Native Papuans are relied on hunting for subsistence purposes and significantly contributed to traditional cultures. However, in Papua information on hunting is limited and largely restricted to anthropological setting with most observations were done on the forest sites in lowland and highland landscapes. This study focuses on the contribution of hunting on food security along the coastal forests at the Bird’s Head Peninsula. Do people live near coastal sites mostly rely on marine resources as protein source? We gathered data on hunting by the majority of Karon ethnic group in the Abun district of Tambrauw Regency at the Bird’s Head Peninsula of Papua, Indonesia. We used information from in-depth interviews with hunters and households meal survey at four villages of Abun: Waibem, Wau, Warmandi and Saubeba. Reasons for hunting were varies among respondents but mostly conducted for trade. Six species of mammals and three birds were commonly hunted by using six different hunting techniques. Wild pig and rusa deer were the major targets in hunting to meet the demand of meat for both trading and household consumption. Meals containing wildmeat was the most consumed meal, greater than meals containing fish, animal products and vegetables, and noodles.
This analysis of representativeness in 1,628 MPAs is based upon the presence/absence of major habitat types, key natural resources and ecologically important areas and processes. Nationally, MPAs are nominally representative of the major marine ecosystems of the U.S. with (a) 70% of select habitat types (e.g., beaches, corals, seagrass) found within MPAs of the 19 marine ecoregions and in at least one National System MPA in each ecoregion; (b) 82% of select birds, invertebrates and algal ecosystem features found within MPAs of the 19 marine ecoregions and in at least one National System MPA in each ecoregion; (c) 71% of select fish, marine mammal or sea turtle ecosystem features and Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species found within MPAs of the 19 marine ecoregions and in at least one National System MPA in each ecoregion; and (d) 87% of select ecologically important ecosystem processes found within MPAs of the 19 marine ecoregions and in at least one National System MPA in each ecoregion.
This report also aims to indicate the strength of this representation (e.g., an ecosystem feature found in less than 1% of MPAs in an ecoregion versus more than 75%) by presenting “consumer report” graphics that indicate the relative prevalence of the presence of a resource (though not its spatial extent).
Official state response from Australia to the World Heritage Committee, in regards to Decision WHC 38 COM 7B.63, which essentially says Australia is indeed working to protect the GBR and that the Reef is not "in danger."
Sea lice are copepod ectoparasites with vast reproductive potential and affect a wide variety of fish species. The number of parasites causing morbidity is proportional to fish size. Natural low host density restricts massive parasite dispersal. However, expanded salmon farming has shifted the conditions in favor of the parasite. Salmon farms are often situated near wild salmonid migrating routes, with smolts being particularly vulnerable to sea lice infestation. In order to protect both farmed and wild salmonids passing or residing in the proximity of the farms, several measures are taken. Medicinal treatment of farmed fish has been the most predictable and efficacious, leading to extensive use of the available compounds. This has resulted in drug-resistant parasites occurring on farmed and possibly wild salmonids.
The present paper contains statistical analysis of modelled sea state data for the Western Baltic Sea for a time period of 52 years. Twenty charts were created, showing mean wave heights and frequencies of occurrence for different seasons. Taking a closer look at three potential areas for offshore wind energy in the Western Baltic the following mean significant wave heights were calculated (from west to east): Fehmarnbelt 0.6 m, Kadet Furrow 0.7 m and Arkona Basin 0.9 m. A comparison with waverider buoy measurements at five locations for different time series proves the good quality of the modelled data. These charts impart detailed information on the sea state from a spatial and temporal perspective which can be utilized by a wide range of users from different backgrounds. An exemplary monthly analysis of one location shows the possible application of the data set.
This paper presents the results of a study to monitor the socioeconomic impacts of the first extended closure of the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) bigeye tuna (bigeye) fishery to US longliners from the state of Hawai‘i. We applied qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine how diverse members of Hawai‘i's bigeye fishery community, including fishermen, a large fish auction, dealers, processors, retailers, consumers, and support industries, perceived and were affected by the constraints of the 40-day closure of the WCPO bigeye fishery at the end of 2010. Our analysis found that there was reduced supply and reduced quality of bigeye landed along with increased prices for bigeye during the closure period. In addition, Hawai‘i longliners were forced to travel longer distances to fish during the closure. These factors contributed to increased stress and in some cases lost revenue for a variety of individuals and businesses connected to the fishery. We also found that different stakeholder groups responded to the closure in different ways and fish dealers were among those most affected by the closure. However, overall impacts to the bigeye community were not as severe as what had been anticipated at the outset. Several mitigating factors meant this was not a true closure, as US boats could continue to fish for bigeye in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and foreign and dual permitted vessels could still fish in the WCPO. Hawai‘i's longline fleet has since benefited from US legislation and federal rules that have prevented any subsequent closures of the fishery. While this relief from closures could stall short term socioeconomic impacts to Hawai‘i bigeye community, some worry that it could set back global efforts towards sustainable management of the fishery. This study highlights the challenges and equity considerations inherent in efforts to achieve meaningful conservation benefits from localized management actions within a global fishery. It also demonstrates the importance of interdisciplinary socioeconomic monitoring to examine how global fisheries policies scale down to individual fishing communities.
Large-scale aquatic ecosystem restoration is increasing and is often controversial because of the economic costs involved, with the focus of the controversies gravitating to the modeling of fish responses. We present a scheme for best practices in selecting, implementing, interpreting, and reporting of fish modeling designed to assess the effects of restoration actions on fish populations and aquatic food webs. Previous best practice schemes that tended to be more general are summarized, and they form the foundation for our scheme that is specifically tailored for fish and restoration. We then present a 31-step scheme, with supporting text and narrative for each step, which goes from understanding how the results will be used through post-auditing to ensure the approach is used effectively in subsequent applications. We also describe 13 concepts that need to be considered in parallel to these best practice steps. Examples of these concepts include: life cycles and strategies; variability and uncertainty; nonequilibrium theory; biological, temporal, and spatial scaling; explicit versus implicit representation of processes; and model validation. These concepts are often not considered or not explicitly stated and casual treatment of them leads to mis-communication and mis-understandings, which in turn, often underlie the resulting controversies. We illustrate a subset of these steps, and their associated concepts, using the three case studies of Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, the wetlands of coastal Louisiana, and the Everglades. Use of our proposed scheme will require investment of additional time and effort (and dollars) to be done effectively. We argue that such an investment is well worth it and will more than pay back in the long run in effective and efficient restoration actions and likely avoided controversies and legal proceedings.
Marine protected areas are promoted as a resource management tool for balancing ecological integrity with economic activity. However, MPAs frequently fail to achieve integrated, substantive outcomes. Participation failure is a common symptom of implementation failure. MPA experts often conclude that the remedy, in part, lies in better communication, with the implicit assumption that participation and communication are conjoined or synonymous. In this paper, the geography of communication in marine environments is analyzed as distinct from participation. It is argued that the logistical challenges of communicating in marine time and space must be taken into account beginning with the pre-implementation stage of an MPA; this requires recognition and analysis of the political nuances of whose space, whose time, and whose terms for communication. Research in Wakatobi National Park in Indonesia determined that marine managers and local communities have divergent experiences of participation, prompting three insights. First, the timing of public consultations must accommodate the variable rhythms of life in fishing communities in order to ensure broad representation. Second, co-presence in fishers’ space is critical for effective communication of marine knowledge and management strategies. Third, the deployment of ‘participation time’ by decision-makers communicates the value – or lack thereof – they place on fishing people and collaboration. The constructivist spatial analysis of communication presented here provides a model for MPA decision-makers and managers to identify, overcome and mobilize communication geographies that affect participation in sustainable development.
The Magnuson–Stevens Act is the United States׳ premier law governing fisheries conservation and management. Congress has revisited the Act multiple times since its inception in 1976—most recently in 1996 with the Sustainable Fisheries Act and in 2006 with the Magnuson Stevens Act—and is currently in the process of reauthorizing the Act. The University of Washington focused the 14th annual Bevan Series on Sustainable Fisheries on issues surrounding reauthorization. The symposium featured a diversity of stakeholders, including fisheries scientists, managers, policy analysts, students, non-governmental organizations, Tribes, and industry. The symposium explored the Act׳s history, means of ending overfishing and ensuring accountability, lessons from U.S. West Coast and North Pacific fisheries, and challenges and solutions to ecosystem-based fisheries management.
Consequences of reef phase shifts on fish communities remain poorly understood. Studies on the causes, effects and consequences of phase shifts on reef fish communities have only been considered for coral-to-macroalgae shifts. Therefore, there is a large information gap regarding the consequences of novel phase shifts and how these kinds of phase shifts impact on fish assemblages. This study aimed to compare the fish assemblages on reefs under normal conditions (relatively high cover of corals) to those which have shifted to a dominance of the zoantharian Palythoa cf. variabilis on coral reefs in Todos os Santos Bay (TSB), Brazilian eastern coast. We examined eight reefs, where we estimated cover of corals and P. cf. variabilis and coral reef fish richness, abundance and body size. Fish richness differed significantly between normal reefs (48 species) and phase-shift reefs (38 species), a 20% reduction in species. However there was no difference in fish abundance between normal and phase shift reefs. One fish species, Chaetodon striatus, was significantly less abundant on normal reefs. The differences in fish assemblages between different reef phases was due to differences in trophic groups of fish; on normal reefs carnivorous fishes were more abundant, while on phase shift reefs mobile invertivores dominated.