2018-01-10

Evaluating indicators of human well-being for ecosystem-based management

Breslow SJo, Allen M, Holstein D, Sojka B, Barnea R, Basurto X, Carothers C, Charnley S, Coulthard S, Dolšak N, et al. Evaluating indicators of human well-being for ecosystem-based management. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability [Internet]. 2017 :1 - 18. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/20964129.2017.1411767
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Introduction: Interrelated social and ecological challenges demand an understanding of how environmental change and management decisions affect human well-being. This paper outlines a framework for measuring human well-being for ecosystem-based management (EBM). We present a prototype that can be adapted and developed for various scales and contexts. Scientists and managers use indicators to assess status and trends in integrated ecosystem assessments (IEAs). To improve the social science rigor and success of EBM, we developed a systematic and transparent approach for evaluating indicators of human well-being for an IEA.

Methods: Our process is based on a comprehensive conceptualization of human well-being, a scalable analysis of management priorities, and a set of indicator screening criteria tailored to the needs of EBM. We tested our approach by evaluating more than 2000 existing social indicators related to ocean and coastal management of the US West Coast. We focused on two foundational attributes of human well-being: resource access and self-determination.

Outcomes and Discussion: Our results suggest that existing indicators and data are limited in their ability to reflect linkages between environmental change and human well-being, and extremely limited in their ability to assess social equity and justice. We reveal a critical need for new social indicators tailored to answer environmental questions and new data that are disaggregated by social variables to measure equity. In both, we stress the importance of collaborating with the people whose well-being is to be assessed.

Conclusion: Our framework is designed to encourage governments and communities to carefully assess the complex tradeoffs inherent in environmental decision-making.

Beach Management Tools - Concepts, Methodologies and Case Studies: State-of-the-Art Beach Governance from the Tree of Science Platform

Botero CM, Cervantes O, Finkl CW. Beach Management Tools - Concepts, Methodologies and Case Studies: State-of-the-Art Beach Governance from the Tree of Science Platform. (Botero CM, Cervantes O, Finkl CW). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2017 pp. 603 - 618. Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-58304-4_30
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $29.95
Type: Book

A State-of-the-Art review of scientific literature related with beach governance is presented by utilizing the Tree of Science® tool – ToS. In a search conducted in November 2016, 47 papers were found in the Web of Science® with the combination of words ‘beach’ and ‘governance’. Papers were classified by ToS in roots (high input degree; n = 8), trunks (high intermediation degree; n = 9) and leaves (high output degree; n = 30). The Ocean and Coastal Management Journal was the most relevant journal, with 10 articles published (21,3%), and Elsevier was the most relevant publisher in this topic (n = 25; 53%). About authors, E. Ariza was the most relevant author, with articles in roots, trunks and leaves and participation in four of papers revised. Analysis by country of authors’ affiliation shows a leading by USA (n = 28; 18%), closely followed by the UK (n = 22; 14%) and Spain (n = 17; 11%). A general overview identifies a growing ToS in beach governance, with some strong references in trunks and leaves, and several other references receiving less attention by the scientific community. Finally, a prospective analysis from branches suggest that the scientific community is researching around four subtopics (Policy and legal framework, Participation/co-management, Resources Management, Public/Common Rights), which in the near future could be a new ToS in the forest of beach management theme.

Socio-economic, technological and environmental drivers of spatio-temporal changes in fishing pressure

Stephenson F, Mill AC, Scott CL, Stewart GB, Grainger MJ, Polunin NVC, Fitzsimmons C. Socio-economic, technological and environmental drivers of spatio-temporal changes in fishing pressure. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2018 ;88:189 - 203. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17305778
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

As part of an ecosystem based approach to fisheries management (EBFM), the heterogeneity of biological communities, key ecological processes and human uses must be understood. Although fishing effort distribution and marine habitat distribution and use are increasingly well understood, little research has quantified spatio-temporal changes in fishing effort or investigated drivers of these changes. Here, a holistic approach was taken to investigate socio-economic, environmental and technological drivers of change in fishing effort distribution of the Northumberland pot-fishery (2004–2014) using Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) analyses. BBNs were populated using large-scale high resolution spatial and temporal fisheries monitoring data, quantitative and qualitative interviews with fishers and expert opinion. Increases in fishing effort over time were explained by a combination of changes in fleet composition and fishers’ behaviour. Increasing vessel and engine sizes, combined with an increased uptake of improved fishing technology have resulted in a greater ability for vessels to fish a greater number of pots. This increase in vessel and fishing capability has resulted in fishers’ increased ability to fish in harsher weather conditions, as well as target specific areas or habitats quickly and opportunistically. Non-technological factors, such as declines in stocks of finfish and nephrops and the increasing operational costs of participating in these fisheries may have resulted in fishers solely fishing in the less regulated pot-fishery, targeting high value European lobster on a full-time basis. Increasing costs of pot-fishing in Northumberland coupled with stagnating crab and lobster landings prices may have resulted in increased fishing effort to maintain profitability.

Patterns in artisanal coral reef fisheries revealed through local monitoring efforts

Delaney DG, Teneva LT, Stamoulis KA, Giddens JL, Koike H, Ogawa T, Friedlander AM, Kittinger JN. Patterns in artisanal coral reef fisheries revealed through local monitoring efforts. PeerJ [Internet]. 2017 ;5:e4089. Available from: https://peerj.com/articles/4089/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Sustainable fisheries management is key to restoring and maintaining ecological function and benefits to people, but it requires accurate information about patterns of resource use, particularly fishing pressure. In most coral reef fisheries and other data-poor contexts, obtaining such information is challenging and remains an impediment to effective management. We developed the most comprehensive regional view of shore-based fishing effort and catch published to date, to show detailed fishing patterns from across the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). We reveal these regional patterns through fisher “creel” surveys conducted by local communities, state agencies, academics, and/or environmental organizations, at 18 sites, comprising >10,000 h of monitoring across a range of habitats and human influences throughout the MHI. All creel surveys included in this study except for one were previously published in some form (peer-reviewed articles or gray literature reports). Here, we synthesize these studies to document spatial patterns in nearshore fisheries catch, effort, catch rates (i.e., catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE)), and catch disposition (i.e., use of fish after catch is landed). This effort provides for a description of general regional patterns based on these location-specific studies. Line fishing was by far the dominant gear type employed. The most efficient gear (i.e., highest CPUE) was spear (0.64 kg h−1), followed closely by net (0.61 kg h−1), with CPUE for line (0.16 kg h−1) substantially lower than the other two methods. Creel surveys also documented illegal fishing activity across the studied locations, although these activities were not consistent across sites. Overall, most of the catch was not sold, but rather retained for home consumption or given away to extended family, which suggests that cultural practices and food security may be stronger drivers of fishing effort than commercial exploitation for coral reef fisheries in Hawai‘i. Increased monitoring of spatial patterns in nearshore fisheries can inform targeted management, and can help communities develop a more informed understanding of the drivers of marine resource harvest and the state of the resources, in order to maintain these fisheries for food security, cultural practices, and ecological value.

Using Ostrom's principles to assess institutional dynamics of conservation: Lessons from a marine protected area in Brazil

Tebet G, Trimble M, Medeiros RPereira. Using Ostrom's principles to assess institutional dynamics of conservation: Lessons from a marine protected area in Brazil. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2018 ;88:174 - 181. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17305134
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The success of protected areas as a management tool for biodiversity conservation remains as a challenge, and broader approaches for protected area management have been proposed. Considering biodiversity conservation as an issue of the commons and within the realm of social-ecological systems is a promising alternative. In Brazil protected areas are under a State management regime, ruled by the National System of Conservation Units. The Ecological Station of Guaraqueçaba (ESG) is a no-take protected area located in the Paranagua Estuarine Complex, surrounded by traditional communities. In this article, Ostrom's design principles were adapted to assess the institutional dynamics of this protected area management, during two periods. Research methods included semi-structured interviews, participant observation and document analysis. During the first period, management actions were oriented to prevent the conversion of forest areas into anthropic occupations. The second period originated in 2000 with the creation of the National System of Conservation Units, which established more precise management tools and mechanisms for participatory decision making. In both periods there was low fulfillment of Ostrom's principles. The main changes over time were the creation of the ESG management council as a conflict-resolution mechanism, and an increase in the recognition of the rights of local communities. Yet, only three of the eight principles are totally present in the current institutional arrangement (well-defined boundaries, conflict-resolution mechanisms, and minimal recognition of rights). The results suggest a not robust institutional arrangement in terms of commons sustainable management.

Beach Management Tools - Concepts, Methodologies and Case Studies: Environmental Services of Beaches and Coastal Sand Dunes as a Tool for Their Conservation

Rodríguez-Revelo N, Espejel I, García CArredondo, Ojeda-Revah L, Vázquez MAlejandra. Beach Management Tools - Concepts, Methodologies and Case Studies: Environmental Services of Beaches and Coastal Sand Dunes as a Tool for Their Conservation. (Botero CM, Cervantes O, Finkl CW). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2017 pp. 75 - 100. Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-58304-4_5
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $29.95
Type: Book

Ecosystem services (ES) are direct and indirect benefits of ecosystems that are not generally offered by markets and from which society obtains goods and services. ES are grouped according to four ecosystemic functions: regulation, provisioning, habitat and cultural. Our study aimed at identifying ES provided by beaches and coastal dunes in the Baja California Peninsula. ES were identified in a literature search in the international and local scientific bibliography databases. We used key words like: ES in Baja California, ES in beaches and ES in coastal dunes. We analyzed 350 selected papers. Explicit and implicit mentions to ES or to their elements were extracted from the reviewed documents; the assigned value represents the degree of importance of each ES: 0 (unimportant), 1 (low importance), 2 (medium importance) and 3 (high importance). The ES cultural function was the best documented, being mentioned in 40 publications. The habitat function was the most reported for the Pacific Ocean coast mainly refuge for flora and fauna. The functions of regulation of air quality and climate are equally analyzed in ten publications. The ES of erosion regulation, pollination, and water flow are only documented in the Gulf of California coastline. We concluded it is highly relevant to know the ES provided by beaches and coastal dunes in order to design and implement adequate management practices that conserve the ecosystem in order for it to continue providing ES to humans.

Evaluating the effectiveness of coastal no-take zones of the Galapagos Marine Reserve for the red spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus

Buglass S, Reyes H, Ramirez-González J, Eddy TD, Salinas-de-León P, Jarrin JMarin. Evaluating the effectiveness of coastal no-take zones of the Galapagos Marine Reserve for the red spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2018 ;88:204 - 212. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17306048
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Monitoring and assessing the effectiveness of no-take zones (NTZs) is critical, not just for the effective management of marine resources, but also for informing and gaining support from community stakeholders. The Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR) established a network of coastal NTZs in 2001, yet, to date no study has investigated their effectiveness in protecting and enabling key species to recover. Using data from the Galapagos National Park Directorate annual Lobster Population Monitoring Program from 2012 to 2014, this study evaluated the recovery of the commercially valuable red spiny lobster (Panulirus penicillatus) inside NTZs in the GMR. It was hypothesized that NTZs would present higher lobster abundances or sizes when compared with adjacent fished zones. However, the study found no significant differences in these comparisons. Overall the findings indicate that > 11 years of protection has had no appreciable effect on lobster abundances or sizes inside the NTZs. This paper explores possible reasons for the lack of response in NTZs, and concluded that non-compliance and shortcomings within the enforcement framework of the GMR are the key factors limiting the functionality of these NTZs. Additionally, it also evaluates the limitations of the current monitoring program and highlights the need for a more comprehensive and long-term program to be implemented. As the new zoning scheme for NTZs in the GMR that began in 2016 is still to be determined, this information should be considered by decision makers to improve the effectiveness of NTZs and sustainable management of the GRM's coastal resources.

Genetic fingerprinting reveals natal origins of male leatherback turtles encountered in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

Roden SE, Stewart KR, James MC, Dodge KL, Dell’Amico F, Dutton PH. Genetic fingerprinting reveals natal origins of male leatherback turtles encountered in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology [Internet]. 2017 ;164(9). Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00227-017-3211-0?utm_source=Lenfest+Ocean+Program+List&utm_campaign=570cfbdace-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_12_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_3cb503819c-570cfbdace-1209575509
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Understanding population dynamics in broadly distributed marine species with cryptic life history stages is challenging. Information on the population dynamics of sea turtles tends to be biased toward females, due to their accessibility for study on nesting beaches. Males are encountered only at sea; there is little information about their migratory routes, residence areas, foraging zones, and population boundaries. In particular, male leatherbacks (Dermochelys coriacea) are quite elusive; little is known about adult and juvenile male distribution or behavior. The at-sea distribution of male turtles from different breeding populations is not known. Here, 122 captured or stranded male leatherback turtles from the USA, Turkey, France, and Canada (collected 1997–2012) were assigned to one of nine Atlantic basin populations using genetic analysis with microsatellite DNA markers. We found that all turtles originated from western Atlantic nesting beaches (Trinidad 55%, French Guiana 31%, and Costa Rica 14%). Although genetic data for other Atlantic nesting populations were represented in the assignment analysis (St. Croix, Brazil, Florida, and Africa (west and south), none of the male leatherbacks included in this study were shown to originate from these populations. This was an unexpected result based on estimated source population sizes. One stranded turtle from Turkey was assigned to French Guiana, while others that were stranded in France were from Trinidad or French Guiana breeding populations. For 12 male leatherbacks in our dataset, natal origins determined from the genetic assignment tests were compared to published satellite and flipper tag information to provide evidence of natal homing for male leatherbacks, which corroborated our genetic findings. Our focused study on male leatherback natal origins provides information not previously known for this cryptic, but essential component of the breeding population. This method should provide a guideline for future studies, with the ultimate goal of improving management and conservation strategies for threatened and endangered species by taking the male component of the breeding population into account.

Handbook of Research on Environmental Policies for Emergency Management and Public Safety: Impact of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Regions and Strategic Responses

Gomes PMiguel, Gutierres FSacramento. Handbook of Research on Environmental Policies for Emergency Management and Public Safety: Impact of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Regions and Strategic Responses. (Xu X, Eneanya ANduka). IGI Global; 2018 pp. 239 - 255. Available from: https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/impact-of-sea-level-rise-on-coastal-regions-and-strategic-responses/195199
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $30.00
Type: Book

This chapter includes an assessment of physical vulnerability of the coast, including a coastal vulnerability index composed of 9 physical variables—elevation, distance to shore, tide amplitude, significant wave weight, erosion/accretion rates, geology, geomorphology, ground cover vegetation, and anthropogenic actions—followed by a quantification of coastal recession and the data of special report on emissions scenarios (SRES) developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on the rise in average sea level. It includes an estimate of the economic value of an area of recreation based on the travel cost method. Finally, a bibliographic review is made to assess strategies and responses to the impacts of sea level rise in order to make comparisons and to develop a road map of interventions for shoreline protection. The proposed methodology was applied to a case study on the Portuguese coast corresponding to the beaches of Costa de Caparica, Almada.

Surveying views on Payments for Ecosystem Services: Implications for environmental management and research

Waylen KJ, Martin-Ortega J. Surveying views on Payments for Ecosystem Services: Implications for environmental management and research. Ecosystem Services [Internet]. 2018 ;29:23 - 30. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041617304850
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The concept of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is globally of increasing interest. However, little is known about the views and expectations of professionals and practitioners expected to enable or implement this concept. Since these individuals design, select, shape and deliver environmental management, their views and expectations are critical to understanding how PES may play out in practice. Using the first survey on this topic, in the UK this research discusses the implications for future research and environmental management.

Responses indicate a range of views about PES and its potential effects. Most expect to see greater use of PES in future; and are cautiously positive about the environmental, social and economic consequences of doing so. Many hope PES may overcome existing challenges facing environmental management, subject to conditions or changes. The research also revealed tensions related to broader challenges in environmental governance – e.g. calls for standardisation may conflict with requests for adaptability. Meanwhile, other expectations – e.g. improved engagement with groups currently uninterested in the environment – indicate priorities that may be better addressed with other instruments. Varied views are likely in most countries and must be assessed to better understand the prospects and potential of PES.

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - 2018-01-10