Regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs) are key bodies responsible for managing fisheries on the high seas and also in areas of the ocean under national jurisdiction. The performance of RFMOs has, however, become the focus of broad-based criticism in the context of increasing fishing effort, the scale, and sophistication of illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing, and concerns over the wider environmental impacts of fishing activities. In response to these criticisms, the United Nations General Assembly has called on RFMOs to carry out performance reviews (PRs) to assess their record in fisheries management. PRs can provide the opportunity to assess the strengths and weaknesses of past actions by specific RFMOs. There is, however, limited information and analysis available on the progress made by RFMOs after PRs have been carried out. To fill this gap, this paper assesses the performance of five RFMOs that have undergone PRs on two occasions. The paper assesses the performance of these five RFMOs against a scoring system that analyses improvements made after the first PR based on the recommendations made in the second PR. This analysis is encouraging, as all five RFMOs demonstrated significant improvement in their performance in the period after their initial PR, especially in “conservation and management” and “international cooperation” activities.
Aquaculture has been identified to have potentials for adapting climate impacts, and it is being leveraged upon in some developing tropical African countries for food production, employment, food security and poverty eradication. However, it is also vulnerable to climate impacts, linked with certain ecological challenges and competition from anthropogenic factors. This chapter utilized secondary and primary data from various sources to address review questions bordering on the vulnerability of tropical Africa to impact of climate change, potentials of utilizing aquaculture for enhanced climate impact adaptation and food security, aquaculture-related ecological issues and the required management, policy and regulatory actions for its sustainable utilization in this regard. The study revealed that tropical Africa is vulnerable to climate change; aquaculture has viable elements for climate impact adaptation and food security but could contribute to environmental challenges. Aquaculture however has capacity to adjust to the environmental claims, achievable through adequate monitoring, control and surveillance for adherence to ecological considerations. There is the need to specifically formulate policies and provide a strong institutional framework to cater for the nuances of aquaculture, climate impact adaptation and food security. And to ensure for sustenance, it is necessary to strengthen policies and management frameworks with human and financial capacity, within the implementing agencies at local, national and regional levels in tropical Africa.
Although the existence of zooxanthellate corals in mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; light-dependent coral ecosystems from 30 to 150 m in depth) has been known since the nineteenth century and focused scientific exploration of MCEs began over 50 years ago, more than 70% of all research on MCEs has been published only within the past seven years. MCEs represent approximately 80% of potential coral reef habitat worldwide, yet very little is known about them in comparison to shallow reefs. Many MCE species new to science have been discovered in the past decade, and many more await discovery. The term MCEs has been widely adopted by the scientific community since its 2008 inception; however, there is considerable inconsistency in how it is subdivided into “upper” and “lower” (and sometimes “middle”) zones. Moreover, doing so may lead to artificial boundaries when habitats and ecological communities at different depth zones may blend together. Growing evidence suggests that MCEs harbor proportionally more geographically endemic species than their shallow-water counterparts, and initial indications are that major biogeographic patterns described for shallow reef organisms may not apply to MCEs. Although MCEs may serve as refugia for some shallow species, they are increasingly recognized as unique ecosystems, important in their own right. Future research on MCEs should aim to address gaps in our understanding of the basic physical and biological characteristics of MCEs including geography, taxonomic composition, depth distribution, ecology, physiology, and connectivity. Improving knowledge of MCEs would benefit from combining different technologies to leverage the strengths of each.
Funding from official development assistance (ODA) and private foundationsaccount for key contributions to marine conservation funding worldwide. Total funding from these two sources increased from approximately USD 700 million per year during 2010–2014 to USD 769 million in 2015. During this time period, private foundation contributions with a marine conservation purpose eclipsed corresponding ODA contributions for the first time in 2015. However, previous analyses have overlooked two other important funding sources: individualcontributions to non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and funding through public expenditures (including management costs for fisheries and marine protected areas). The purpose of this study is to better understand the flow of funding to marine conservation globally by tracking trends in ODA and foundation funding and by incorporating approximations for individual contributions to NGOsand public expenditures. Given the difficulty of measuring the latter two sources, proxies are provided here for practical, rather than precise, purposes to illustratethat funding levels are higher than current estimates suggest. Improving data availability, transparency, and coding across all sectors would enable improved tracking and potentially help funders identify both gaps and priorities for investment.
Community-based mangrove management (CBMM) in Thailand has been uniquely successful, so that efforts to promote CBMM elsewhere can potentially learn from the Thai experience. This qualitative research identifies factors contributing to success of community-based mangrove management in four coastal communities along the Andaman Sea during 1980–2017. The emergence and consolidation of community-mangrove management took place in distinct phases including collective action with support by NGOs to address a degradation crises; a shift to cooperation with government; and the stabilization and enhancement of sustainable management. Factors explaining the emergence of successful community mangrove management include those internal to the community, such as leadership, occupational change, experience, and capacity to organize into groups; and those that are external to the community including NGO support in the initial phases, and increasing government support and recognition in subsequent phases. The factors that help explain success have changed over time, indicating the flexibility in what might facilitate successful CBMM elsewhere.
What is known today as the Maritime Silk Road Initiative (MSRI) was first proposed in fall 2013 by China’s President Xi Jinping in a keynote speech to the Indonesian parliament in Jakarta and has since drawn immense geopolitical and economic attention. The stated goal of the large-scale initiative is to strengthen maritime connectivity between China, Asia, Africa and Europe by infrastructural development, particularly of ports, oil transshipment terminals and Special Economic Zones. Based on the initial review of policy documents and widely published strategic visions of the Maritime Silk Road, the paper aims to explore, on the one hand, the conceptual foundations and policy mechanisms behind China’s large-scale development projects in coastal areas along the Indian Ocean. On the other, the paper by drawing on an empirical example from Sri Lanka seeks to take an evolutionary governance theory (EGT) perspective towards on-the-ground implementation of these policies. By doing so, the study highlights the impact of interconnected formal and informal institutions and discourses, in transforming Chinese engagement. The contribution therefore seeks to reflect upon particular Chinese patterns of high-modernist developmental governance in coastal places and their local social and political negotiation and materialisation.
This document was prepared to provide background information to facilitate the work of the Expert Meeting on OECMs in the Marine Fishery Sector organized by FAO, SCBD and IUCN-CEM-FEG , 7-10 May 2019 in Rome. It provides a rationale for the need of a specific guidance for the identification and use of OECMs in the marine fishery sector and the relations of such guidance with the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries. Grounded in the CBD COP Decision 14/8 of November 2018, the document provides a comprehensive set of comments and considerations on: (i) The OECM definition, guiding principles (on the roles of OECMs and their governance), and criteria for identification; (ii) Key concepts, cross-cutting issues and their implications in marine capture fisheries; (iii) the process of scientific identification of OECMs; (iv) Their management, monitoring and performance evaluation as well as auditing; (v) the eventual revision process; and (vi) the related governance issues.
Divers have widely participated in citizen science (CS) projects and are one of the main groups of marine citizen scientists. However, there is little knowledge about profiles of, and incentives for potential divers to join CS projects. To date, most studies have focused on the SCUBA diving industry; nevertheless, there is a diversity of divers, not all using SCUBA, who engage in different activities during their dives. Differences in diver profiles could affect their willingness and ability to contribute to CS. In this study, we compare the diving profile, interests, preferences and motivations to participate in CS of five diver types (artisanal fishermen, recreational divers, instructors, scientific divers, and others). All divers have strong interests in participating in CS projects, with no major differences among diver types. In general, they are interested in a wide variety of themes related to CS but they prefer simple sampling protocols. Divers are motivated to participate in CS to learn about the sea and contribute to science. Some important differences among diver types were found, with artisanal fishermen having significantly more dive experience than other diver types, but less free time during their dives and limited access to some communication channels and technologies. These characteristics make them ideal partners to contribute their local ecological knowledge (LEK) to local CS projects. In contrast, recreational divers have the least experience but most free time during their dives and good access to cameras and communications channels, making them suitable partners for large-scale CS projects that do not require a high level of species knowledge. Instructors and scientific divers are well-placed to coordinate and supervise CS activities. The results confirm that divers are not all alike and specific considerations have to be taken into account to improve the contribution of each diver type to CS. The findings provide essential information for the design of different types of CS projects. By considering the relevant incentives and opportunities for diverse diver groups, marine CS projects will make efficient gains in volunteer recruitment, retention, and collaborative generation of knowledge about the marine environment.