2018-11-28

Communicating Ecosystem-Based Management

Potouroglou M, Davis J. Communicating Ecosystem-Based Management. GRID-Arendal; 2018. Available from: http://www.grida.no/publications/423
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Ecosystem-based management emerged in the 1980s, as an alternative to traditional resource management approaches that focused on limited species or had narrow political boundaries. Since then, ecosystem-based management has grown at a rapid pace, requiring the practices of science, communication and management to work together. It does not replace the existing strategies and methods, but it emphasizes the links between the environment and society.

Ecosystem-based management means engaging a broad range of people and organizations that have a stake in how an ecosystem is being managed, from the private and public sectors, to conservation communities, scientists and the policymaking arena. Stakeholders are involved throughout the planning stages, decision-making process and final management decisions. This is often challenging because each stakeholder group might operate by and respond to different mandates, timescales and authorities. The approach therefore requires cross-sectoral coordination and the integration of multi-and intersectoral concerns, in order to build institutional linkages, thereby avoiding conflicts
or overlaps.

MAIA—A machine learning assisted image annotation method for environmental monitoring and exploration

Zurowietz M, Langenkämper D, Hosking B, Ruhl HA, Nattkemper TW. MAIA—A machine learning assisted image annotation method for environmental monitoring and exploration Sarder P. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2018 ;13(11):e0207498. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207498
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Digital imaging has become one of the most important techniques in environmental monitoring and exploration. In the case of the marine environment, mobile platforms such as autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are now equipped with high-resolution cameras to capture huge collections of images from the seabed. However, the timely evaluation of all these images presents a bottleneck problem as tens of thousands or more images can be collected during a single dive. This makes computational support for marine image analysis essential. Computer-aided analysis of environmental images (and marine images in particular) with machine learning algorithms is promising, but challenging and different to other imaging domains because training data and class labels cannot be collected as efficiently and comprehensively as in other areas. In this paper, we present Machine learning Assisted Image Annotation (MAIA), a new image annotation method for environmental monitoring and exploration that overcomes the obstacle of missing training data. The method uses a combination of autoencoder networks and Mask Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Mask R-CNN), which allows human observers to annotate large image collections much faster than before. We evaluated the method with three marine image datasets featuring different types of background, imaging equipment and object classes. Using MAIA, we were able to annotate objects of interest with an average recall of 84.1% more than twice as fast as compared to “traditional” annotation methods, which are purely based on software-supported direct visual inspection and manual annotation. The speed gain increases proportionally with the size of a dataset. The MAIA approach represents a substantial improvement on the path to greater efficiency in the annotation of large benthic image collections.

Pressure and impact of anthropogenic litter on marine and estuarine reptiles: an updated “blacklist” highlighting gaps of evidence

Staffieri E, de Lucia GAndrea, Camedda A, Poeta G, Battisti C. Pressure and impact of anthropogenic litter on marine and estuarine reptiles: an updated “blacklist” highlighting gaps of evidence. Environmental Science and Pollution Research [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-018-3616-4
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

We report an arrangement on the effect of anthropogenic litter on marine and estuarine reptiles, checking for evidence about different types of impact (ingestion vs. entanglement) and pressure (three size-based categories). From 1976 to 2018, we obtained a “blacklist” of 11 species impacted by marine litter (about 13% of 85 species of marine and estuarine reptiles), belonging to three orders (Testudines, Squamata, and Crocodilia). We obtained only occasional evidence of an impact for Squamata (Hidrophis elegans, Disteira major) and Crocodilia (Crocodylus porosus). Regarding the different types of pressure, the highest number of evidence has been obtained for macro-litter (10 species) and the lowest for micro-litter (4 species, all Chelonidae). Among Testudines, Lepidochelys kempii and Natator depressusevidenced a lack of data for micro-plastic. In Squamata, information is lacking for micro-plastic with only occasional references for meso-plastic (in Hydrophis elegans) and macro-plastic (Disteira major and Crocodylus porosus). We obtained a direct correlation between the research effort and the number of citations regarding different types of pressure and impact of marine litter: therefore, our blacklist of impacted species could be increased, carrying out further research focused on other poorly studied marine and estuarine reptiles. We suggest the use of a standardized nomenclature to reduce the amount of lost information.

Social Licence for Marine Conservation Science

Kelly R, Fleming A, Pecl GT. Social Licence for Marine Conservation Science. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 ;5. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2018.00414/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine environments are complex and dynamic social-ecological systems, where social perceptions of ocean stewardship are diverse, resource use is potentially unsustainable, and conservation efforts rely strongly on public support or acceptance. Decreasing trust in science in recent years has led to weakened social acceptance and approval of marine conservation science. Social licence is a concept that reflects informal, unwritten public expectations about the impacts and benefits of industry and government practises, including research, on natural resources, including the ocean. Working toward improving social licence may provide opportunity to bolster support for marine conservation, by allowing communities to engage with marine issues and marine science, and voice their concerns and views. Here, we argue that marine conservation requires social licence and we highlight science advocacy, accomplished through outreach, as a means to achieve this. We identify a role for marine conservation science to engage with the public through advocacy to improve understanding and perceptions of conservation. Drawing from the literature, we describe how science advocacy can enhance social licence for marine conservation research and outline four steps that can advise marine conservation scientists to achieve and promote social licence for their research and the wider marine conservation community.

Addressing the Problem of Harmful Algal Blooms in Latin America and the Caribbean- A Regional Network for Early Warning and Response

Cuellar-Martinez T, Ruiz-Fernández ACarolina, Alonso-Hernández C, Amaya-Monterrosa O, Quintanilla R, Carrillo-Ovalle HLeonel, M NArbeláez, Díaz-Asencio L, Méndez SM, Vargas M, et al. Addressing the Problem of Harmful Algal Blooms in Latin America and the Caribbean- A Regional Network for Early Warning and Response. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 ;5. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2018.00409/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) constitute a worldwide problem, affecting aquatic ecosystems, public health and local economies. Supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency since 2009, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, including Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Uruguay and Venezuela, have integrated a regional network for early warning of HABs and biotoxins in seafood. Technical capacities have been developed at regional level to identify toxic species, evaluate biota toxicity, and to perform retrospective analysis of HAB occurrence. This network involves 58% of the coastal LAC countries, two regional reference centers (in El Salvador and Cuba), 14 well equipped institutions, and 177 professionals trained to contribute to the operation of HAB and biotoxin monitoring programs. All countries from the network have reported planktonic and benthic toxic species, and in selected cases, associated with toxin in biota. Dinocyst abundance analysis in 210Pb-dated sediment cores have shown that some harmful species have been present in the region for at least 100 years ago, and that both coastal water pollution and climate change are important drivers for HAB occurrence. Efforts must be made to enrich the data base records on HAB events occurred in LAC, better understand key environmental variables that control HABs and expand coverage of HAB monitoring to all coastal countries in LAC to promote sustainable development of the region.

Future Directions in the Research and Management of Marine Snakes

Udyawer V, Barnes P, Bonnet X, Brischoux F, Crowe-Riddell JM, D’Anastasi B, Fry BG, Gillett A, Goiran C, Guinea ML, et al. Future Directions in the Research and Management of Marine Snakes. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 ;5. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2018.00399/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine snakes represent the most speciose group of marine reptiles and are a significant component of reef and coastal ecosystems in tropical oceans. Research on this group has historically been challenging due to the difficulty in capturing, handling, and keeping these animals for field- and lab-based research. Inexplicable declines in marine snake populations across global hotspots have highlighted the lack of basic information on this group and elevated multiple species as conservation priorities. With the increased interest in research on marine snakes, we conducted a systematic survey of experts to identify twenty key questions that can direct future research. These questions are framed across a wide array of scientific fields to produce much-needed information relevant to the conservation and management of marine snakes.

Effects of Pollution From Anthropogenic Point Sources on the Recruitment of Sessile Estuarine Reef Biota

Fowles AE, Edgar GJ, Stuart-Smith RD, Kirkpatrick JB, Hill N, Thomson RJ, Strain EMA. Effects of Pollution From Anthropogenic Point Sources on the Recruitment of Sessile Estuarine Reef Biota. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 ;5. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2018.00417/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Expanding urbanization in estuaries and the increase in pollutants from anthropogenic point sources can affect nearby benthic assemblages. Using a paired impact-control design, we assessed the effects of pollution from anthropogenic point sources (marinas, storm-water drains, sewage outfalls and fish farms) on algal and sessile invertebrate recruits to pavers placed in an industrialized Tasmanian estuary. Species number and cover of native recruits were lower after 12 months at sites outside marinas relative to paired control sites, whereas non-native and cryptogenic recruits were significantly higher outside marinas and near sewage outfalls. The cover of fast-growing, opportunistic species was significantly higher at sites near fish farms and sewage outfalls, and the cover of native species was also greater at sites near sewage outfalls relative to the paired control sites. Our results suggest an increased management focus on controlling pollution from marinas and sewage outfalls is warranted to limit the spread of non-native and cryptogenic species.

Ecology of fish hearing

Putland RL, Montgomery JC, Radford CA. Ecology of fish hearing. Journal of Fish Biology [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jfb.13867
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

Underwater sound is directional and can convey important information about the surrounding environment or the animal emitting the sound. Therefore, sound is a major sensory channel for fishes and plays a key role in many life‐history strategies. The effect of anthropogenic noise on aquatic life, which may be causing homogenisation or fragmentation of biologically important signals underwater is of growing concern. In this review we discuss the role sound plays in the ecology of fishes, basic anatomical and physiological adaptations for sound reception and production, the effects of anthropogenic noise and how fishes may be coping to changes in their environment, to put the ecology of fish hearing into the context of the modern underwater soundscape.

The influence of cooperative foraging with fishermen on the dynamics of a bottlenose dolphin population

Bezamat C, Simões-Lopes PC, Castilho PV, Daura-Jorge FG. The influence of cooperative foraging with fishermen on the dynamics of a bottlenose dolphin population. Marine Mammal Science [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/mms.12565
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

Recent years have seen an increasing interest in individual behavioral variation. However, the implications of such variation for population dynamics are often unknown. We studied the dynamics of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus gephyreus) population from southern Brazil, where some individuals forage cooperatively with artisanal fishermen. We fitted mark‐recapture models to 10 yr of photo‐identification data to investigate the influence of this foraging specialization on dolphins’ population parameters, controlling for sex and ranging behavior. We estimated adult survival to be high (0.949 ± 0.015 SE), weakly influenced by home range size, sex or the frequency of interaction with fishermen. The slightly higher survival probability for individuals with smaller home ranges could stem from the benefits of reduced spatial requirements implied by the specialized foraging. Foraging also influenced the probability of resighting individuals, and there was no temporary or permanent emigration. Abundance fluctuated slightly over the years from 54 (95% CI = 49–59) to 60 (95% CI = 52–69) individuals, with no evident population trend. Despite such apparent population stability, we confirm this population remains small and geographically isolated which may threaten its viability and the viability of its unusual, localized foraging specialization. Our study also illustrates how accounting for individual variation can portray animal population dynamics more realistically.

The capacity of estuary restoration to enhance ecosystem services: System dynamics modelling to simulate recreational fishing benefits

Pouso S, Borja A, Martín J, Uyarra MC. The capacity of estuary restoration to enhance ecosystem services: System dynamics modelling to simulate recreational fishing benefits. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science [Internet]. In Press ;217:226 - 236. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272771418307017
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Recreational fishing activity has recovered in the Nerbioi estuary (Northern Spain), after water sanitation and environmental improvement. Recreational fishing is important for the local population; therefore, future management measures that could cause changes in the estuary should also consider the impacts on recreational fishing. Our objective was to analyze the effects that future management decisions and unexpected environmental changes, alone or in combination with climate change effects, can produce in recreational fishing in Nerbioi. The current recreational fishing activity was modelled using a System Dynamics Modelling (SDM). Based on those results, seven future scenarios were simulated. Results suggested that the adoption of future management measures to improve the environmental conditions could lead to additional positive changes for recreational fishing, as after water quality improvement, fish stocks will continue to recover, and these better conditions could attract more fishers and increase their satisfaction. Simulation of temporary and unexpected environmental changes resulted in quick estuarine recovery, without dramatic consequences for recreational fishing. In conclusion, analysing future scenarios on cultural ecosystem services such as recreational fishing, using SDM, can produce valuable information for decision making processes, facilitating the selection between environmental management alternatives.

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