2018-02-28

Biodegradation of marine oil spills in the Arctic with a Greenland perspective

Vergeynst L, Wegeberg S, Aamand J, Lassen P, Gosewinkel U, Fritt-Rasmussen J, Gustavson K, Mosbech A. Biodegradation of marine oil spills in the Arctic with a Greenland perspective. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2018 ;626:1243 - 1258. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969718302110
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

New economic developments in the Arctic, such as shipping and oil exploitation, bring along unprecedented risks of marine oil spills. Microorganisms have played a central role in degrading and reducing the impact of the spilled oil during past oil disasters. However, in the Arctic, and in particular in its pristine areas, the self-cleaning capacity and biodegradation potential of the natural microbial communities have yet to be uncovered.

This review compiles and investigates the current knowledge with respect to environmental parameters and biochemical constraints that control oil biodegradation in the Arctic. Hereby, seawaters off Greenland are considered as a case study. Key factors for biodegradation include the bioavailability of hydrocarbons, the presence of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the availability of nutrients. We show how these key factors may be influenced by the physical oceanographic conditions in seawaters off Greenland and other environmental parameters including low temperature, sea ice, sunlight regime, suspended sediment plumes and phytoplankton blooms that characterize the Arctic.

Based on the acquired insights, a first qualitative assessment of the biodegradation potential in seawaters off Greenland is presented. In addition to the most apparent Arctic characteristics, such as low temperature and sea ice, the impact of typical Arctic features such as the oligotrophic environment, poor microbial adaptation to hydrocarbon degradation, mixing of stratified water masses, and massive phytoplankton blooms and suspended sediment plumes merit to be topics of future investigation.

Ancient DNA analysis of Indigenous rockfish use on the Pacific Coast: Implications for marine conservation areas and fisheries management

Rodrigues AT, McKechnie I, Yang DY. Ancient DNA analysis of Indigenous rockfish use on the Pacific Coast: Implications for marine conservation areas and fisheries management Chiang T-Y. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2018 ;13(2):e0192716. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0192716
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Rockfish (Sebastes spp.) are a common marine fish in nearshore and continental shelf environments in the North Pacific Ocean. They are frequently identified in coastal archaeological sites in western North America; however, the morphological similarity of rockfish species limits conventional zooarchaeological identifications to the genus level. This study applies ancient DNA analysis to 96 archaeological rockfish specimens from four sites on separate islands in an archipelago on western Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Two of the archaeological sites are located within a marine protected area specifically designed to facilitate the recovery of inshore rockfish populations; two sites are located outside this boundary and remain subject to considerable fishing pressure. Using mitochondrial 16S and control region DNA sequences, we identify at least twelve different rockfish species utilized during the past 2,500 years. Identification of rockfish at closely spaced and contemporaneously occupied sites confirms that a variety of Sebastes species were consistently exploited at each site, with more exposed areas having a higher number of species present. Identification results indicate that four of the twelve species did not occur within the conservation area boundary and, instead, were found in sites where commercial and recreational fishing continues to be permitted. This study demonstrates that ancient DNA identifications of archaeological assemblages can complement and expand perspective on modern day fisheries conservation and management in this National Park Reserve and First Nations ancestral territory.

Impacts of Ocean Warming on China's Fisheries Catches: An Application of “Mean Temperature of the Catch”

Liang C, Xian W, Pauly D. Impacts of Ocean Warming on China's Fisheries Catches: An Application of “Mean Temperature of the Catch” . Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 ;5. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2018.00026/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_549753_45_Marine_20180222_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Ocean warming can strongly impact marine fisheries; notably, it can cause the “mean temperature of the catch” (MTC) to increase, an indicator of the tropicalization of fisheries catches. In this contribution, we explore MTC changes in three large marine ecosystems (LMEs) along China's coasts, i.e., the Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea LMEs, and their relationships to shifts of sea surface temperature (SST). The results show that, while the MTCs began to increase in 1962 in the East China Sea and in 1968 in the Yellow Sea, there was no detectable increase in the South China Sea. There also was a strong relationship between MTC and SST in the Yellow and East China Seas from 1950 to 2010, especially when taking a 3-year time-lag into account. The lack of change of the MTC in the South China Sea is attributed to the relatively small increase in SST over the time period considered, and the fact that the MTC of tropical ecosystems such as the South China Sea is not predicted to increase in the first place, given that their fauna cannot be replaced by another, adapted to higher temperature. Overall, these results suggest that ocean warming is already having an impact on China's marine fisheries, and that policies to curtail greenhouse gas emissions are urgently needed to minimize the increase of these impacts on fisheries.

Paradigm Lost: Ocean Acidification Will Overturn the Concept of Larval-Fish Biophysical Dispersal

Leis JM. Paradigm Lost: Ocean Acidification Will Overturn the Concept of Larval-Fish Biophysical Dispersal. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 ;5. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2018.00047/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_549753_45_Marine_20180222_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Most marine ecologists have in the past 25 years changed from supporting a passive-dispersal paradigm for larval marine fishes to supporting a biophysical-dispersal paradigm wherein the behaviour of larvae plays a central role. Research shows larvae of demersal perciform fishes have considerable swimming and orientation abilities over a major portion of their pelagic larval duration. These abilities depend on sensory function, and some recent research has indicated anthropogenic acidification of the oceans will by the end of the century result in sensory dysfunction. This could strongly alter the ability of fish larvae to orientate in the pelagic environment, to locate suitable settlement habitat, to bet-hedge, and to colonize new locations. This paper evaluates the available publications on the effects of acidification on senses and behaviours relevant to dispersal of fish early life-history stages. A large majority of studies tested CO2 values predicted for the middle to end of the century. Larvae of fourteen families—all but two perciform—were studied. However, half of studies used Damselfishes (Pomacentridae), and except for swimming, most studies used settlement-stage larvae or later stages. In spite of these taxonomic and ontogenetic restrictions, all but two studies on sensory function (chemosensation, hearing, vision, detection of estuarine cues) found deleterious effects from acidification. The four studies on lateralization and settlement timing all found deleterious effects from acidification. No clear effect of acidification on swimming ability was found. If fish larvae cannot orientate due to sensory dysfunction, their dispersal will, in effect, conform to the passive dispersal paradigm. Modelling incorporating larval behaviour derived from empirical studies indicates that relative to active larvae, passive larvae will have less self-recruitment, higher median and mean dispersal distances, and lower settlement rates: further, bet hedging and colonization of new locations will decrease. The biophysical dispersal paradigm will be lost in theory and in fact, which is predicted to result in lower recruitment and less bet hedging for demersal, perciform fishes. More research is required to determine if the larvae of other Orders will be effected in the same way, or if warm- and cold-water fish faunas will be similarly effected.

Marine Debris on Small Islands: Insights from an Educational Outreach Program in the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

Sur C, Abbott JM, Ambo-Rappe R, Asriani N, Hameed SO, Jellison BM, Lestari HA, Limbong SR, Mandasari M, Ng G, et al. Marine Debris on Small Islands: Insights from an Educational Outreach Program in the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 ;5. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2018.00035/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_549753_45_Marine_20180222_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine debris is a global environmental problem especially apparent on small islands throughout the world. We implemented an educational outreach program to engage primary and secondary students in the scientific process using the tangible issue of marine debris on a typical small island in Indonesia (Barrang Lompo, Spermonde Islands, South Sulawesi). Over a 3-year period, students conducted systematic sampling of debris on their island’s beaches. They quantified the enormity of the debris problem, discussed data, and compared experiences with partner schools in California. The program inspired a unique, local perspective on marine debris that includes greater awareness of human health impacts as well as a need for realistic solutions to this problem faced by small islands.

Ocean acidification affects coral growth by reducing skeletal density

Mollica NR, Guo W, Cohen AL, Huang K-F, Foster GL, Donald HK, Solow AR. Ocean acidification affects coral growth by reducing skeletal density. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2018 ;115(8):1754 - 1759. Available from: http://www.pnas.org/content/115/8/1754?etoc=
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $10.00
Type: Journal Article

Ocean acidification (OA) is considered an important threat to coral reef ecosystems, because it reduces the availability of carbonate ions that reef-building corals need to produce their skeletons. However, while theory predicts that coral calcification rates decline as carbonate ion concentrations decrease, this prediction is not consistently borne out in laboratory manipulation experiments or in studies of corals inhabiting naturally low-pH reefs today. The skeletal growth of corals consists of two distinct processes: extension (upward growth) and densification (lateral thickening). Here, we show that skeletal density is directly sensitive to changes in seawater carbonate ion concentration and thus, to OA, whereas extension is not. We present a numerical model of Porites skeletal growth that links skeletal density with the external seawater environment via its influence on the chemistry of coral calcifying fluid. We validate the model using existing coral skeletal datasets from six Porites species collected across five reef sites and use this framework to project the impact of 21st century OA on Porites skeletal density across the global tropics. Our model predicts that OA alone will drive up to 20.3 ± 5.4% decline in the skeletal density of reef-building Porites corals.

Identifying social factors that undermine support for nature-based coastal management

Josephs LI, Humphries AT. Identifying social factors that undermine support for nature-based coastal management. Journal of Environmental Management [Internet]. 2018 ;212:32 - 38. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479718301014
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Human use and degradation of coastal ecosystems is at an all-time high. Thus, a current challenge for environmental management and research is moving beyond ecological definitions of success and integrating socioeconomic factors. Projects and studies with this aim, however, have focused primarily on monetary valuations of ecosystem functions, overlooking the behaviors and psycho-social motivations of environmental management. Using a nature-based salt marsh restoration project on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, we assess the role of human attitudes and preferences in evaluating social success for ecosystem management. We use structural equation modeling to compare the strengths of social variables in predicting restoration project support, and find public understanding to be a more important predictor than personal values. Our results show that even among stakeholders with strong pro-environmental values, a weak understanding of the management initiative can undermine support. We also find that project support does not necessarily translate to the prioritization of similar management strategies. Instead, when individuals consider overall management priorities, differences arise between particular resource user-groups. This suggests that strong public support for individual initiatives can misconstrue complexities in stakeholder preferences that emerge in more comprehensive management considerations. Future investigations of the psycho-social components of management solutions should address the potentially tiered nature of human preferences, as well as whether public perceptions of management effectiveness act as an additional context-dependency of social viability.

Mapping fishing grounds, resource and fleet patterns to enhance management units in data-poor fisheries: The case of snappers and groupers in the Abrolhos Bank coral-reefs (South Atlantic)

Previero M, Gasalla MA. Mapping fishing grounds, resource and fleet patterns to enhance management units in data-poor fisheries: The case of snappers and groupers in the Abrolhos Bank coral-reefs (South Atlantic). Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2018 ;154:83 - 95. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117303046
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

In most small-scale fisheries, especially in developing countries, the collection of reliable fishing statistics is not regular, hampering traditional stock assessments. In those data-poor fisheries, a precise knowledge of resources co-occurrence at the ecosystem level, as well as the spatial mapping of fishing activities seem key to support management in a complex fishers-environment context. In the largest South Atlantic coralline reef, the Abrolhos Bank, fisheries are extremely diverse in terms of exploitation capacity, fishing gears, target stocks and operating areas, but any regional fisheries management is currently in place. The aim of this study was to assess, organize, and analyze fisheries of three snappers (Lutjanus jocuL. synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus), and three groupers (Cephalopholis fulva, Epinephelus morio and Mycteroperca bonaci) along the Abrolhos Bank, with an ultimate goal of proposing useful management units. Surveys were conducted in the main fishing ports, including fishers' interviews and fish size measures in landings. Data analysis allowed a precise fishing characterization, a grouping of stocks co-occurrence, and the mapping of fishing spots and grounds. Three stocks and seven fishing areas clusters were obtained and defined statistically, suggesting useful management units. Specific fishers' groups per fleet were identified as the main stakeholders to be consulted in fisheries plans. Spatial units based on the occurrence of snappers and groupers stocks were defined, having the “Parcel das Paredes” the greatest number of fishing spots and the lower fish sizes. Overall, findings contain unprecedented fine scale resolution units that clarifies and simplifies the connections among species, fleets, fishing areas and fishers. They should also strength the call for action to implement fisheries management in a broader ecosystem-scale context.

Investigating microplastic trophic transfer in marine top predators

Nelms SE, Galloway TS, Godley BJ, Jarvis DS, Lindeque PK. Investigating microplastic trophic transfer in marine top predators. Environmental Pollution [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749117343294
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Microplastics are highly bioavailable to marine organisms, either through direct ingestion, or indirectly by trophic transfer from contaminated prey. The latter has been observed for low-trophic level organisms in laboratory conditions, yet empirical evidence in high trophic-level taxa is lacking. In natura studies face difficulties when dealing with contamination and differentiating between directly and indirectly ingested microplastics. The ethical constraints of subjecting large organisms, such as marine mammals, to laboratory investigations hinder the resolution of these limitations. Here, these issues were resolved by analysing sub-samples of scat from captive grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and whole digestive tracts of the wild-caught Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) they are fed upon. An enzymatic digestion protocol was employed to remove excess organic material and facilitate visual detection of synthetic particles without damaging them. Polymer type was confirmed using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Extensive contamination control measures were implemented throughout. Approximately half of scat subsamples (48%; n = 15) and a third of fish (32%; n = 10) contained 1–4 microplastics. Particles were mainly black, clear, red and blue in colour. Mean lengths were 1.5 mm and 2 mm in scats and fish respectively. Ethylene propylene was the most frequently detected polymer type in both. Our findings suggest trophic transfer represents an indirect, yet potentially major, pathway of microplastic ingestion for any species whose feeding ecology involves the consumption of whole prey, including humans.

Distribution patterns of loliginid squid paralarvae in relation to the oceanographic features off the South Brazil Bight (22°-25°S)

de Araujo CCosta, Gasalla MA. Distribution patterns of loliginid squid paralarvae in relation to the oceanographic features off the South Brazil Bight (22°-25°S). Fisheries Oceanography [Internet]. 2018 ;27(1):63 - 75. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/fog.12238/abstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Loliginid squids constitute marine resources of increasing importance in shelf ecosystems off the coast of South Brazil. However, the existing information and knowledge about the occurrence of early-life stages and causes of distributional patterns are insufficient. Here, we have revisited Brazilian historical plankton samples obtained from 11 oceanographic surveys to identify paralarvae and their abundances over time. The study area and time period cover the region between Cabo de São Tomé (22°S) and Cananéia (25°S) at depths down to 200 m from 1991 to 2005. Of the 246 paralarvae quantified, ~50% were identified to the genus or species level, including Doryteuthis spp. (D. sanpaulensis and D. plei), Lolliguncula brevis and a single specimen of Pickfordiateuthis pulchella. Paralarval occurrence and abundance peaked in different areas and were associated with distinct oceanographic conditions: D. sanpaulensis occurred in the northern region associated with cold waters and upwelling events, D. plei occurred primarily in the southern region of the study area and in warmer waters, and L. brevis was found in shallow and low salinity waters in the estuarine region off the coast of Santos. Overall, the highest abundance of paralarvae occurred in the nearshore, northernmost areas during summer, and this can be associated with the observed retention mechanisms caused by local circulation, seasonal upwelling, the intrusion of nutrient-rich waters, and spawning peaks. The present study provides new information and evidence for loliginid patterns in the area that may potentially be useful for better understanding the recruitment patterns and fishery assessments of squid populations.

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - 2018-02-28