Marine renewable energy developments (MREDs) are an increasing feature of the marine environment. Owing to the relatively small number of existing developments and the early stage of their associated environmental monitoring programmes, the effects of MREDs on seabirds are not fully known. Our ability to fully predict potential effects is limited by a lack of knowledge regarding movements of seabirds at sea. We used GPS tracking to improve our understanding of the movements at sea of a protected seabird species breeding in Scotland, the great skua (Stercorarius skua), to better predict how this species may be affected by MREDs. We found that the overlap of great skuas with leased and proposed MREDs was low; particularly with offshore wind sites, which are predicted to present a greater risk to great skuas than wave or tidal-stream developments. Failed breeders overlapped with larger areas of MREDs than breeding birds but the overall overlap with core areas used remained low. Overlap with wave energy development sites was greater than for offshore wind and tidal-stream sites. Comparison of 2011 data with historical data indicates that distances travelled by great skuas have likely increased over recent decades. This suggests that basing marine spatial planning decisions on short-term tracking data could be less informative than longer-term data.
Since 2009, there has been a shift in UK marine governance with the Marine and Coastal Access Act in which a core mechanism is marine planning, designed to replace a fragmented, ad hoc, and bureaucratic process of marine management with a strategic, integrated, and centralised system. This shift has been justified by the UK government as a more efficient procedure for delivering sustainable development (SD), which is the overarching objective of UK environmental policy. This article, which is based on data from key informant interviews and secondary sources, analyses the shift to understand its aspirations and the challenges facing it. The issues focused on include its holistic approach; its centralising tendencies; its streamlining processes; and its implicit commitment to renewable energy. In these four issues there are tensions between aspirations and challenges, and the conclusion is that the success of the new mode of marine governance depends on satisfactorily resolving these tensions.
California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) off the coast of Southern California are known to damage both commercial and recreational fishing activities, causing decreases to fish catch and damage to gear. Their increasing population has intensified the potential for conflict between sea lions and anglers, likely requiring changes to current legislation. The recreational fishing community in Southern California is a valuable and largely underutilized source for information and potential solutions to management and legislative problems. This recreational fishing survey-based study conducted in 2013 utilized personal interviews, conducted in the field with recreational anglers and commercial passenger fishing vessel (CPFV) crews in Southern California, to gather data on: (a) the occurrence and impact of sea lion depredation on the local fishing, (b) angler awareness and opinions on current legislation, and (c) the conflict between fishing activities and conservation efforts. Results show that surveyed CPFV operators and private boaters had the most conflict with sea lions and perceive them as more of a problem than anglers on piers, jetties or kayaks. The conflict was also reportedly more prevalent in San Diego County compared to the other counties surveyed (Orange, Los Angeles and Ventura). Participating CPFV operators were overwhelmingly in support of a government culling program for sea lions, while recreational angler respondents did not feel that a control program was necessary. These CPFV operators reported more money lost, and were willing to pay more for an effective deterrent device. There was also a consensus among respondents that fish catch is declining, yet anglers were unsatisfied with the effectiveness of current legislation designed to increase fish stocks. These data will provide a better understanding of California sea lion depredation in Southern California and its effect on recreational anglers in order to aid future mitigation efforts. Additionally, these results provide stakeholder feedback on local marine protected areas and other fisheries management legislation, and build a foundation for future conservation and education programs.
The study explores the environmental input–output (EIO) model as a decision-support tool for marine spatial planning at the regional level. Using empirical data, an EIO model is developed to examine the economic and environmental impacts associated with two leading ocean industries in Xiamen. Results of the study show that, under select economic and environmental scenarios, waterfront tourism is generally preferable to marine transportation in terms of unit environmental and resource effects. Thus, it is more beneficial for the region to promote the growth of the waterfront tourism sector.
Recent international policy developments require states to conserve at least 10% of coastal and marine areas by creating effectively managed and ecologically coherent networks of protected areas in the marine environment. In the framework of the PANACHE project, the current status of designation, management and monitoring of the network of marine protected areas (MPAs) of an important environmental, social and economic marine area: the English Channel (the Channel) was examined. Currently 224 MPAs exist belonging to 12 different designation categories and covering 17 440 km2, or approximately 20.3% of the project area in the Channel. International protection targets in the marine environment are thus met at this regional scale, although the individual contributions of the UK and France are considerably different, with French MPAs accounting for nearly 80% of the total area protected. Differences between countries are also found regarding MPA designation categories (11 in France, 6 in the UK, 1 in the Channel Islands) and management structures (with more actors involved in the UK) and approach, whereas the monitoring techniques used are similar, although more standardised in the UK. Pending challenges include greater within-country and cross-country MPA designation, monitoring and management simplicity, integration and coordination as well as the assessment of management effectiveness and ecological coherence of the Channel network of MPAs.
There are two aims in this work: one is to contribute to the promotion of one of the most interesting experiments of integrated coastal zone management which has taken place in Latin America: the Ecoplata Programme in Uruguay. The other is to make an evaluation of the planning and implementation of the programme, i.e. that of a long-term Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) process which is full of both challenges and opportunities. Indeed, although there have been numerous ICZM experiments, on varying scales, which have been put into practice throughout the world in the last two decades, very few of them have involved an evaluation to check their levels of achievement.
A crucial factor in the success of protected areas and conservation efforts in general is the support amongst the adjacent community. It is thought to be especially crucial for the success of small MPAs. Whilst the importance of community support has been highlighted in a number of studies, it has not yet been clearly defined or explicitly studied. Questionnaires were carried out (N=166) at three different villages within the Visayas region of the Philippines to determine individuals׳ support towards adjacent MPAs and individual characteristics that have previously been hypothesised to influence support. Multiple regressions analysis determined: (1) Which individual-level factors predict attitude towards MPAs, (2) whether attitudes of individuals are related to actions that benefit the adjacent MPA and (3) whether individual or community-level factors are better predictors of individual support for local community-based MPAs. Knowledge of MPA objectives, perceived participation in decision making, trust towards other fishers and differences between villages all significantly predicted attitudes towards MPAs. Weak relationships were found between attitudes and certain MPA related actions due to contextual factors. Village was not the only significant predictor of both attitudes and MPA related actions; individual characteristics irrespective of differences between villages, were also important in predicting support for the MPA. This study highlights the importance in distinguishing between attitudes and actions of individuals and suggests specific individual characteristics can be vital in influencing support towards MPAs.
Coastal-marine systems in small island developing states of the Caribbean are highly vulnerable to both current and future climate change. Societies navigate these changes in part through processes of governance and the institutions through which governance takes place. The concept of institutional adaptive capacity is used to explore how governance processes and institutional arrangements can be adapted to match the scale and extent of climate change in a case study of the Soufriere Marine Management Area, St. Lucia. Institutional adaptive capacity is analyzed based on the following factors: institutional variety, analytical deliberation and nesting and networks. The analysis is based on 36 semi-structured interviews conducted with key informants from NGOs, cooperatives, management authorities and government agencies. The findings suggest that governance to address climate change in the case study is contingent upon developing holistic, integrated management systems, improving flexibility in existing collaborative decision making processes, augmenting the capacity of local management authorities with support from higher-level government, exploring opportunities for private–social partnerships, and developing adequate social–environmental monitoring programs. These findings have potential implications and lessons for similar settings throughout the Caribbean.
In environmental management there is often discussion on the allocation of responsibilities. Such discussions can continue for a long time and can form an obstacle for effective action. In this article twelve normative principles for the allocation of responsibilities are identified, coming from three different sources: the arguments used in discussions on responsibilities, Dutch and European law, and the environmental management literature. The principles are (1) capacity, (2) lowest social costs, (3) causation, (4) interest, (5) scale, (6) subsidiarity, (7) structural integration, (8) separation, (9) solidarity, (10) transparency, (11) stability (but not standstill), and (12) acquired rights. These principles point to fundamental tensions in environmental management and sometimes conflict with each other. At the same time they may help to resolve conflicts by providing common points of reference that are independent from the often conflicting interests of the discussants.
In this chapter, the issue of sustainable decision making for successful coastal flood management is examined. In this setting, a key concept is sustainable development, defined as a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only today, but also for future generations. Sustainability for a given coastal system requires: (1) efficient protection to life and goods, and preserving socioeconomic development and opportunities of coastal areas; (2) maintenance of the environmental assets; and (3) short-, medium-, and long-term scenarios accounting for climate change effects. Different tools for sustainable decision making are presented. Design should be aimed at providing “continuity of daily life”—before, during, and after a flood, to avoid the detrimental social and economic impact that would otherwise result. A development that intrinsically provides flood resilience, through an adequate defense planning strategy, should give insurers and financiers the confidence to offer affordable, long-term policies, and investments. While planning coastal risk management strategies, coastal managers need to assess risk across a range of spatial and temporal scales. geographic information systems–based tools are one efficient way to support them in the decision-making process through a scenarios analysis starting from social, economic, and environmental information integrated into a common platform.