2018-02-07

Indirect effects of sea ice loss on summer-fall habitat and behaviour for sympatric populations of an Arctic marine predator

Hauser DDW, Laidre KL, Stern HL, Suydam RS, Richard PR. Indirect effects of sea ice loss on summer-fall habitat and behaviour for sympatric populations of an Arctic marine predator Wiersma Y. Diversity and Distributions [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ddi.12722/full
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

Aim

Climate change is fundamentally altering habitats, with complex consequences for species across the globe. The Arctic has warmed 2–3 times faster than the global average, and unprecedented sea ice loss can have multiple outcomes for ice-associated marine predators. Our goal was to assess impacts of sea ice loss on population-specific habitat and behaviour of a migratory Arctic cetacean.

Location

Arctic Ocean.

Methods

Using satellite telemetry data collected during summer-fall from sympatric beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) populations (“Chukchi” and “Beaufort” belugas), we applied generalized estimating equations to evaluate shifts in sea ice habitat associations and diving behaviour during two periods: 1993–2002 (“early”) and 2004–2012 (“late”). We used resource selection functions to assess changes in sea ice selection as well as predict trends in habitat selection and “optimal” habitat, based on satellite-derived sea ice data from 1990 to 2014.

Results

Sea ice cover declined substantially between periods, and Chukchi belugas specifically used significantly lower sea ice concentrations during the late than early period. Use of bathymetric features did not change between periods for either population. Population-specific sea ice selection, predicted habitat and the amount of optimal habitat also generally did not change during 1990–2014. Chukchi belugas tracked during 2007–2012 made significantly more long-duration and deeper dives than those tracked during 1998–2002.

Main conclusions

Taken together, our results suggest bathymetric parameters are consistent predictors of summer-fall beluga habitat rather than selection for specific sea ice conditions during recent sea ice loss. Beluga whales were able to mediate habitat change despite their sea ice associations. However, trends towards prolonged and deeper diving possibly indicate shifting foraging opportunities associated with ecological changes that occur in concert with sea ice loss. Our results highlight that responses by some Arctic marine wildlife can be indirect and variable among populations, which could be included in predictions for the future.

Evidence of economic benefits for public investment in MPAs

Pascal N, Brathwaite A, Brander L, Seidl A, Philip M, Clua E. Evidence of economic benefits for public investment in MPAs. Ecosystem Services [Internet]. 2018 ;30:3 - 13. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041616303023
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Journal Article

MPAs enhance some of the Ecosystem Services (ES) provided by coral reefs and clear, robust valuations of these impacts may help to improve stakeholder support and better inform decision-makers. Pursuant to this goal, Cost-Benefit Analyses (CBA) of MPAs in 2 different contexts were analysed: a community based MPA with low tourism pressure in Vanuatu, and a government managed MPA with relatively high tourism pressure, in Saint Martin. Assessments were made on six ES: fish biomass, scenic beauty, protection against coastal erosion, bequest and existence values, social capital and CO2sequestration, which were quantified via different approaches that included experimental fishery, surveys and benefit transfer. Total operating costs for each MPA were collected and the benefit-cost ratio and return on investment based on 25-year discounted projections computed. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on MPA impacts, and discount rates (5%, 7% and 10%). The investment indicators all showed positive results with the impact on the tourism ES being the largest estimated for all MPAs, highlighting the importance of this relationship. The study also demonstrated a relatively high sensitivity of the results to different levels of impacts on ES, which highlights the need for reducing scientific knowledge gaps.

The potential for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to conduct marine fauna surveys in place of manned aircraft

Colefax AP, Butcher PA, Kelaher BP. The potential for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to conduct marine fauna surveys in place of manned aircraft. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2017 ;75(1):1 - 8. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article-abstract/75/1/1/3862123?redirectedFrom=fulltext
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $473.00
Type: Journal Article

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly used in marine wildlife research. As technological developments rapidly advance the versatility and functionality of affordable UAVs, their potential as a marine aerial survey tool is quickly gaining attention. Currently, there is significant interest in whether cost-effective UAVs can outperform manned aircraft in aerial surveys of marine fauna at sea, although few empirical studies have compared relative sampling efficiency, accuracy and precision. Civil aviation restrictions, and subsequent available civilian technologies, make it unlikely that UAVs will currently be more effective than manned aircraft for large area marine surveys. UAVs do, however, have the capacity to fill a niche for intensive smaller spatial scale sampling and for undertaking aerial surveys in isolated locations. Improvements in UAV sensor resolutions and alternative sensor types, such as multispectral cameras, may increase area coverage, reduce perception error, and increase water penetration for sightability. Additionally, the further development of auto-detection software will rapidly improve image processing and further reduce human observer error inherent in manned aerial surveys. As UAV technologies and associated methodology is further developed and becomes more affordable, these aircraft will be increasingly adopted as a marine aerial survey tool in place of traditional methods using manned aircraft.

Connectivity among offshore feeding areas and nearshore spawning grounds; implications for management of migratory fish

Sólmundsson J, Jónsdóttir IG, Ragnarsson SÁ, Björnsson B. Connectivity among offshore feeding areas and nearshore spawning grounds; implications for management of migratory fish. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2017 ;75(1):148 - 157. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article-abstract/75/1/148/3884463?redirectedFrom=fulltext
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $473.00
Type: Journal Article

Knowing movement and structure of fish populations is a prerequisite for effective spatial fisheries management. The study evaluates migration patterns and connectivity of two groups of cod (Gadus morhua) associated with offshore feeding and nursery grounds. This was achieved by investigating (i) migration pathways of cod tagged at the feeding areas, (ii) immigration of cod to the areas based on mark-recapture data covering a period of two decades, and (iii) depth and temperature data from data storage tags (DSTs). Despite undertaking long-distance migrations after attaining sexual maturity, the cod aggregations in the two study areas appear to be largely separated from each other. This conclusion is supported by DSTs, indicating that mature fish associated with the two areas occupy different thermal-bathymetric niches. Low levels of connectivity suggest that effective spatial management in the two study areas would preserve fish of different origin. For the highly migratory adults, however, spatial management would need to focus on migration pathways and the areas where the fish are particularly vulnerable to fishing.

Commercial fisheries interactions with oil and gas pipelines in the North Sea: considerations for decommissioning

Rouse S, Kafas A, Catarino R, Peter H. Commercial fisheries interactions with oil and gas pipelines in the North Sea: considerations for decommissioning. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2017 ;75(1):279 - 286. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article-abstract/75/1/279/3972175?redirectedFrom=fulltext
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $473.00
Type: Journal Article

Commercial fisheries and oil and gas extraction are both spatially extensive industries in the North Sea (NS), and inevitably there is physical interaction where the two activities coincide. Regular contact between fishing gear and pipelines may risk pipeline integrity and could lead to gear snagging. It is also known, anecdotally, that some vessels target pipelines, potentially benefiting from local artificial reef effects. The impacts of pipeline decommissioning options (removal vs. in situ) on commercial fisheries must be evaluated as part of the consenting process, but the degree of interaction between the two is presently unknown in the NS. Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data for the Scottish demersal fleet were analysed with spatial data on pipelines. Approximately one-third (36.1%) of trips fished within 200 m of a pipeline over a 5-year period, suggesting that pipelines are subjected to regular interaction with fishing gear. The fishing effort (in hours) associated with pipelines was 2.52% of the total effort, compared to 1.33% in an equivalent area of seabed 1 km away, implying modest aggregation of fishing around pipelines. Only a small percentage (0.93%) of fishing trips actively targeted pipelines as fishing grounds. The highest level of fishing around pipelines occurred in the northeast NS. Pipeline sections with >100 h of fishing were typically larger diameter pipelines. The results suggest that pipeline decommissioning may have both negative (displacement of aggregated effort) and positive (reduced snagging potential) outcomes for commercial fisheries. It is recommended that where there is little or no fishing activity associated with pipelines, receptors other than fishing should be prioritized when selecting decommissioning strategies. Additionally, the intensity of fishing around pipelines should be used to inform the frequency of post-decommissioning integrity monitoring for any pipelines left in situ.

Mapping ecosystem services supply chains for coastal Long Island communities: Implications for resilience planning

Dvarskas A. Mapping ecosystem services supply chains for coastal Long Island communities: Implications for resilience planning. Ecosystem Services [Internet]. 2018 ;30:14 - 26. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041617305296
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Journal Article

Ecosystem services have become an important component of planning discussions at local, state, national and international levels. These services have also more recently figured into discussions of community resilience to hazard events. For the majority of ecosystem services, some contribution of human capital inputs, which we term Enabling Economic Inputs (EEIs) in this paper, are necessary to convert the raw ecosystem service flow into an ecosystem service benefit obtained by people. This paper evaluates a subset of EEIs related to coastal ecosystem services associated with (1) fishing and shellfishing; (2) recreational boating; and (3) recreational beach use. After developing a conceptual approach for EEIs, this research develops a methodology for spatially evaluating EEIs. Using a hot-spot analysis of establishments based on the North American Industrial Classification System codes, nodes in the supply chain for ecosystem services within the Long Island region are identified and analyzed. The paper concludes with an evaluation of how information on the supply chain of ecosystem services may assist in resiliency planning in coastal communities. Further research is needed to fully evaluate the conveyance system that translocates ecosystem services from supply areas to demand areas, and this research is an initial step in that direction.

Developing a performance evaluation mechanism for Portuguese Marine Spatial Planning using a participatory approach

Ferreira MAdelaide, Johnson D, da Silva CPereira, Ramos TB. Developing a performance evaluation mechanism for Portuguese Marine Spatial Planning using a participatory approach. Journal of Cleaner Production [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652618302051
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Ocean governance frameworks are aimed at achieving sustainable use of the marine environment and its finite resources. They are increasingly being developed and implemented worldwide. Although the importance of evaluating the success of integrated ocean management initiatives is widely recognized, so is its complexity, and there is still limited knowledge or empirical experience on how to actually carry out such an evaluation. This research aims to develop a framework to evaluate the performance of marine spatial planning (MSP) (focusing on the tangible outcomes of such initiatives). Portugal’s maritime area totals c. 3,800,000 km2. As one of the world’s largest maritime nations, and with its ocean governance framework finalised in 2015, Portugal emerges as a relevant case study for the development of a mechanism to evaluate performance of its MSP system. A step-by-step participatory approach was designed to develop a set of indicators that could constitute the core of an evaluation mechanism of the performance of the Portuguese MSP system. The resulting fifteen indicators cover all aspects of an IPOO framework (inputs, process, outputs, outcomes) relevant in an MSP context (data and information base, transparency, aspects related to conflict, and to economic activities such as levels of investment and jobs), while including contextual indicators related to the state of the marine environment. These indicators thus simultaneously allow an assessment of the economic, social, and environmental effects of MSP, including some integrative high-level indicators such as well-being. This research demonstrates the interest and usefulness of using a participatory approach to the development of a comprehensive performance evaluation mechanism of Portuguese MSP. It exemplifies a shift towards a new, participatory, approach to the monitoring and evaluation stages of the MSP cycle, which may constitute a useful tool in the emerging field of MSP evaluation in Europe and beyond.

Marine Protected Areas: Global Framework, Regional MPA Networks and a National Example

von Nordheim H. Marine Protected Areas: Global Framework, Regional MPA Networks and a National Example. In: Handbook on Marine Environment Protection. Handbook on Marine Environment Protection. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 871 - 890. Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-60156-4_46
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $29.95
Type: Book Chapter

In the last 15 years considerable progress has been made regarding the establishment of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and the implementation of a worldwide MPA network, despite of great regional differences and the long way still to go to reach the targeted 10% coverage of world’s oceans by MPAs set by CBD for 2020 for all seas.

This article gives an overview of the latest developments within MPA networks, the state of play on global level, some examples stemming from Regional Sea Conventions and a national case study of the establishment of MPAs.

Most promising advances in global MPA establishment are the current “UN Prep Com-Process” that may lead to a stronger commitment of the United Nations within the framework of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and, possibly even more “fruitful”, the achievements of the global Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The CBD has established a process to identify so-called “Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas” (EBSA) in the global oceans in 2008 to inform states and international institutions. In the meantime these efforts have covered a high percentage of the global ocean and a total number of 280 EBSAs could already be identified and globally agreed by 2017. These are situated both in international waters as well as waters under the jurisdiction of individual states. At the same time very promising MPA activities are conducted by a large number of nations and under several Regional Sea Conventions, one of which, the Helsinki-Convention for the Baltic Sea, has already met the 10% MPA-coverage target.

Scientific Considerations for the Assessment and Management of Mine Tailings Disposal in the Deep Sea

Vare LL, Baker MC, Howe JA, Levin LA, Neira C, Ramirez-Llodra EZ, Reichelt-Brushett A, Rowden AA, Shimmield TM, Simpson SL, et al. Scientific Considerations for the Assessment and Management of Mine Tailings Disposal in the Deep Sea. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 ;5. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2018.00017/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Deep-sea tailings disposal (DSTD) and its shallow water counterpart, submarine tailings disposal (STD), are practiced in many areas of the world, whereby mining industries discharge processed mud- and rock-waste slurries (tailings) directly into the marine environment. Pipeline discharges and other land-based sources of marine pollution fall beyond the regulatory scope of the London Convention and the London Protocols (LC/LP). However, guidelines have been developed in Papua New Guinea (PNG) to improve tailings waste management frameworks in which mining companies can operate. DSTD can impact ocean ecosystems in addition to other sources of stress, such as from fishing, pollution, energy extraction, tourism, eutrophication, climate change and, potentially in the future, from deep-seabed mining. Environmental management of DSTD may be most effective when placed in a broader context, drawing expertise, data and lessons from multiple sectors (academia, government, society, industry, and regulators) and engaging with international deep-ocean observing programs, databases and stewardship consortia. Here, the challenges associated with DSTD are identified, along with possible solutions, based on the results of a number of robust scientific studies. Also highlighted are the key issues, trends of improved practice and techniques that could be used if considering DSTD (such as increased precaution if considering submarine canyon locations), likely cumulative impacts, and research needed to address current knowledge gaps.

Financing Fisheries Reform: Blended Capital Approaches in Support of Sustainable Wild-Capture Fisheries

Virdin J, de Vos K, Higgins P, Hiller J, Kapur N, Fitzgerald T. Financing Fisheries Reform: Blended Capital Approaches in Support of Sustainable Wild-Capture Fisheries. Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions and the Environmental Defense Fund; 2018. Available from: https://nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/publications/financing-fisheries-reform-blended-capital-approaches-support-sustainable-wild-capture
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Overfishing is one of the persistent environmental challenges of our time. Almost one third of the world’s assessed commercially exploited marine fish stocks are considered overfished. This report, co-authored by researchers at the Environmental Defense Fund and the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, introduces the idea of a blended capital approach to fill the all-too-common finance gap that may hamper recovery of many fisheries. The report describes the categories of investment required to attain fisheries sustainability at each stage of the recovery process, identifies where within this framework there is likely to be the biggest funding gap, and suggests possible approaches for philanthropic and public capital to leverage private capital to help fill the gap. The authors suggest that if we are able to increase the types and amount of capital available to fund fisheries reform—and utilize one to leverage the others where needed—blended capital approaches may send clearer signals to decision makers that change is not only possible but in everyone’s best interests. In aggregate, such signals could help move us closer to advancing a suite of Sustainable Development Goals that would result in thriving, resilient oceans that support more fish, feed more people, and improve prosperity.

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