2019-06-12

Fostering adaptive marine aquaculture through procedural innovation in marine spatial planning

Craig RKundis. Fostering adaptive marine aquaculture through procedural innovation in marine spatial planning. Marine Policy [Internet]. In Press :103555. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19303197
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Worldwide, as wild-caught commercial fisheries plateau and human demands for protein increase, marine aquaculture is expanding. Much marine aquaculture is inherently adaptable to changing climatic and chemical conditions. Nevertheless, siting of marine aquaculture operations is subject to competing environmental, economic, and social demands upon and priorities for ocean space, while some forms of marine aquaculture can also impose other externalities on marine systems, such as pollution from wastes (nutrients) and antibiotics, consumption of wild fish as food, and introduction of non-native or genetically modified species. As a result, governmental policy decisions to promote both marine aquaculture that can adapt to a changing ocean and adaptive governance for that aquaculture can become contested, requiring attention to their social legitimacy.

This article explores how the law can promote the adaptability of marine aquaculture to climate change and ocean acidification—adaptive marine aquaculture—while still preserving key rule-of-law values, such as public participation and accountability. Perhaps most obviously, law can establish substantive requirements for marine aquaculture that minimize its impacts, promoting marine resilience overall. However, to foster truly adaptive marine aquaculture, including adaptive governance institutions, coastal nations should also procedurally reform their marine spatial planning efforts to legally connect the procedures for aquaculture permitting, marine spatial planning (MSP), and adaptive management. The goals for such connections, moreover, should be to mandate new forums for public participation and creative collaboration, promote experimentation with accountability that leads to increased knowledge, and foster the emergence of adaptive governance regarding the use of marine space.

The role of law in the regulation of fishing activities in the Central Arctic Ocean

Rayfuse R. The role of law in the regulation of fishing activities in the Central Arctic Ocean. Marine Policy [Internet]. In Press :103562. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19303665
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The history of commercial exploitation of fish stocks is replete with instances of over-exploitation and stock collapse. Particularly in situations where little is known about a species or a particular fish stock, unregulated expansion into new fisheries may effectively wipe out a species or stock before its existence is even formally recognised or understood. Globally, there has been a strong interest in ensuring that such a fate does not befall any fish stocks that either exist in or may migrate in future into the high seas portion of the Central Arctic Ocean. The Agreement to Prevent Unregulated High Seas Fisheries in the Central Arctic Ocean establishes a framework for the acquisition of science upon which precautionary, ecosystem-based management measures can be based, if and when they become necessary in the future. This article examines the role of international law in facilitating both the adoption of the Agreement and the adaptive management of fisheries in the high seas portion of the Central Arctic Ocean. It will be shown that the Agreement provides the initial framework for precautionary, ecosystem-based, adaptive and environmentally sound decision making regarding potential future fisheries in the Central Arctic Ocean.

Global Observing Needs in the Deep Ocean

Levin LA, Bett BJ, Gates AR, Heimbach P, Howe BM, Janssen F, McCurdy A, Ruhl HA, Snelgrove P, Stocks KI, et al. Global Observing Needs in the Deep Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00241/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The deep ocean below 200 m water depth is the least observed, but largest habitat on our planet by volume and area. Over 150 years of exploration has revealed that this dynamic system provides critical climate regulation, houses a wealth of energy, mineral, and biological resources, and represents a vast repository of biological diversity. A long history of deep-ocean exploration and observation led to the initial concept for the Deep-Ocean Observing Strategy (DOOS), under the auspices of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Here we discuss the scientific need for globally integrated deep-ocean observing, its status, and the key scientific questions and societal mandates driving observing requirements over the next decade. We consider the Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) needed to address deep-ocean challenges within the physical, biogeochemical, and biological/ecosystem sciences according to the Framework for Ocean Observing (FOO), and map these onto scientific questions. Opportunities for new and expanded synergies among deep-ocean stakeholders are discussed, including academic-industry partnerships with the oil and gas, mining, cable and fishing industries, the ocean exploration and mapping community, and biodiversity conservation initiatives. Future deep-ocean observing will benefit from the greater integration across traditional disciplines and sectors, achieved through demonstration projects and facilitated reuse and repurposing of existing deep-sea data efforts. We highlight examples of existing and emerging deep-sea methods and technologies, noting key challenges associated with data volume, preservation, standardization, and accessibility. Emerging technologies relevant to deep-ocean sustainability and the blue economy include novel genomics approaches, imaging technologies, and ultra-deep hydrographic measurements. Capacity building will be necessary to integrate capabilities into programs and projects at a global scale. Progress can be facilitated by Open Science and Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable (FAIR) data principles and converge on agreed to data standards, practices, vocabularies, and registries. We envision expansion of the deep-ocean observing community to embrace the participation of academia, industry, NGOs, national governments, international governmental organizations, and the public at large in order to unlock critical knowledge contained in the deep ocean over coming decades, and to realize the mutual benefits of thoughtful deep-ocean observing for all elements of a sustainable ocean.

Happy Feet in a Hostile World? The Future of Penguins Depends on Proactive Management of Current and Expected Threats

Ropert-Coudert Y, Chiaradia A, Ainley D, Barbosa A, P. Boersma D, Brasso R, Dewar M, Ellenberg U, García-Borboroglu P, Emmerson L, et al. Happy Feet in a Hostile World? The Future of Penguins Depends on Proactive Management of Current and Expected Threats. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00248/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Penguins face a wide range of threats. Most observed population changes have been negative and have happened over the last 60 years. Today, populations of 11 penguin species are decreasing. Here we present a review that synthesizes details of threats faced by the world’s 18 species of penguins. We discuss alterations to their environment at both breeding sites on land and at sea where they forage. The major drivers of change appear to be climate, and food web alterations by marine fisheries. In addition, we also consider other critical and/or emerging threats, namely human disturbance near nesting sites, pollution due to oil, plastics and chemicals such as mercury and persistent organic compounds. Finally, we assess the importance of emerging pathogens and diseases on the health of penguins. We suggest that in the context of climate change, habitat degradation, introduced exotic species and resource competition with fisheries, successful conservation outcomes will require new and unprecedented levels of science and advocacy. Successful conservation stories of penguin species across their geographical range have occurred where there has been concerted effort across local, national and international boundaries to implement effective conservation planning.

Traits Shared by Marine Megafauna and Their Relationships With Ecosystem Functions and Services

Tavares DCastro, Moura JF, Acevedo-Trejos E, Merico A. Traits Shared by Marine Megafauna and Their Relationships With Ecosystem Functions and Services. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00262/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1007416_45_Marine_20190606_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Traditional ecological research has focused on taxonomic units to better understand the role of organisms in marine ecosystems. This approach has significantly contributed to our understanding of how species interact with each other and with the physical environment and has led to relevant site-specific conservation strategies. However, this taxonomic-based approach can limit a mechanistic understanding of how environmental change affects marine megafauna, here defined as large fishes (e.g., shark, tuna, and billfishes), sea turtles, marine mammals, and seabirds. Alternatively, an approach based on traits, i.e., measurable behavioral, physiological, or morphological characteristics of organisms, can shed new light on the processes influencing structure and functions of biological communities. Here we review 33 traits that are measurable and comparable among marine megafauna. The variability of these traits within the organisms considered controls functions mainly related to nutrient storage and transport, trophic-dynamic regulations of populations, and community shaping. To estimate the contributions of marine megafauna to ecosystem functions and services, traits can be quantified categorically or over a continuous scale, but the latter is preferred to make comparisons across groups. We argue that the most relevant traits to comparatively study marine megafauna groups are body size, body mass, dietary preference, feeding strategy, metabolic rate, and dispersal capacity. These traits can be used in combination with information on population abundances to predict how changes in the environment can affect community structure, ecosystem functioning, and ecosystem services.

Monitoring Marine Habitats With Photogrammetry: A Cost-Effective, Accurate, Precise and High-Resolution Reconstruction Method

Marre G, Holon F, Luque S, Boissery P, Deter J. Monitoring Marine Habitats With Photogrammetry: A Cost-Effective, Accurate, Precise and High-Resolution Reconstruction Method. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00276/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1007416_45_Marine_20190606_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Underwater photogrammetry has been increasingly used to study and monitor the three-dimensional characteristics of marine habitats, despite a lack of knowledge on the quality and reliability of the reconstructions. More particularly, little attention has been paid to exploring and estimating the relative contribution of multiple acquisition parameters on the model resolution (distance between neighbor vertices), accuracy (closeness to true positions/measures) and precision (variability of positions/measures). On the other hand, some studies used expensive or cumbersome camera systems that can restrict the number of users of this technology for the monitoring of marine habitats. This study aimed at developing a simple and cost-effective protocol able to produce accurate and reproducible high-resolution models. Precisely, the effect of the camera system, flying elevation, camera orientation and number of images on the resolution and accuracy of marine habitat reconstructions was tested through two experiments. A first experiment allowed for testing all combinations of acquisition parameters through the building of 192 models of the same 36 m2study site. The flying elevation and camera system strongly affected the model resolution, while the photo density mostly affected bundle adjustment accuracy and total processing time. The camera orientation, in turn, mostly affected the reprojection error. The best combination of parameters was used in a second experiment to assess the accuracy and precision of the resulting reconstructions. The average model resolution was 3.4 mm, and despite a decreasing precision in the positioning of markers with distance to the model center (0.33, 0.27, and 1.2 mm/m Standard Deviation (SD) in X, Y, Z, respectively), the measures were very accurate and precise: 0.08% error ± 0.06 SD for bar lengths, 0.36% ± 0.51 SD for a rock model area and 0.92% ± 0.54 SD for its volume. The 3D geometry of the rock only differed by 1.2 mm ± 0.8 SD from the ultra-high resolution in-air reference. These results suggest that this simple and cost-effective protocol produces accurate and reproducible models that are suitable for the study and monitoring of marine habitats at a small reef scale.

Fingerprinting Blue Carbon: Rationale and Tools to Determine the Source of Organic Carbon in Marine Depositional Environments

Geraldi NR, Ortega A, Serrano O, Macreadie PI, Lovelock CE, Krause-Jensen D, Kennedy H, Lavery PS, Pace ML, Kaal J, et al. Fingerprinting Blue Carbon: Rationale and Tools to Determine the Source of Organic Carbon in Marine Depositional Environments. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00263/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1007416_45_Marine_20190606_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Blue carbon is the organic carbon in oceanic and coastal ecosystems that is captured on centennial to millennial timescales. Maintaining and increasing blue carbon is an integral component of strategies to mitigate global warming. Marine vegetated ecosystems (especially seagrass meadows, mangrove forests, and tidal marshes) are blue carbon hotspots and their degradation and loss worldwide have reduced organic carbon stocks and increased CO2 emissions. Carbon markets, and conservation and restoration schemes aimed at enhancing blue carbon sequestration and avoiding greenhouse gas emissions, will be aided by knowing the provenance and fate of blue carbon. We review and critique current methods and the potential of nascent methods to track the provenance and fate of organic carbon, including: bulk isotopes, compound-specific isotopes, biomarkers, molecular properties, and environmental DNA (eDNA). We find that most studies to date have used bulk isotopes to determine provenance, but this approach often cannot distinguish the contribution of different primary producers to organic carbon in depositional marine environments. Based on our assessment, we recommend application of multiple complementary methods. In particular, the use of carbon and nitrogen isotopes of lipids along with eDNA have a great potential to identify the source and quantify the contribution of different primary producers to sedimentary organic carbon in marine ecosystems. Despite the promising potential of these new techniques, further research is needed to validate them. This critical overview can inform future research to help underpin methodologies for the implementation of blue carbon focused climate change mitigation schemes.

Role of sociality in the response of killer whales to an additive mortality event

Busson M, Authier M, Barbraud C, Tixier P, Reisinger RR, Janc A, Guinet C. Role of sociality in the response of killer whales to an additive mortality event. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2019 :201817174. Available from: https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/05/14/1817174116.abstract?etoc
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $10.00
Type: Journal Article

In highly social top predators, group living is an ecological strategy that enhances individual fitness, primarily through increased foraging success. Additive mortality events across multiple social groups in populations may affect the social structure, and therefore the fitness, of surviving individuals. This hypothesis was examined in a killer whale (Orcinus orca) population that experienced a 7-y period of severe additive mortality due to lethal interactions with illegal fishing vessels. Using both social and demographic analyses conducted on a unique long-term dataset encompassing periods before, during, and after this event, results indicated a decrease in both the number and the mean strength of associations of surviving individuals during the additive mortality period. A positive significant correlation between association strength and apparent survival suggested that the fitness of surviving individuals was impacted by the additive mortality event. After this event, individuals responded to the loss of relatives in their social groups by associating with a greater number of other social groups, likely to maintain a functional group size that maximized their foraging success. However, these associations were loose; individuals did not reassociate in highly stable social groups, and their survival remained low years after the mortality event. These findings demonstrate how the disruption of social structure in killer whales may lead to prolonged negative effects of demographic stress beyond an additive mortality event. More importantly, this study shows that sociality has a key role in the resilience of populations to human-induced mortality; this has major implications for the conservation of highly social and long-lived species.

Are biodiversity offsetting targets of ecological equivalence feasible for biogenic reef habitats?

Stone R, Callaway R, Bull JC. Are biodiversity offsetting targets of ecological equivalence feasible for biogenic reef habitats?. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2019 ;177:97 - 111. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569118304629
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Structurally complex habitat is declining across temperate marine environments. This trend has been attributed to changes in land use and increasing coastal development, which are activities likely to continue with governments supporting ongoing economic growth within the marine realm. This can compromise biodiversity, and biodiversity offsetting is increasingly being heralded as a means to reduce the conflict between development and conservation. Offset schemes are often evaluated against targets of ‘ecological equivalence’ or ‘like-for-like’ but these terms can be difficult to define and quantify. Although targets of equivalence have been generally shown to be feasible in terrestrial environments, the complex and dynamic nature of the marine and coastal realms present difficulties when aiming for strict equivalence targets as measures of success. Here, we investigated four intertidal biogenic reef habitats formed by the tube worm Sabellaria alveolata within, and in proximity to, Swansea Bay (Wales, UK). The aim was to identify measurable biodiversity components for S. alveolata reef habitat, and to investigate the natural spatio-temporal variation in these components, to determine whether a target of equivalence was feasible. We also looked to identify the most important drivers of species assemblages within the reefs. Results showed that biodiversity both S. alveolata formation and tube aperture condition showed a significant interaction between site and season, with community composition varying significantly by site only. Site was found to explain the highest variation in community composition, followed by substrate type, and geographical position. These results highlight how widely coastal habitats can vary, in both space and time, and therefore calls into question a strict target of ecological equivalence when planning biodiversity offsets in coastal environments.

Debris ingestion by carnivorous consumers: Does the position in the water column truly matter?

Di Beneditto APaula Made, Oliveira Ada Silva. Debris ingestion by carnivorous consumers: Does the position in the water column truly matter?. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2019 ;144:134 - 139. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X19303534?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

The hypothesis that carnivorous consumers associated with the seabed are more likely to ingest marine debris was tested based on stomach content analysis of fish(Trichiurus lepturus and species of Ariidae) and cetaceans (Sotalia guianensis and Pontoporia blainvillei). Among 596 stomach contents, only 22 (3.7%) contained debris. The debris was flexible plasticnylon yard, paperlatex, styrofoam and cigarettefilter. The proportion of stomach contents with debris varied among species: P. blainvillei (pelagic demersal consumer) presented the highest frequency of ingestion(15.7%), while T. lepturus (pelagic consumer), S. guianensis (pelagic consumer) and Ariidae (demersal consumer) presented similar frequencies (1.3–1.8%). Therefore, a feeding site in the water column does not predict the probability of debris ingestion. Concerning these species, this probability seems to be more associated with prey-capture strategies (or feeding behavior), regardless of debris availability in the environment.

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