There is general consensus that claimants to the South China Sea (SCS) should set aside territorial disputes and cooperate to preserve the natural resources of the sea. These resources are vital to millions of fishermen and consumers but are severely overexploited. Failure to prevent further exploitation or replenish stocks will exacerbate tensions in the SCS as countries compete for dwindling resources. Understanding how and where to start cooperating is a topic of much debate, and few ideas have gained enough traction for implementation. This report suggests that agreements can be built from existing commonalities in national laws and policies concerning fisheries and the marine environment. Utilizing these commonalities could help to build confidence by showing that despite disputes, there are in fact similarities and areas of alignment. This would not only build confidence but may serve as a less contentious route toward cooperation, because countries are agreeing - at a regional level - on criteria they already agree on at a national level. This concept is explored by looking at the fisheries and marine environmental laws and policies of China, Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia and Indonesia.
Ballast water managements systems (BWMS) installed on vessels may use active substances to inactivate organisms. This paper provides new insights in the global issue of noxious disinfection by-products (DBP) discharge with ballast water, and the related risk assessment for human health. The GESAMP ballast water working group plays a role in the certification process of BWMS that make use of active substances evaluating potential negative effects. We analyzed all BWMS that passed GESAMP final approval over a decade until 2017 providing an overview of chemicals in the discharged ballast water generated by BWMS. We used these data to calculate the chemical load humans may be exposed to for two different commercial ports (Koper, Slovenia and Hamburg, Germany). None of the chemicals in this study reached levels of concern that would indicate a risk for humans after exposure to chemicals present in the discharged ballast water. Nevertheless, although this exposure only adds to a lesser degree to the overall exposure to disinfection by-products, some chemicals, such as tribromomethane, have carcinogenic properties. In case studies we show which chemicals have the largest contribution to the aggregated exposure of humans. We note that tribromomethane, despite its low bio-concentration factor (BCF), may accumulate in fat, when fish are continuously exposed to DBPs during low-level chlorination. Since this figure would give a higher value for the internal dose for tribromomethane from seafood consumption than the current BCF in the GISIS database, the calculated value may underestimate the contribution of tribromomethane, and possibly also other DBPs.
The coastal zone offers many goods and services ranging from production to recreation and protection. During the last half century, human interventions on the Romanian Black Sea coast have abruptly changed the natural trends of coastal evolution, increasing erosion rates on many coastal sectors and transforming the natural landscape with major impact on coastal ecosystems. This required decision makers to develop effective coastal and marine conservation regulations and programs. This paper uses Evolutionary Governance Theory (EGT) as a conceptual framework to examine the currently emerging governance issues, due to the growing pressure from increasingly diverse human activities coupled with climate change impacts, that threaten the functional integrity of the coastal ecosystems. A proper evaluation and understanding of the policy framework helped us to identify the prerequisites for participative management. Results indicate that the legislation is sectorial, the competences are overlapping and the responsibilities are scattered. The analysis shows that policies related to governance of coastal and marine resources are not well synchronized and they signal an important gap in policy. Input from stakeholders helps us to understand some of the failures that are not present in the literature, since most of them occur at the local level.
Public efforts to support proper use and preservation of Florida’s historic shipwrecks began in earnest in the late 1980s. One of the most successful and popular programs developed by the state is the Underwater Archaeological Preserve system. As part of this process, state archaeologists begin by working with sport divers and local governments to establish the Preserve. From this point forward, archaeologists utilize the submerged sites to facilitate hands-on, non-disturbance survey and documentation trainings for these and other groups. Using the same framework, the Florida Public Archaeology Network continues to engage the public’s interest in Florida’s shipwrecks and other submerged cultural heritage sites. This chapter describes the Submerged Sites Education and Archaeological Stewardship (SSEAS) program and the Heritage Awareness Diving Seminar (HADS), and how these programs are intended to encourage divers to become active in monitoring wreck sites and making their own discoveries, in the process producing information instead of simply consuming information. While initial results have been encouraging, they also provide a lesson for orienting collaborative programs to the needs of the audience, rather than only to the needs of archaeologists.
As coastal population growth accelerates, intensive management practices increasingly alter urban shorelines, creating major conservation challenges. To evaluate key ecological impacts and identify indicators of coastal urbanization, we compared intertidal macroinvertebrate communities between urban beaches with intense maintenance regimes (sediment filling and grooming) and reference beaches lacking such maintenance in densely populated southern California. On urban beaches, intertidal communities were highly impacted with significantly reduced species richness, abundance, and biomass (effect sizes: 79%, 49%, 30%, respectively). Urban impacts affected macroinvertebrates across all intertidal zones, with greatest effects on upper intertidal wrack-associated taxa. On urban beaches altered intertidal communities were remarkably homogeneous across littoral cells in a biogeographically complex region. Functional diversity comparisons suggested degraded ecological functioning on urban beaches. No taxa flourished on urban beaches, but we identified several vulnerable indicator taxa. Our results suggest intense maintenance regimes on urban coasts are negatively impacting sandy beach ecosystems on a landscape scale. Beaches not subject to intense mechanized maintenance, can support high biodiversity, even near major urban centers.
“Forecasting and Understanding Trends, Uncertainty and Responses of North Pacific Marine Ecosystems” (FUTURE) is the flagship integrative Scientific Program undertaken by the member nations and affiliates of the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES). A principal goal of FUTURE is to develop a framework for investigating interactions across disciplinary dimensions in order to most effectively understand large-scale ecosystem changes and resulting impacts on coastal communities. These interactions are complex, often nonlinear, occur across a range of spatial and temporal scales, and can complicate management approaches to shared and trans-boundary problems. Here, we present a Social–Ecological–Environmental Systems (SEES) framework to coordinate and integrate marine science within PICES. We demonstrate the application of this framework by applying it to four “crisis” case studies: (a) species alternation in the western North Pacific; (b) ecosystem impacts of an extreme heat wave in the eastern North Pacific; (c) jellyfish blooms in the western North Pacific; and (d) Pacific basin-scale warming and species distributional shifts. Our approach fosters a common transdisciplinary language and knowledge base across diverse expertise, providing the basis for developing better integrated end-to-end models. PICES provides the structure required to address these and other multi-national, inter-disciplinary issues we face in the North Pacific. An effective and comprehensive SEES approach is broadly applicable to understanding and maintaining resilient marine ecosystems within a changing climate.
The coastal and marine environment provides a wide range of ecosystem services, many of which may be impacted through coastal management. Incorporating these values into cost-benefit analysis to support decision making is hampered by the lack of existing appropriate measures. While studies can be undertaken by these agencies to collect the appropriate values, the number of different habitats that may need to be considered is greater than what could reasonably be included in traditional economic approaches. In this paper, we propose combining of a multi-criteria method, namely the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), with choice experiments to develop estimates for a wide range of coastal and marine habitat values that can be used by local planners and coastal managers. We apply the approach to the coastal regions in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Coastal residents were initially asked to express their preferences for protecting different coastal and marine habitats using AHP, from which a relative index of utility was derived. A choice experiment was also implemented, involving a hypothetical new coastal reserve in their area protecting different combinations of habitats and funded through an increase in their local council rates. We found that nearly 90 per cent of NSW coastal residents were willing to pay to support coastal protection. Relative values derived from the AHP were used to extrapolate the choice experiment results to provide estimates of non-market values for a wide range of coastal and marine habitats.