2019-07-10

An index of fisheries closures due to harmful algal blooms and a framework for identifying vulnerable fishing communities on the U.S. West Coast

Moore SK, Cline MR, Blair K, Klinger T, Varney A, Norman K. An index of fisheries closures due to harmful algal blooms and a framework for identifying vulnerable fishing communities on the U.S. West Coast. Marine Policy [Internet]. In Press :103543. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18307073
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a significant threat to coastal communities and their economies. They cause economic losses associated with lost fisheries landings and tourism revenue, food insecurity from loss of subsistence harvest activities, disruption of cultural practices, and loss of community identity and social interactions tied to coastal resource use. In 2015, an unprecedented bloom of Pseudo-nitzschia occurred along the U.S. West Coast, producing record high concentrations of the toxin domoic acid (DA). Widespread and prolonged fisheries closures resulted, including closures of the lucrative Dungeness crab fishery, generating an economic shock for fishery-dependent communities. To estimate the socioeconomic impacts of the closures and to compare the 2015 DA event with other events, an index was constructed that quantifies lost fishing opportunities due to toxic HABs for 17 fishing communities on the West Coast from 2005 through 2016. An examination of the HAB index shows that the 2015 DA event caused the longest duration and most geographically widespread fisheries closures on record. Communities most vulnerable to the closures of the Dungeness crab fishery were identified using indices of community social vulnerability and fishery dependence. Of the 17 fishing communities examined here, the communities of Crescent City, Fort Bragg and Moss Landing in California had the highest social vulnerability, were the most dependent on the Dungeness crab fishery, and were the most deprived of their Dungeness crab fishing opportunities; as such, these communities may have been the least resilient to the economic shock generated by the 2015 DA event.

An index of fisheries closures due to harmful algal blooms and a framework for identifying vulnerable fishing communities on the U.S. West Coast

Moore SK, Cline MR, Blair K, Klinger T, Varney A, Norman K. An index of fisheries closures due to harmful algal blooms and a framework for identifying vulnerable fishing communities on the U.S. West Coast. Marine Policy [Internet]. In Press :103543. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18307073
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a significant threat to coastal communities and their economies. They cause economic losses associated with lost fisheries landings and tourism revenue, food insecurity from loss of subsistence harvest activities, disruption of cultural practices, and loss of community identity and social interactions tied to coastal resource use. In 2015, an unprecedented bloom of Pseudo-nitzschia occurred along the U.S. West Coast, producing record high concentrations of the toxin domoic acid (DA). Widespread and prolonged fisheries closures resulted, including closures of the lucrative Dungeness crab fishery, generating an economic shock for fishery-dependent communities. To estimate the socioeconomic impacts of the closures and to compare the 2015 DA event with other events, an index was constructed that quantifies lost fishing opportunities due to toxic HABs for 17 fishing communities on the West Coast from 2005 through 2016. An examination of the HAB index shows that the 2015 DA event caused the longest duration and most geographically widespread fisheries closures on record. Communities most vulnerable to the closures of the Dungeness crab fishery were identified using indices of community social vulnerability and fishery dependence. Of the 17 fishing communities examined here, the communities of Crescent City, Fort Bragg and Moss Landing in California had the highest social vulnerability, were the most dependent on the Dungeness crab fishery, and were the most deprived of their Dungeness crab fishing opportunities; as such, these communities may have been the least resilient to the economic shock generated by the 2015 DA event.

Citizen science and social licence: Improving perceptions and connecting marine user groups

Kelly R, Fleming A, Pecl GT. Citizen science and social licence: Improving perceptions and connecting marine user groups. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2019 ;178:104855. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569119300936
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Marine stakeholder groups have diverse relationships with the ocean and life within it, which can create conflict and distrust between them. Citizen science and social licence present promising means to develop dialogue between these diverse marine stakeholders and improve outcomes for marine management. Citizen science can be defined as public engagement in scientific research and activities and amongst other benefits, has been demonstrated to improve communication and relationships amongst resource management and stakeholder groups. Social licence is a concept that reflects unwritten permission from the public for others to use and manage natural resources, and has become an important theme for development in the marine realm. We explore a case-study of the marine citizen science programme Redmap Australia, utilising a mixed-methods approach to understand community perceptions of other marine user groups. We explore how marine users legitimise one another, and how this relates to building relationships and developing social licence. Our results show that participation in citizen science can allow users to display their marine citizenship and shared concern about the marine environment, and that this can allow them to earn trust from other user groups. We conclude that participation in citizen science improves perceptions of trustworthiness and can enhance social licence for marine user groups, with positive implications for marine and coastal management. These outcomes provide fruitful insights on marine resource user groups' perceptions that can help to advise future developments in the growing fields of citizen science practice and citizen science research.

Towards sustainable development of Asian Large Marine Ecosystems

Sherman K, Peterson B, Damar A, Wagey T. Towards sustainable development of Asian Large Marine Ecosystems. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography [Internet]. 2019 ;163:1 - 5. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967064519301973
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

This thematic issue on Asian Large Marine Ecosystems focuses attention on a major geographic area of the world where the goods and services of 13 Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) are serving the needs of three billion people inhabiting the region. The stressors affecting the sustainable development of the Asian LMEs are impacting the economies of the bordering countries from overfishing, pollution, nutrient overenrichment, habitat degradation, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The papers in this issue represent a cross-section of assessment studies underway by marine scientists, policy specialists, and resource managers in the region engaged in a movement to introduce ecosystem-based management practices for mitigating stressors on LMEs. This movement is supported, in part, by an independent international financial entity, the Global Environment Facility (GEF), which exists to help meet the objectives of international environmental conventions and agreements. The movement towards ecosystem-based management is supported by the GEF to advance a United Nations effort to assist economically developing nations in the Asian region and in other regions around the globe towards sustainable development of the oceans.

Specialised recreational fishers reject sanctuary zones and favour fisheries management

McNeill A, Clifton J, Harvey ES. Specialised recreational fishers reject sanctuary zones and favour fisheries management. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;107:103592. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19301216
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Policy-makers are faced with the ongoing challenge of designing management interventions which conserve marine ecosystems while maintaining a sustainable level of resource user access. Recreational fishers are a key user group to consider as their activities can have significant impacts on fish populations. In some contexts, recreational fishers also represent a significant proportion of the public and can hold considerable influence on governing authorities. This issue is particularly pertinent for marine protected areas as significant opposition exists within some local communities, including recreational fishers, and community support is critical to achieving success. An online survey was employed across Western Australia to investigate recreational fishers' motivations and their attitudes towards fisheries management and different types of spatial closures, including marine protected areas. The results show the most specialised fishers demonstrate stronger support for traditional fisheries management compared to other groups, but stronger opposition to closed fishing zones specified as sanctuary zones. In comparison, no strong opposition is present for temporarily closed fishing zones or those protecting unique or fragile places. Our results suggest that rather than spatial fishing closures, it is the designated purpose of sanctuary zones for precautionary management which some specialised fishers reject. Understanding patterns of support are vital for policy-makers to design and communicate policy which is seen as appropriate and legitimate amongst stakeholders, particularly to those specialised fishers who hold significant influence in fishing communities.

Ecosystem service framework and typology for an ecosystem approach to aquaculture

Willot P-A, Aubin J, Salles J-M, Wilfart A. Ecosystem service framework and typology for an ecosystem approach to aquaculture. Aquaculture [Internet]. In Press :734260. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0044848617324766?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

The ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA) considers ecosystem services (ES) important, but does not provide a conceptual framework or a typology to integrate and assess them. To supplement the EAA, a literature review of the ES conceptual framework and ES typologies was combined with selected criteria from the EAA and ES literature. Eight criteria of transition from a conventional approach to aquaculture to the EAA were used as selection criteria to choose a conceptual framework of ES relevant with the EAA. To select a typology, we determined that ES must be distinguished from benefits, be a part of nature, be usable directly and indirectly, and not contain support or habitat ES. The conceptual framework of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) is the most compatible with the EAA but does not provide an ES typology. The Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) provides the ES typology most consistent with EAA criteria to supplement the conceptual framework. We identified 10 provisioning ES, 20 regulation and maintenance ES, and 11 cultural ES. Integration of the IPBES conceptual framework with the CICES typology preserves the generic approach of the EAA. This integration could highlight the main interactions among an aquaecosystem, its ES supply, its management, and its relevant stakeholders at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Moreover, it fulfils the three main goals of the EAA by identifying them in a clear and common framework.

Sea Change Tai Timu Tai Pari: addressing catchment and marine issues in an integrated marine spatial planning process

Peart R. Sea Change Tai Timu Tai Pari: addressing catchment and marine issues in an integrated marine spatial planning process. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/aqc.3156
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $42.00
Type: Journal Article
  1. Marine spatial planning (MSP) has increasingly been applied around the world to better manage the pressures and conflicts arising from human use of the sea. More recently it has been conceived as an approach to implement an ecosystem‐based management approach to the marine environment.
  2. New Zealand was a late adopter of MSP, commencing its first MSP process in 2013 for the Hauraki Gulf (Sea Change Tai Timu Tai Pari), and completing the plan in late 2016.
  3. The planning process drew on international experience in MSP and collaborative processes but was adapted considerably to take account of the local context. Most particularly, the plan reflected concerns about the ecological decline of the Hauraki Gulf as well the strong and growing role of Māori in natural resource management in New Zealand.
  4. The Sea Change Tai Timu Tai Pari project was experimental and represents an innovation in MSP practice in a number of respects including: establishing a co‐governance structure for the project; tasking a group of Māori tribal and stakeholder representatives with producing the plan on a collaborative basis; addressing both catchment and marine issues and sectors in an integrated manner; and integrating indigenous knowledge with science.
  5. A number of valuable lessons from marine planning can be drawn from this project, including: MSP can support ecosystem‐based management; collaborative processes can be powerful in achieving shared outcomes for the community and can create a rich learning environment for scientists; indigenous knowledge can strengthen planning processes by providing more holistic knowledge; and scientists within a MSP project can help frame the planning process and act as a conduit between the scientific and layperson communities.

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