural model framework, and through a review of previous research on coastal communities, it examines how the values and interests of these user groups influence understandings and perceptions of coastal places. Recommendations for geovisualizations emerging from this research include full navigability, dynamic elements, and flexibility in the way that they allow for continual modification and scenario building.

An Arctic predator-prey system in flux: climate change impacts on coastal space use by polar bears and ringed seals

Hamilton CD, Kovacs KM, Ims RA, Aars J, Lydersen C. An Arctic predator-prey system in flux: climate change impacts on coastal space use by polar bears and ringed seals. Journal of Animal Ecology [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28415134
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

1.Climate change is impacting different species at different rates, leading to alterations in biological interactions with ramifications for wider ecosystem functioning. Understanding these alterations can help improve predictive capacity and inform management efforts designed to mitigate against negative impacts. 2.We investigated how the movement and space use patterns of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in coastal areas in Svalbard, Norway, have been altered by a sudden decline in sea ice that occurred in 2006. We also investigated whether the spatial overlap between polar bears and their traditionally most important prey, ringed seals (Pusa hispida), has been affected by the sea-ice decline, as polar bears are dependent on a sea-ice platform for hunting seals. 3.We attached biotelemetry devices to ringed seals (n=60, both sexes) and polar bears (n=67, all females) before (2002-2004) and after (2010-2013) a sudden decline in sea ice in Svalbard. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate the association of these species to environmental features and an approach based on Time Spent in Area to investigate changes in spatial overlap between the two species. 4.Following the sea-ice reduction, polar bears spent the same amount of time close to tidal glacier fronts in the spring but less time in these areas during the summer and autumn. However, ringed seals did not alter their association with glacier fronts during summer, leading to a major decrease in spatial overlap values between these species in Svalbard's coastal areas. Polar bears now move greater distances daily and spend more time close to ground-nesting bird colonies, where bear predation can have substantial local effects. 5.Our results indicate that sea-ice declines have impacted the degree of spatial overlap and hence the strength of the predator-prey relationship between polar bears and ringed seals, with consequences for the wider Arctic marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Shifts in ecological interactions are likely to become more widespread in many ecosystems as both predators and prey respond to changing environmental conditions induced by global warming, highlighting the importance of multi-species studies. 

The impact of shellfish farming on common bottlenose dolphins’ use of habitat

López BDíaz, Methion S. The impact of shellfish farming on common bottlenose dolphins’ use of habitat. Marine Biology [Internet]. 2017 ;164(4). Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00227-017-3125-x
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Shellfish farming is an expanding segment of marine aquaculture, but the impact of this industry on coastal cetacean species is only beginning to be considered. The interaction between mussel farming and coastal cetaceans in one of the world’s leading producers of this bivalve (Galicia, NW Spain) was studied. Specifically, the habitat use of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) was evaluated in relation to environmental, geographical, and anthropogenic variables. Over a period of 22 months spent in the field, 154 daily boat surveys and 353 common bottlenose dolphin encounters were done. Results of this study confirm that areas of mussel production are frequently utilized by common bottlenose dolphins. Of the investigated factors, shellfish farms appeared to have a clear effect, with increased bottlenose dolphin occurrence at mussel farm locations and in waters close to the aquaculture zones. These observations contrast with previous studies where the occurrence and distribution of coastal cetacean species decreased in association with shellfish aquaculture representing a source of habitat loss and causing potentially negative effects. These differences suggest that the interactions between shellfish aquaculture and cetaceans are affected by the culture method and cetacean species involved. The positive relationships between dolphins’ occurrence and mussel aquaculture zones are presumably the result of large aggregations of fish species around mussel rafts, which provide high densities of high-quality prey for dolphins. This study provides new insights into the understanding of how shellfish aquaculture influences coastal dolphins and hence support the design of policies aimed at implementing ecosystem management principles.

Gap analysis on the biology of Mediterranean marine fishes

Dimarchopoulou D, Stergiou KI, Tsikliras AC. Gap analysis on the biology of Mediterranean marine fishes. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2017 ;12(4):e0175949. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0175949
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

We estimated the current level of knowledge concerning several biological characteristics of the Mediterranean marine fishes by carrying out a gap analysis based on information extracted from the literature, aiming to identify research trends and future needs in the field of Mediterranean fish biology that can be used in stock assessments, ecosystem modeling and fisheries management. Based on the datasets that emerged from the literature review, there is no information on any biological characteristic for 43% (n = 310) of the Mediterranean fish species, whereas for an additional 15% (n = 109) of them there is information about just one characteristic. The gap between current and desired knowledge (defined here as having information on most biological characteristics for at least half of the Mediterranean marine fishes) is smaller in length-weight relationships, which have been studied for 43% of the species, followed by spawning (39%), diet (29%), growth (25%), maturity (24%), lifespan (19%) and fecundity (17%). The gap is larger in natural mortality for which information is very scarce (8%). European hake (Merluccius merluccius), red mullet (Mullus barbatus), annular seabream (Diplodus annularis), common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus), European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) and bogue (Boops boops) were the most studied species, while sharks and rays were among the least studied ones. Only 25 species were fully studied, i.e. there was available information on all their biological characteristics. The knowledge gaps per characteristic varied among the western, central and eastern Mediterranean subregions. The number of available records per species was positively related to total landings, while no relationship emerged with its maximum reported length, trophic level and commercial value. Future research priorities that should be focused on less studied species (e.g. sharks and rays) and mortality/fecundity instead of length-weight relationships, as well as the economy of scientific sampling (using the entire catch to acquire data on as many biological characteristics as possible) are discussed.

Inclusion of ecological, economic, social, and institutional considerations when setting targets and limits for multispecies fisheries

Rindorf A, Dichmont CM, Thorson J, Charles A, Clausen LWorsøe, Degnbol P, García D, Hintzen NT, Kempf A, Levin P, et al. Inclusion of ecological, economic, social, and institutional considerations when setting targets and limits for multispecies fisheries. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2017 :fsw226. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article/74/2/453/2962394/Inclusion-of-ecological-economic-social-and
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Targets and limits for long-term management are used in fisheries advice to operationalize the way management reflects societal priorities on ecological, economic, social and institutional aspects. This study reflects on the available published literature as well as new research presented at the international ICES/Myfish symposium on targets and limits for long term fisheries management. We examine the inclusion of ecological, economic, social and institutional objectives in fisheries management, with the aim of progressing towards including all four objectives when setting management targets or limits, or both, for multispecies fisheries. The topics covered include ecological, economic, social and governance objectives in fisheries management, consistent approaches to management, uncertainty and variability, and fisheries governance. We end by identifying ten ways to more effectively include multiple objectives in setting targets and limits in ecosystem based fisheries management.

Contributions by Women to Fisheries Economies: Insights from Five Maritime Countries

Harper S, Grubb C, Stiles M, Sumaila URashid. Contributions by Women to Fisheries Economies: Insights from Five Maritime Countries. Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;45(2):91 - 106. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08920753.2017.1278143?scroll=top&needAccess=true
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $50.00
Type: Journal Article

The contribution by women to fisheries economies globally continues to be overlooked, in part, because “fishing” is often narrowly defined as catching fish at sea, from a vessel, using specialized gears. Both men and women are involved in fisheries, but often in different roles and activities. Fisheries research, management, and policy have traditionally focused on direct, formal, and paid fishing activities—that are often dominated by men, ignoring those that are indirect, informal, and/or unpaid—where women are concentrated. This has led to a situation where men's and women's contributions to fisheries are not equally valued or even recognized and has resulted in women being largely excluded from fisheries decision-making processes. Here, we examine the contributions by women in the fisheries sector of five globally significant marine fishing countries—Mexico, Peru, Senegal, South Africa, and Vietnam. These countries each have strong links between livelihoods and marine capture fisheries, yet represent different geographic, socioeconomic, and governance contexts. Through a synthesis of existing data, case studies, and consultation with local experts, we found that the contribution by women to the fisheries of these five countries is substantial. However, this investigation also revealed major gaps in understanding of gender inequalities in the fisheries sector and the need for better gender-disaggregated data to inform fisheries policy.

Indicators of the ‘wild seafood’ provisioning ecosystem service based on the surplus production of commercial fish stocks

Piet GJ, van Overzee HMJ, Miller DCM, E. Gelabert R. Indicators of the ‘wild seafood’ provisioning ecosystem service based on the surplus production of commercial fish stocks. Ecological Indicators [Internet]. 2017 ;72:194 - 202. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X16304642
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The ‘Wild Seafood’ Provisioning Service (WSPS), on which commercial fisheries rely, is probably one of the best studied marine ecosystem services due to its economic relevance and because extensive information sources exist for assessment purposes. Yet, the indicators often proposed are not suitable to describe the capacity of the ecosystem to deliver the WSPS. Therefore this study proposes surplus production (SP), a well-established concept in fisheries science, as the basis to calculate the capacity of marine ecosystems to provide the WSPS. SP is defined as the difference between stock production (through recruitment and body growth) and losses through natural mortality. This is, therefore, the production of the stock that could be harvested sustainably without decreasing the biomass. To assess the sustainability of the exploitation of the WSPS we also developed an indicator for this based on SP and compared it to existing fisheries management indicators. When both SP-based indicators showed a decreasing trend, contrasting with an increasing trend in the existing fisheries management indicators, the calculation of the SP-based indicators was scrutinized revealing that the weighting of the stocks into an aggregated indicator, strongly determines the indicator values, even up to the point that the trend is reversed. The aggregated indicators based on SP-weighted stocks can be considered complementary to existing fisheries management indicators as the former accurately reflect the capacity of the commercial fish to provide the WSPS and the sustainability of the exploitation of this service. In contrast the existing fisheries management indicators primarily reflect the performance of management towards achieving fisheries-specific policy goals.

The social costs of marine litter along European coasts

Brouwer R, Hadzhiyska D, Ioakeimidis C, Ouderdorp H. The social costs of marine litter along European coasts. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;138:38 - 49. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117300297
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

This is the first study to assess the social costs of marine debris washed ashore and litter left behind by beach visitors along different European coasts. Three identical surveys, including a discrete choice experiment, are implemented at six beaches along different European coastlines: the Mediterranean Sea in Greece, the Black Sea in Bulgaria and the North Sea in the Netherlands. Beach visitors are asked for their experiences with beach litter and their willingness to volunteer in beach clean-up programs and their willingness to pay an entrance fee or increase in local tax to clean up marine litter. Significant differences are found between countries. This has important implications for the size and transferability of the estimated social costs of marine litter across Europe.

Incorporating citizen science to study plastics in the environment

Zettler ER, Takada H, Monteleone B, Mallos N, Eriksen M, Amaral-Zettler LA. Incorporating citizen science to study plastics in the environment. Anal. Methods [Internet]. 2017 ;9(9):1392 - 1403. Available from: http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/ay/c6ay02716d#!divAbstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $45.59
Type: Journal Article

Plastic marine debris is a global problem, but due to its widespread and patchy distribution, gathering sufficient samples for scientific research is challenging with limited ship time and human resources. Taking advantage of public interest in the impact of plastic on the marine environment, successful Citizen Science (CS) programs incorporate members of the public to provide repeated sampling for time series as well as synoptic collections over wide geographic regions. A key challenge with any CS program is to ensure standardized methods and quality control so that the samples and data can legitimately be compared and used in peer-reviewed research. This article describes several successful examples and outlines suggestions for projects cooperating with citizen scientists to provide reliable samples and accurate data, with benefits to science, citizen scientists, and society in general.

Reducing Uncertainty and Confronting Ignorance about the Possible Impacts of Weathering Plastic in the Marine Environment

Jahnke A, Arp HPeter H, Escher BI, Gewert B, Gorokhova E, Kühnel D, Ogonowski M, Potthoff A, Rummel C, Schmitt-Jansen M, et al. Reducing Uncertainty and Confronting Ignorance about the Possible Impacts of Weathering Plastic in the Marine Environment. Environmental Science & Technology Letters [Internet]. 2017 ;4(3):85 - 90. Available from: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.estlett.7b00008
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Plastic in the global oceans fulfills two of the three conditions for pollution to pose a planetary boundary threat because it is causing planetary-scale exposure that is not readily reversible. Plastic is a planetary boundary threat if it is having a currently unrecognized disruptive effect on a vital Earth system process. Discovering possible unknown effects is likely to be aided by achieving a fuller understanding of the environmental fate of plastic. Weathering of plastic generates microplastic, releases chemical additives, and likely also produces nanoplastic and chemical fragments cleaved from the polymer backbone. However, weathering of plastic in the marine environment is not well understood in terms of time scales for fragmentation and degradation, the evolution of particle morphology and properties, and hazards of the chemical mixture liberated by weathering. Biofilms that form and grow on plastic affect weathering, vertical transport, toxicity, and uptake of plastic by marine organisms and have been underinvestigated. Laboratory studies, field monitoring, and models of the impact of weathering on plastic debris are needed to reduce uncertainty in hazard and risk assessments for known and suspected adverse effects. However, scientists and decision makers must also recognize that plastic in the oceans may have unanticipated effects about which we are currently ignorant. Possible impacts that are currently unknown can be confronted by vigilant monitoring of plastic in the oceans and discovery-oriented research related to the possible effects of weathering plastic.

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