Many coastlines throughout the world are retreating, as a result of erosion and sea level rise. The damage incurred to property, infrastructure, coastal flood defence, and the loss of ecosystem services and agricultural land have substantial economic repercussions. For many coastal regions located in developing countries, the assessment of the spatial extent of coastal erosion is very time-consuming and is often hampered by lack of data. To investigate the suitability of global open access data for coastal erosion assessments at regional scale six biogeophysical variables (geological layout, waves, sediment balance, tides, storms, and vegetation) were integrated using the Coastal Hazard Wheel approach (CHW). Original datasets with global coverage were retrieved from the internet and from various research institutes. The data were processed and assigned to the CHW classes, so that the CHW method could be applied to assess coastal erosion hazard levels. The data can be viewed in the Coastal Hazard Wheel App (www.coastalhazardwheel.org) that also allows the coastal erosion hazard levels to be determined for each point at coastlines around the world. The application of the CHW with global open access data was tested for the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Colombia and revealed a high to very high erosion hazard along 47% of the Caribbean coast and along 23% of the Pacific coast. The application provides additional information on capital stock near the coast, as a tentative indication of assets at risk. This approach provides a straightforward and uniform erosion hazard identification method that can be used for spatial planning on coastal developments at a regional scale.
Fisheries depredation by marine mammals is an economic concern worldwide. We combined questionnaires, acoustic monitoring, and participatory experiments to investigate the occurrence of bottlenose dolphins in the fisheries of Northern Cyprus, and the extent of their conflict with set-nets, an economically important metier of Mediterranean fisheries. Dolphins were present in fishing grounds throughout the year and were detected at 28% of sets. Net damage was on average six times greater where dolphins were present, was correlated with dolphin presence, and the associated costs were considerable. An acoustic deterrent pinger was tested, but had no significant effect although more powerful pingers could have greater impact. However, our findings indicate that effective management of fish stocks is urgently required to address the overexploitation that is likely driving depredation behaviour in dolphins, that in turn leads to net damage and the associated costs to the fisheries.
Research has suggested there is a need for an increased attention to the socio-cultural lifeworlds of fishers and fisheries and its importance for fisheries management. An emerging response to this call has been to examine the social and cultural contexts of ‘good fishing’ – an idea which, drawing on the work of Pierre Bourdieu, has sought to move the discussion beyond simply the economic aspects of fishing to also understand the importance of other forms of capital. Utilising these concepts together with the conceptual idea of ‘knowledge cultures’, the following paper examines the ‘cultural sustainability’ of different ways of governing fishing practices – in particular Marine Conservation Zones and voluntary lobster v-notching using a case study approach to the small-scale fishery of Llŷn peninsula, North Wales (UK). The paper observes that those approaches that allow fishers to demonstrate skills and recognises the temporal contingency of fishing lives can be considered more culturally sustainable than others. This paper also notes that culturally acceptable changes to fishing practices can be supported by fishing regulations and, the paper suggests, such innovations are more likely to be taken up by fishers in their everyday fishing practices. The paper recommends that policies seeking to alter fishing practices consider: i) the importance fishers’ hold in demonstrating their skills; ii) how social relations are as important as economic aspects to fishers’ long-term uptake of new practices; and iii) how the past and the future (such as if a successor is present) holds significance for fishers’ actions in the present.
Recreational fishing is an important activity that delivers substantial social and economic values. Proper management of recreational fisheries relies on information about resource use and associated values by different fishers, but such information is rare, particularly for open access fisheries. In this study a survey of 471 fishers on the Swedish island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea, assessed catches, proportion of catch-and-release (C&R), and economic value (expenditures and willingness to pay, WTP) of sea trout fishing in 2015–2016. Data was analysed in relation to gear used (fly and spin angling, nets and mixed fishery) and fisher connection to fishing site (permanent and temporary residents, Swedish and international tourists). There were marginal differences in daily catch rates, but significant differences in effort and annual catches between different fishers, with resident fishers having the highest catches. Anglers had 86% C&R rates, and fly fishers (>95%) differed significantly from other anglers. Anglers, particularly fly fishers and fishing tourists, had much higher expenditures per year, fish caught and fish kept compared to net fishers. WTP before refraining from fishing, for doubling of fish supply and for potential fishing license was also highest among anglers. Our findings are discussed in terms of distinguishing characteristics for different types of recreational fishers. Fishing efforts, economic values and the need for further studies are also outlined in the context of fisheries and tourism management.
Due to the socioeconomic importance of sardines in the South Atlantic, the aim of this study was to evaluate the fishers’ LEK and the attitudes towards conservation of S. brasiliensis in the fishing village of the Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 134 semi-structured interviews were conducted from April to July 2016. The LEK was classified as moderate (0.56) as well as the conservation attitudes (0.60). It was shown that there was a correlation between LEK and income of fishers. There were differences in LEK and attitudes regarding conservation of sardines in all educational groups analyzed in the sampling population. The LEK and the attitudes also show significant association with boat ownership, occupation and if the fisherman belonged to the local fishing association. As a way to improve fishers’ attitudes in practice, we also encouraged the promotion of education among youth and adults is recommended so that the behavior of fishers becomes more favorable to the conservation of sardines in this fishing community. We also emphasize that local management must take into account the sociodemographic variables of fishers since these can influence LEK and their predisposition to conserve sardines. This approach would increase the likelihood of ensuring the efficient support of the local community in the conservation of this small pelagic fish.
Marine recreational fishing is a popular pastime in a growing number of countries. Obtaining reliable harvests estimates is important to produce more accurate stock assessments and more certain management decisions, however, accurate measurement of marine recreational harvest is challenging.
Previous national fisher diary surveys undertaken in New Zealand during the 1990s gave inconstant estimates of marine recreational harvests. Landline telephone listings and interviews were used to estimate the proportion of New Zealand residents who had fished during the previous 12 months and to recruit diarists. Slight changes in survey method produced variable and at times implausible results.
After three years of planning and pre-testing a large-scale project was undertaken to develop a robust off-site harvest survey method and corroborate the results using with two concurrent on-site survey methods. For the off-site survey, the method was based on a national population proportionate sample of dwellings to recruit a panel of 7000 fishers and 3000 non-fishers using a face-to-face household survey. Panellists were contacted regularly by SMS and telephone for a year with a 94% completion rate. Computer assisted telephone interviews collected details of all species of fish harvested by fishing method. The second was a regional aerial-access survey that collected peak period vessel counts from the air to scale up boat-based harvest from concurrent all-day creel surveys on 45 days. Harvest estimates were generated for the most commonly encountered species, snapper, kahawai, trevally, tarakihi and red gurnard. The third and smallest survey was a combined access point survey in a sub-region using fixed and bus route creel surveys covering all significant access points on different set of random stratified days to the areal access survey. The main objective was to estimate the boat-based harvest by specialist fishers targeting scallop and rock lobster. The three concurrent surveys were designed to generate harvest estimates by fishing platform (boat or land based) at overlapping spatial scales. Harvest, in numbers of fish, were estimated independently for recreational fishers using boats. However, the on-site surveys relied on the proportion of harvest from land-based platforms provided by the off-site survey to derive total regional harvest estimates for all methods. The off-site panel survey relied on average weight data for each fish stock provided by the on-site surveys to convert harvest numbers to weight for management purposes. Choosing a sample frame and survey method that is reliable and repeatable into the future is critical to providing comparable estimates and the ability to monitor trends over time.
Harvest estimates for the most common species in Fisheries Management Area 1, snapper and kahawai, were very similar. The estimates for snapper ranged from 3754 t (cv 0.06) to 3981 t (cv 0.08) and for kahawai 983 t (cv 0.32) to 942 t (cv 0.08). There were greater differences in estimates between surveys for secondary species. Each survey had independent error structures and this multi-method approach has provided valuable insight into likely sources of bias. High quality recreational harvest estimates are important to support management changes in high profile fisheries.
U.S. fisheries management has made tremendous strides under the current management framework, which centers on single stocks rather than ecosystems. However, conventional management focuses on one fishing sector at a time, considers a narrow range of issues, and is separated into individual fishery management plans often leaving little opportunity to consider overarching management goals across fisheries. Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management (EBFM) provides mechanisms to address these but has not been widely adopted. Here, we review and analyze the development of Fisheries Ecosystem Plans (FEPs) as a means to implement EBFM. In doing so, we provide a blueprint for next-generation FEPS that have the potential to translate EBFM to action. We highlight FEPs as a structured planning process that uses adaptive management to operationalize EBFM. This “FEP Loop” process starts by identifying the key factors that shape a fishery system and considering them simultaneously, as a coherent whole. It then helps managers and stakeholders delineate their overarching goals for the system and refine them into specific, realistic projects. And it charts a course forward with a set of management actions that work in concert to achieve the highest-priority objectives. We conclude that EBFM is feasible today using existing science tools, policy instruments, and management structures. Not only that, nearly all of the steps in the proposed “FEP Loop” process are presently being carried out by U.S. fishery managers. The process of reviewing regional experiences in developing and applying the FEP loop will lead to adaptations and improvements of the process we propose.
This paper seeks to highlight the importance of metaphors for marine conservation and policy. It argues that the manner in which the oceans are perceived, often as an alien landscape, can limit the way language is utilised in marine conservation efforts. This limitation can produce unhelpful environmental metaphors that, instead of acting as catalysts for action, produce negative and reactionary responses. It illustrates this point through the example of what has become known as the ‘Great Pacific Garbage Patch.’ It postulates that if there is a disconnect between the many complex environmental issues facing the world's oceans and the way they are perceived, then more focus should be placed on developing pre-determined culturally embedded metaphors, which can conjure relatable imagery, but that are also rooted in scientific evidence. It recommends that, in an extension to existing public perception research (PPR) on how different communities value the ocean environment, there is room for shared metaphors of the oceanic environment to be developed that can help raise awareness within a particular cultural setting.
This study was undertaken to address the increasing need for a strategic approach to industry–science data collections in the face of reducing resources and growing need for evidence in fisheries management. The aim was to evaluate progress in the development of plans and procedures that can be employed to collect, record and use fishing industry knowledge and data in the evidence base for managing fisheries. This was achieved by reviewing industry‐led data initiatives already undertaken or ongoing within the United Kingdom to document how these projects have/are incorporating fishing industry data into the process of management decision‐making; canvassing stakeholder opinion on data gaps and whether these could be filled by data gathered by commercial fishing vessels; establishing what issues might prevent or stimulate commercial fishing vessels in collecting data when they have the opportunity; and describing guidance on a step‐by‐step process for gathering scientific information such that fishers are empowered to collect the right data, at the right times and in the right format for their fishery. Given recent advances in the collection, interpretation and application of fisheries‐dependent data, we compare progress made in the UK to other areas of the world. We conclude that there is considerable evidence of a paradigm shift from the conventional practice of scientists asking fishers to provide data for scientific analyses towards full engagement of key stakeholders in data collection.
Low-tech coral farming and reef rehabilitation have become important community-based coral reef management tools. At least in the wider Caribbean region, these strategies have been successfully implemented to recover depleted populations of staghorn (Acropora cervicornis) and elkhorn coral (A. palmata). They have also been used with relative success to recover depleted fish assemblages. Indirectly, coral reef rehabilitation has also resulted in enhanced benthic spatial heterogeneity, in providing multiple new microhabitats for fish and invertebrate species; have contributed to the recovery of coastal resilience, increasing the protection of shorelines against erosion; and have fostered an increased interest of the tourism sector as an enhanced attraction for visitors and recreationists. Nevertheless, there is still a need to implement best management practices to improve the success of these strategies. In this chapter, lessons learned from the Community-Based Coral Aquaculture and Reef Rehabilitation Program in Culebra Island, Puerto Rico, are shared from a multi-disciplinary standpoint. Learning from past experiences is a critical process to improve science. In a time of significant projected climate change impacts and sea level rise, improving the scale of coral farming and reef rehabilitation has become a critical tool for coral reef conservation. But multiple roadblocks must still be overcome.