2018-05-16

Trends and Challenges in Maritime Energy Management: A Framework to Improve the Coexistence of Maritime Activities & Offshore Wind Farms

Mehdi RAli, Schröder-Hinrichs J-U, Ölçer AI, Baldauf M. Trends and Challenges in Maritime Energy Management: A Framework to Improve the Coexistence of Maritime Activities & Offshore Wind Farms. (Ölçer AI, Kitada M, Dalaklis D, Ballini F). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2018 pp. 513 - 525. Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-74576-3_35
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $29.95
Type: Book

The increasing number and size of offshore wind farms (OWFs), combined with the ambitious plans for future developments in the sector, portray a bleak outlook for ‘traditional’ maritime and marine players. The sustained growth of OWFs can cause conflict with other marine users, and thus certain risk control options (RCOs) may need to be adapted in order to maintain navigational safety and reduce the environmental impact of such installations; introducing such measures, however, may be counter-productive in terms of energy efficiency or financial sustainability. This leads to questions such as ‘is there a point when implementing certain RCOs actually makes an OWF project unfeasible’?

In this discussion paper, we describe a holistic and integrated framework that allows decision makers to evaluate the safety, energy efficiency, environmental impacts and financial sustainability aspects of OWFs. We consider a selection of vital factors and parameters in the current framework, and discuss how the different data sets can be integrated into a single framework. We also describe a novel evaluation tool that can allow users to ‘plot’ the output of the proposed framework in a spider diagram form. We conclude by discussing how the proposed work can be employed to optimize the use of limited sea-space.

Local Biomass Baselines and the Recovery Potential for Hawaiian Coral Reef Fish Communities

Gorospe KD, Donahue MJ, Heenan A, Gove JM, Williams ID, Brainard RE. Local Biomass Baselines and the Recovery Potential for Hawaiian Coral Reef Fish Communities. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 ;5. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2018.00162/full?utm_source=F-NTF&utm_medium=EMLX&utm_campaign=PRD_FEOPS_20170000_ARTICLE
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Understanding the influence of multiple ecosystem drivers, both natural and anthropogenic, and how they vary across space is critical to the spatial management of coral reef fisheries. In Hawaii, as elsewhere, there is uncertainty with regards to how areas should be selected for protection, and management efforts prioritized. One strategy is to prioritize efforts based on an area's biomass baseline, or natural capacity to support reef fish populations. Another strategy is to prioritize areas based on their recovery potential, or in other words, the potential increase in fish biomass from present-day state, should management be effective at restoring assemblages to something more like their baseline state. We used data from 717 fisheries-independent reef fish monitoring surveys from 2012 to 2015 around the main Hawaiian Islands as well as site-level data on benthic habitat, oceanographic conditions, and human population density, to develop a hierarchical, linear Bayesian model that explains spatial variation in: (1) herbivorous and (2) total reef fish biomass. We found that while human population density negatively affected fish assemblages at all surveyed areas, there was considerable variation in the natural capacity of different areas to support reef fish biomass. For example, some areas were predicted to have the capacity to support ten times as much herbivorous fish biomass as other areas. Overall, the model found human population density to have negatively impacted fish biomass throughout Hawaii, however the magnitude and uncertainty of these impacts varied locally. Results provide part of the basis for marine spatial planning and/or MPA-network design within Hawaii.

Building trust among marine protected area managers and community members through scientific research: Insights from the Ningaloo Marine Park, Australia

Cvitanovic C, van Putten EI, Hobday AJ, Mackay M, Kelly R, McDonald J, Waples K, Barnes P. Building trust among marine protected area managers and community members through scientific research: Insights from the Ningaloo Marine Park, Australia. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2018 ;93:195 - 206. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18301325
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
Yes
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The success of participatory marine governance arrangements is influenced by the levels of trust that exist between decision-makers and diverse stakeholder groups within the community. While the benefits of high levels of trust among these groups is well established, specific approaches to building trust remain largely unknown. The aim of this study is to understand the extent to which scientific research programs can enhance trust among marine protected area (MPA) managers and community members via an evaluation of the Ningaloo Research Program - a large-scale program of marine research in the Ningaloo Marine Park. Results from a survey of 125 local residents show that community members along the Ningaloo coast believe that scientific research is important for the management of the marine park, and strongly support government investment in scientific research in the region. Results also suggest that science undertaken through the Ningaloo Research Program has increased the extent to which community members trust local managers, which study participants believe has led to improved social and environmental outcomes in the region. Finally, additional opportunities are identified to maintain and further enhance trust between community members and MPA managers, via targeted communication and engagement programs that account for different personality ‘types’. In particular, the establishment of citizen science programs might further build trust. These results suggest that scientific research could be used as a means to increase trust among decision-makers and community members when coupled with an effective communication and outreach program, thus enhancing the success of participatory marine governance arrangements.

Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries and society in the Arabian Gulf

Wabnitz CCC, Lam VWY, Reygondeau G, Teh LCL, Al-Abdulrazzak D, Khalfallah M, Pauly D, Palomares MLDeng, Zeller D, Cheung WWL. Climate change impacts on marine biodiversity, fisheries and society in the Arabian Gulf Chapman MGeraldine. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2018 ;13(5):e0194537. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0194537
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Climate change–reflected in significant environmental changes such as warming, sea level rise, shifts in salinity, oxygen and other ocean conditions–is expected to impact marine organisms and associated fisheries. This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts on, and the vulnerability of, marine biodiversity and fisheries catches in the Arabian Gulf under climate change. To this end, using three separate niche modelling approaches under a ‘business-as-usual’ climate change scenario, we projected the future habitat suitability of the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf) for 55 expert-identified priority species, including charismatic and non-fish species. Second, we conducted a vulnerability assessment of national economies to climate change impacts on fisheries. The modelling outputs suggested a high rate of local extinction (up to 35% of initial species richness) by 2090 relative to 2010. Spatially, projected local extinctions are highest in the southwestern part of the Gulf, off the coast of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). While the projected patterns provided useful indicators of potential climate change impacts on the region’s diversity, the magnitude of changes in habitat suitability are more uncertain. Fisheries-specific results suggested reduced future catch potential for several countries on the western side of the Gulf, with projections differing only slightly among models. Qatar and the UAE were particularly affected, with more than a 26% drop in future fish catch potential. Integrating changes in catch potential with socio-economic indicators suggested the fisheries of Bahrain and Iran may be most vulnerable to climate change. We discuss limitations of the indicators and the methods used, as well as the implications of our overall findings for conservation and fisheries management policies in the region.

What does popular media have to tell us about the future of seafood?

Van Holt T, Weisman W, Käll S, Crona B, Vergara R. What does popular media have to tell us about the future of seafood?. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nyas.13613
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

We examined ∼300 newspaper and business‐oriented articles published over a 10‐year period to assess trends in how seafood “sustainability” is talked about. We mapped key concepts relating to seafood sustainability as the word was used. We asked if the reports provided evidence that perceptions of problems or solutions for sustainability in seafood have changed over time. What were emergent areas of interest, and what concepts relevant to sustainable fisheries and seafood were absent in the reports? The number of reports concerning sustainability that focused on the middle of the supply chain (e.g., primary processors and importers) increased over time; certification was cited as both part of sustainability problems and a solution. We observed very little change over time in the kinds of fishery and seafood problems reported in the media sampled; themes consistently focused on environmental aspects of fisheries (social wellbeing aspects did not appear in the sample as linked with the term “sustainability”); and very few media reports on sustainable seafood cited aquaculture as a solution. We discuss the gap between what many researchers may perceive as the state‐of‐the‐art of ideas and communication in seafood sustainability, and what appeared empirically in media during the period under study.

Fisheries as social struggle: A reinvigorated social science research agenda

Bavinck M, Jentoft S, Scholtens J. Fisheries as social struggle: A reinvigorated social science research agenda. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2018 ;94:46 - 52. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17309028
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Many social scientists in the field of fisheries display a strong concern for the social engineering of environmental sustainability, but also a tendency to identify with the concerns of government. This paper posits that social scientists have their own responsibility in the fisheries field, and that this responsibility includes more attention to the realm of social struggle and distributional justice. Social struggles within and over fisheries are argued to be globally intensifying, as a result of four trends: (1) the condition that inshore fisheries have now largely become a zero sum game; (2) the new sets of controls that are occurring in the fish value chain; (3) the incursion of new business interests into marine and coastal space; and (4) the increasing participation, if not interference, by governments in what used to be mainly fisher affairs. Not only does a reinvigorated social science agenda create attention to other, neglected domains of fisher society; the authors argue that addressing distributional justice concerns may be a precondition for achieving sustainable human-nature relations.

Climate change threatens the world’s marine protected areas

Bruno JF, Bates AE, Cacciapaglia C, Pike EP, Amstrup SC, van Hooidonk R, Henson SA, Aronson RB. Climate change threatens the world’s marine protected areas. Nature Climate Change [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-018-0149-2
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $22.00
Type: Journal Article

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a primary management tool for mitigating threats to marine biodiversity1,2. MPAs and the species they protect, however, are increasingly being impacted by climate change. Here we show that, despite local protections, the warming associated with continued business-as-usual emissions (RCP8.5)3 will likely result in further habitat and species losses throughout low-latitude and tropical MPAs4,5. With continued business-as-usual emissions, mean sea-surface temperatures within MPAs are projected to increase 0.035 °C per year and warm an additional 2.8 °C by 2100. Under these conditions, the time of emergence (the year when sea-surface temperature and oxygen concentration exceed natural variability) is mid-century in 42% of 309 no-take marine reserves. Moreover, projected warming rates and the existing ‘community thermal safety margin’ (the inherent buffer against warming based on the thermal sensitivity of constituent species) both vary among ecoregions and with latitude. The community thermal safety margin will be exceeded by 2050 in the tropics and by 2150 for many higher latitude MPAs. Importantly, the spatial distribution of emergence is stressor-specific. Hence, rearranging MPAs to minimize exposure to one stressor could well increase exposure to another. Continued business-as-usual emissions will likely disrupt many marine ecosystems, reducing the benefits of MPAs.

Managing for change: Using vertebrate at sea habitat use to direct management efforts

Arthur B, Hindell M, Bester M, De Bruyn PJNico, Goebel ME, Trathan P, Lea M-A. Managing for change: Using vertebrate at sea habitat use to direct management efforts. Ecological Indicators [Internet]. 2018 ;91:338 - 349. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X18302735
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
Yes
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

To understand and predict current and future distributions of animals under a changing climate it is essential to establish historical ranges as baselines against which distribution shifts can be assessed. Management approaches also require comprehension of temporal variability in spatial distributions that can occur over shorter time scales, such as inter-annually or seasonally. Focussing on the Southern Ocean, one of the most rapidly changing environments on Earth, we used Species Distribution Models (SDMs) and satellite ocean data to reconstruct the likely historical foraging habitats of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) from three populations during the non-breeding winter (Marion Island, Bird Island and Cape Shirreff), to assess whether habitat quality has changed in recent decades. We then quantified temporal variability in distributions to assess overlap with management areas (CCAMLR – Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources) and the potential for competition with fisheries. Despite notable physical ocean changes, the quality of foraging habitat during the non-breeding season has remained relatively consistent over 20 years at Marion and Bird Islands, but less so at Cape Shirreff, where reduced sea ice cover has improved habitat accessibility. Spatio-temporally explicit SDMs identified variability in habitats across the winter. Some areas overlapped significantly with fisheries activities, suggesting a potential for competition for prey resources at several key periods. A significant component of core habitat at all populations was not within the CCAMLR Convention Area. Although organisations such as CCAMLR adopt a precautionary, ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management, changes to the physical environment and developments in the fishing industry can affect how dependant species are impacted. The hindcasting of historical spatial distributions shown here are baselines against which future changes can be assessed. Given recent proposals for a system of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Southern Ocean, our results can be used in the design and evaluation of MPAs, be they static or dynamic. Our study also demonstrates that the core habitat of species may fall outside of areas of active management, providing an important context for the interpretation of monitoring programs and management efforts.

Marine spatial planning in Romania: State of the art and evidence from stakeholders

Văidianu N, Ristea M. Marine spatial planning in Romania: State of the art and evidence from stakeholders. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117309894
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

During the last decades, increasing demands on marine resources and unsustainable activities taking place in the marine area compromise the future use of the marine environment. In July 2014 the European Parliament and Council established a Guideline Framework for marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP). MSP is a useful and cost-effective tool for sustainable development, together with regulation and protection of the marine environment. Within this context, Romania has started to proceed and incorporate it in the national legislation framework; in 2017, it has also established a competent authority for its implementation so that marine spatial plans can be enacted by 31 March 2021. In this study, a first approach for MSP framework in Romania was developed, enabling the mapping of all current human activities related to shipping, oil and gas exploitation, fisheries, tourism and environmental status, in order to identify overlaps or potential conflicts among users. This paper identifies key challenges and concerns anticipated to emerge from incorporation of MSP in the national spatial planning framework as it is currently organized: a) Romanian stakeholders have a relatively poor understanding of European, national and regional sea planning regulations, b) concerns related to MSP implementation at regulatory level, c) huge need for sharing of MSP-relevant information for a coherent planning, d) challenges of assessing the needs of interconnected ecosystems (including relevant EU and international legislation). In this context, our study covers highly actual aspects concerning the way the marine spatial planning process evolves and will contribute to deliver a coherent approach to reduce conflicts of the Romanian marine environment, a proper MSP implementation, as well as minimizing the pressures and impacts on the marine resources.

Gone fishing? Intergenerational cultural shifts can undermine common property co-managed fisheries

Tam J, Chan KMA, Satterfield T, Singh GG, Gelcich S. Gone fishing? Intergenerational cultural shifts can undermine common property co-managed fisheries. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2018 ;90:1 - 5. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17306152
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
Yes
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Conventional common property thinking assumes that a central goal of management is to maintain social-ecological systems in a healthy and resilient state, including maintaining the ability of communities to harvest across time and generations. Little research has been done, however, on how common property systems are affected by demographic shifts, the social status of emerging livelihoods, and the employment aspirations of users for their offspring. An empirical case study from Chile (well known for its common property fisheries) suggests that major socio-cultural shifts are now occurring, with a lack of entry by new fishers and an aging population of existing ones. These types of social and cultural changes are increasingly common through globalization and worldwide economic development, and pose significant policy challenges across broad classes of common property systems. The Chilean case reveals that community adaptive capacity can come at the expense of social-ecological common property systems, and highlights the need to consider the broader context of ‘slow’ social variables.

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