Indonesia's marine ecosystems form a fundamental part of the world's natural heritage, representing a global maxima of marine biodiversity and supporting the world's second largest production of seafood. Seagrasses are a key part of that support. In the absence of empirical data we present evidence from expert opinions as to the state of Indonesia's seagrass ecosystems, their support for ecosystem services, with a focus on fisheries, and the damaging activities that threaten their existence. We further draw on expert opinion to elicit potential solutions to prevent further loss. Seagrasses and the ecosystem services they support across the Indonesian archipelago are in a critical state of decline. Declining seagrass health is the result of shifting environmental conditions due largely to coastal development, land reclamation, and deforestation, as well as seaweed farming, overfishing and garbage dumping. In particular, we also describe the declining state of the fisheries resources that seagrass meadows support. The perilous state of Indonesia's seagrasses will compromise their resilience to climate change and result in a loss of their high ecosystem service value. Community supported management initiatives provide one mechanism for seagrass protection. Exemplars highlight the need for increased local level autonomy for the management of marine resources, opening up opportunities for incentive type conservation schemes.
Coverage of issues by news media is known to impact on both public perceptions and policy development aimed at addressing the featured issues. We examine the potential impact of news media coverage regarding the health and potential future of the World heritage-listed Great Barrier Reef, which is under multiple pressures, both natural and anthropogenic. We draw on the extant literature regarding the impact of news media coverage of other complex issues, linking to relevant, albeit limited theoretical concepts that have been applied to previous media studies. We find that media coverage is predominately sensationalized and negative, with the potential to reinforce perceptions that mitigation attempts will be ineffective and thus likely to inhibit future policy development. We discuss the need for a review of existing science communication models and strategies to reduce the knowledge-practice gap between scientists and policy makers, together with proactive strategies to counter negative news coverage.
Xiamen has marked its integrated coastal management (ICM) practice as PEMSEA's demonstration site since the 1990s. However, the role of Marine Functional Zoning (MFZ) in ICM has not yet been fully explored even though the planning process has been highlighted in some literature on Xiamen ICM mode. To showcase the contribution of MFZ as a practical approach for Xiamen ICM, the five dimensions of integration in ICM is applied as an analysis framework. Firstly, through compiling of the historical data and documents of the sea uses and marine environments, and socioeconomic status as well, the key drivers of initiating MFZ in the 1990s is summarized as increasing but incompatible and even conflicting sea uses, degrading marine environments due to negative effects of intensified human activities, and the lack of coordinating mechanism which has worsened the use-use and use-environment conflicts. Secondly, the technical guidelines and adaptive evolvement of Xiamen MFZ is introduced, and the achievements of Xiamen MFZ is explored. Based on the above analysis, the relationships of MFZ and ICM is looked into the dimensions of legislation, coordinating mechanism, scientific and technical support, integrated law enforcement and public participation; and how MFZ contributes to ICM in integration of dimensions of intergovernmental, inter-sectoral, land and sea, science and management, and multiple disciplinary is analyzed in-depth. It is concluded that MFZ has been a working approach in Xiamen to realize ICM from a conceptual call to a good practice on the ground, even challenges remain.
There is limited evidence on the rate at which the shark populations of coral reefs can rebound from over-exploitation, the baselines that might signify when recovery has occurred and the role of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in aiding this process. We surveyed shark assemblages at Ashmore Reef in Western Australia using baited remote underwater video stations in 2004 prior to enforcement of MPA status and then again in 2016 after eight years of strict enforcement. We found an increase in the relative mean abundance of Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from 0.16 ± 0.06 individuals h−1 in 2004 to 0.74 ± 0.11 individuals h−1 in 2016, a change that was also accompanied by a shift in the assemblage of sharks to greater proportions of apex species (from 7.1% to 11.9%) and reef sharks (from 28.6% to 57.6%), and a decrease in the proportional abundance of lower trophic level species (from 64.3% to 30.5%). Abundances and trophic assemblage of sharks at Ashmore Reef in 2004 resembled those of the Scott Reefs, where targeted fishing for sharks still occurs, whereas in 2016, abundances and trophic structures had recovered to resemble those of the Rowley Shoals, a reef system that has been a strictly enforced MPA for over 25 years. The shift in abundance and community structure coincident with strict enforcement of the MPA at Ashmore Reef has occurred at a rate greater than predicted by demographic models, implying the action of compensatory processes in recovery. Our study shows that shark communities can recover rapidly after exploitation in a well-managed no-take MPA.