Literature Library

Currently indexing 8156 titles

Fishery management priorities vary with self-recruitment in sedentary marine populations

Yau AJ, Lenihan HS, Kendall BE. Fishery management priorities vary with self-recruitment in sedentary marine populations. Ecological Applications [Internet]. 2014 ;24(6):1490 - 1504. Available from: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/13-1201.1
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Fisheries science often uses population models that assume no external recruitment, but nearshore marine populations harvested on small scales of <200 km often exhibit an unknown mix of self-recruitment and recruitment from external sources. Since empirical determination of self-recruitment vs. external recruitment is difficult, we used a modeling approach to examine the sensitivity of fishery management priorities to recruitment assumptions (self [closed], external [open]) in a local population of harvested giant clams (Tridacna maxima) on Mo'orea, French Polynesia. From 2006 to 2010, we measured growth, fecundity, recruitment, and survival (resulting from natural and fishing mortality). We used these data to parameterize both a closed (complete self-recruitment) and an open (no self-recruitment) integral projection model (IPM), and then calculated elasticities of demographic rates (growth, survival, recruitment) to future population abundance in 20 years. The models' lowest projected abundance was 93.4% (95% CI, [86.5%, 101.8%]) of present abundance, if the local population is entirely open and the present level of fishing mortality persists. The population will exhibit self-sustaining dynamics (1 ≤ λ ≤ 1.07) as for a closed population if the ratio of self-recruits per gram of dry gonad is >0.775 (equivalent to 52.85% self-recruitment under present conditions). Elasticity analysis of demographic parameters indicated that future abundance can most effectively be influenced by increasing survival of mid-sized clams (∼80–120 mm) if the population is self-sustaining, and by increasing survival of juvenile clams (∼40–70 mm) if the population is non-self-sustaining (as for an open population). Our results illustrate that management priorities can vary depending on the amount of self-recruitment in a local population.

Hydrodynamic provinces and oceanic connectivity from a transport network help designing marine reserves

Rossi V, Ser-Giacomi E, López C, Hernández-García E. Hydrodynamic provinces and oceanic connectivity from a transport network help designing marine reserves. Geophysical Research Letters [Internet]. 2014 ;41:2883–2891. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014GL059540/abstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Oceanic dispersal and connectivity have been identified as crucial factors for structuring marine populations and designing marine protected areas (MPAs). Focusing on larval dispersal by ocean currents, we propose an approach coupling Lagrangian transport and new tools from Network Theory to characterize marine connectivity in the Mediterranean basin. Larvae of different pelagic durations and seasons are modeled as passive tracers advected in a simulated oceanic surface flow from which a network of connected areas is constructed. Hydrodynamical provinces extracted from this network are delimited by frontiers which match multiscale oceanographic features. By examining the repeated occurrence of such boundaries, we identify the spatial scales and geographic structures that would control larval dispersal across the entire seascape. Based on these hydrodynamical units, we study novel connectivity metrics for existing reserves. Our results are discussed in the context of ocean biogeography and MPAs design, having ecological and managerial implications.

Development and application of mass-balanced ecological network models for kelp forest ecosystems

Beas-Luna R. Development and application of mass-balanced ecological network models for kelp forest ecosystems. University of California, Santa Cruz; 2014. Available from: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/5ws5r0rj
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Thesis

California kelp forests are highly productive and species rich ecosystems. However, ecosystem-wide consequences of fishing higher tropic levels (fishes) and the effect of climate on primary producers such as the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, are not well understood. I develop and apply mass-balanced ecological network models, Ecopath with Ecosim, to explore separately how fishing and the dynamics of giant kelp influence ecosystem functions (e.g., species interactions, biomass dynamics), structure (e.g., the distribution of biomass density among species or species groups) and their dynamics. Faced with the difficulty of synthesizing information required to construct these models, I develop and apply an online database (http://kelpforest.ucsc.edu/) to facilitate the accessibility of such information. It is the first online database designed specifically to inform development of ecological network models. To explore ecosystem-wide effects of fishing in giant kelp forests, I examine (i) the extent to which changes in species interactions and biomass of nodes caused by fishing extend across the ecological network, how these changes vary with (ii) levels of fishing mortality, (iii) fishing of six different species of fishes, and (iv) when all six species are fished simultaneously. Results suggest that fished species differ markedly in the extent to which species interactions and biomass densities are altered across the ecosystem and these responses vary with different levels of fishing mortality. I also used the models to predict ecosystem-wide responses to different dynamics of giant kelp biomass. I test the hypotheses that different scenarios of dynamics of giant kelp biomass will influence (i) total network biomass, (ii) distribution of biomass density across nodes, (iii) temporal variation in biomass density of nodes, and (iv) how this variation differs among trophic levels. Results suggest that both the mean and the variability of giant kelp biomass alter the direction and magnitude of change in total network biomass. Variation is greater for lower trophic levels. Although all inferences of these models are based solely on trophic interactions, they illustrate the value of ecosystem models to generate hypotheses and predictions of ecosystem responses to one or more changes in kelp forests.

Designing Marine Protected Areas for the South American Sea Lion (Otaria byronia) in the Argentine Patagonia

Padula CGabriela. Designing Marine Protected Areas for the South American Sea Lion (Otaria byronia) in the Argentine Patagonia. University of California, Santa Cruz; 2014. Available from: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/99g424m2
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Thesis

This work looks into the conservation of South American sea lions (SSL), Otaria byronia by advancing a process of Marine Protected Area (MPA) design targeted for reproductive females during the first weeks of lactation. Focusing on protection of a single species may result in the establishment of a more comprehensive and ecologically functional system for management. SSL is distributed in the Atlantic and the Pacific coasts of South America. Along the coast of the Argentine Patagonian coast, 73 colonies were described, 42 % of which are reproductive. Breeding females give birth during the austral summer (January) and lactation lasts ca. one year. Critical to the annual cycle are the few weeks after birth, when mothers spend 2-3 days nursing and a similar or longer time at sea foraging, while pups remain alone on shore. Satellite tracking and dive recording instruments indicate that females are either coastal or pelagic in their feeding habits, but the latter travel relatively short distances from colony (mean 152 km). SSL are bottom foragers that dive to maximum depths of approximately 80 m. Optimizing travel and foraging time is critical for these animals, as pups left alone fast and are threatened by both starvation and being accidentally crushed by fighting adult males. Foraging areas overlap with fishing grounds, sea lions are caught in fishing gear and competition for food cannot be ignored. Yet, although 20 of the 31 existing breeding colonies are within coastal protected areas, none of the foraging areas have been considered for protection to minimize the consequences of interactions with fisheries. This work draws from very limited data to advance a process of design of Marine Protected Areas that is eminently practical, thus affordable to government wildlife administrators. I selected the most important colonies, based on location and abundance, integrated satellite locations at sea, analyzed potential associations with physical variables, and proposed criteria to decide important marine areas based on distribution at sea. Finally, I estimated the cost for fisheries to comply with the proposed conservation intervention scenarios. Foraging distribution did not follow a pattern consistent with physical oceanographic variables (sea surface temperature, productivity, bathymetry and seafloor composition) to guide conservation intervention. Bathymetry was the best proxy to help in the design of protected areas. Most of the conservation scenarios based on distribution at sea of lactating females did not strongly overlap with fisheries to justify conservation intervention. The colonies that did, however, involved the largest breeding colonies of Argentine Patagonia and Uruguay. In a context of closing the fisheries for the area of overlap and compensate for the loses during one month, I estimate a conservation cost of 2-3 million dollars, as the impact is on the most profitable of all Argentine Patagonian fisheries, targeting Argentine red shrimp, Pleoticus muelleri. I conclude that management that includes MPAs for this species requires a priori spatial planning considerations. Once a fishery is operational, the costs for conservation will not be affordable for the administrators. I identified some areas where an a priori approach would be practical, effective and feasible.

Can we interpret the evolution of coastal land use conflicts? Using Artificial Neural Networks to model the effects of alternative development policies

Montanari A, Londei A, Staniscia B. Can we interpret the evolution of coastal land use conflicts? Using Artificial Neural Networks to model the effects of alternative development policies. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2014 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569114003020
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Environmental conflicts in coastal areas are determined by the interaction of global and local phenomena. Identifying the factors characterising the evolution of conflicts in relation to spatial dynamics is complex. Analysing related data and interpreting the results necessitate the use of methods that take this complexity into account. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been used to accomplish this task. Although ANN have been widely implemented in physics, natural science and engineering, their application in spatial and social science is still in an early stage.

We present the results of a study concerning land use conflict in the area of Civitavecchia, the main harbour of the Rome metropolitan area. Local environmental issues are air pollution from a large thermal power plant, the movement of ferries, cruise ships, and increased individual commuting. We simulate alternative policy scenarios for the conflict under study in a wider context involving 27 cases. Results indicate that only an environment-led policy is capable of reducing the intensity of the conflict. The other two proposed development tracks focussing on economic efficiency and social equity would slightly aggravate the conflict.

A state of the art review on High Water Mark (HWM) determination

Liu X, Xia J(C), Wright G, Arnold L. A state of the art review on High Water Mark (HWM) determination. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2014 ;102, Part A:178 - 190. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569114003081
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The High Water Mark (HWM) is an important cadastral boundary that separates land and water. It is also used as a baseline to facilitate coastal hazard management from which land and infrastructure development is offset to ensure the protection of property from storm surge and sea level rise. The determination of the HWM has a long history. Its definition, the mean and even the corresponding determination methods have changed through time. In addition, the location of the HWM is difficult to define accurately due to the ambulatory nature of water and coastal morphology variations.

To better understand the HWM determination, this paper reviews the development of the definition of HWM, including ordinary high water mark (OHWM), mean high water mark (MHWM), mean high water spring (MHWS) and mean higher high water (MHHW), and the existing HWM indicators, such as vegetation line and beach morphological features. Two common methods of HWM determination, field survey and remote sensing, are discussed in this paper. This is followed by the investigation of the possible factors that influence the variation of the HWM position. Furthermore, an overview of the ambulatory nature of both water and coastal morphology, which contributes to the difficulties in HWM determination, is provided. Finally, the limitations of previous determination methods and future direction in HWM determination studies are also discussed. This study concludes that it is necessary to develop a robust analytical system to identify, evaluate and integrate various factors into the process of determining the HWM.

Sensitivity assessment as a tool for spatial and temporal gear-based fisheries management

Depestele J, Courtens W, Degraer S, Haelters J, Hostens K, Leopold M, Pinn E, Merckx B, Polet H, Rabaut M, et al. Sensitivity assessment as a tool for spatial and temporal gear-based fisheries management. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2014 ;102, Part A:149 - 160. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569114003056
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an important aspect of the current European, UK and Scottish environmental agenda. The European Commission's recently published draft directive to create a common framework for MSP and integrated coastal management in EU waters and coastal areas is an indication that the sustainable management of marine and coastal waters is a pressing issue. The development of the Shetland Islands' Marine Spatial Plan (SMSP) was initiated by the Scottish Government in 2006 and is an example of a progressive regional marine spatial plan. The SMSP has successfully provided a policy framework and baseline spatial data to guide the placement of marine developments. Through policy, it provides suggestions, proposes directions and highlights opportunity for development. A model which maps cumulative pressures around the Shetland Islands, based on an ecosystem-based risk assessment and extensive knowledge of existing marine activities and uses, is the next step in identifying areas for action and marine policy formulation. This model may be used in comparable marine plan regions with access to comprehensive mapped activity data and local expertise to develop their own methodologies in addressing cumulative impacts. This research also aligns with the Marine Strategy Framework Directive which requires an analysis of the predominant pressures and impacts, including human activity, on the environmental status of marine waters which inter alia covers the main cumulative and synergetic effects.

Investigating options on how to address cumulative impacts in marine spatial planning

Kelly C, Gray L, Shucksmith RJ, Tweddle JF. Investigating options on how to address cumulative impacts in marine spatial planning. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2014 ;102, Part A:139 - 148. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569114003007
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an important aspect of the current European, UK and Scottish environmental agenda. The European Commission's recently published draft directive to create a common framework for MSP and integrated coastal management in EU waters and coastal areas is an indication that the sustainable management of marine and coastal waters is a pressing issue. The development of the Shetland Islands' Marine Spatial Plan (SMSP) was initiated by the Scottish Government in 2006 and is an example of a progressive regional marine spatial plan. The SMSP has successfully provided a policy framework and baseline spatial data to guide the placement of marine developments. Through policy, it provides suggestions, proposes directions and highlights opportunity for development. A model which maps cumulative pressures around the Shetland Islands, based on an ecosystem-based risk assessment and extensive knowledge of existing marine activities and uses, is the next step in identifying areas for action and marine policy formulation. This model may be used in comparable marine plan regions with access to comprehensive mapped activity data and local expertise to develop their own methodologies in addressing cumulative impacts. This research also aligns with the Marine Strategy Framework Directive which requires an analysis of the predominant pressures and impacts, including human activity, on the environmental status of marine waters which inter alia covers the main cumulative and synergetic effects.

Participatory indicators of sustainability for the salmon industry: The case of Chile

O'Ryan R, Pereira M. Participatory indicators of sustainability for the salmon industry: The case of Chile. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2015 ;51:322 - 330. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X14002437
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In this paper a methodological approach is proposed and applied to undertake a participatory process to obtain sustainable development indicators for the salmon sector in Chile including a common vision of sustainability for this industry. The selected indicators are a mix of bottom-up and top-down approaches, which capture the specific needs and perceptions of the different stakeholders related to salmon farming while allowing a high degree of international comparability. A detailed step by step description of the methodology allows understanding how to obtain acceptable social, economic and environmental indicators, a result that can be replicated in other natural resource based productive sectors that are common in developing contexts.

The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of wave energy using GIS based analysis: The case study of Portugal

Castro-Santos L, Garcia GPrado, Estanqueiro A, Justino PAPS. The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of wave energy using GIS based analysis: The case study of Portugal. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems [Internet]. 2015 ;65:21 - 25. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142061514005730
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The main objective of this paper is to establish an economic modelling of wave energy through a Geographical Information System (GIS). Furthermore, this method has been tested for the particular case of the Portuguese coast. It determines the best sea areas to install wave energy converters in this region, using spatial analysis of the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE). Several economic parameters, as capital or O&M costs, have been considered. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been performed by varying the discount rate in three different scenarios. Several types of physical restrictions have been taken into account: bathymetry, submarine electrical cables, seabed geology, environmental conditions, protected areas in terms of heritage, navigation areas, seismic fault lines, etc. Spatial operations have been carried out to complete the procedure, using Model Builder of GIS software. Results indicate the most suitable areas in economic terms in Portugal to install wave energy devices.

Interrelationships Between Corals and Fisheries

Bortone SA ed. Interrelationships Between Corals and Fisheries. CRC Press; 2014 p. 321. Available from: http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781466588301
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book

Interrelationships Between Corals and Fisheries is derived from a workshop held by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council in Tampa, Florida in May 2013, where world authorities came together to discuss the current problems in managing tropical fisheries and offered suggestions for future directions for both researchers and environmental resource managers. This book addresses current and emerging threats as well as challenges and opportunities for managing corals and associated fisheries. It provides an information baseline toward a better understanding of how corals and the consequences of coral condition influence fish populations, especially as they relate to management of those populations.

The book contains content from presentations modified as a result of interactions and discussions with colleagues and peer reviews by global experts in corals and fisheries. Many chapters include additional materials not presented in the workshop. There are also papers that were not presented at the workshop but contribute to the central theme of the book. Topics covered include:

  • Global decline in coral reefs and impacts on fishery yields
  • Distribution and diversity in the Gulf of Mexico
  • Implementation of Coral Habitat Areas of Particular Concern (CHAPCs)
  • Deepwater coral/sponge habitats
  • Coral populations on offshore platforms
  • Mangrove connectivity for sustaining coral reef fisheries
  • Restoring deepwater coral ecosystems and fisheries after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill
  • Predictive mapping of coral reef fish

Covering a range of subject matter, most of the chapters offer suggestions for future research on the interrelationships between corals and fisheries. In addition, the final chapter presents a summary on these interrelationships and discusses managing them for the future.

Politics, environment, and fisheries: empirical evidence from Pacific salmon fisheries

Benshoof C, Baek J. Politics, environment, and fisheries: empirical evidence from Pacific salmon fisheries. Natural Resource Modeling [Internet]. 2014 ;27:300–310. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nrm.12035/abstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Pacific salmon have always been a lucrative commodity in Alaska history. The primary contribution of this paper is to assess the effects of statewide policy changes such as the 1959 Alaska Statehood and the 1974 Limited Entry Act on the harvest of Pacific salmon in Alaska, controlling for changes in oceanic environmental conditions such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. An autoregressive distributed lag approach is employed to annual time-series data for 1899–1996. We find that, while the 1974 Limited Entry Act has a significant effect on Alaska salmon harvests, the 1959 Alaska Statehood had little impact. In addition, the oceanic environment has an important determinant of long-run Alaska salmon harvests.

Global mapping and estimation of ecosystem services values and gross domestic product: A spatially explicit integration of national ‘green GDP’ accounting

Li G, Fang C. Global mapping and estimation of ecosystem services values and gross domestic product: A spatially explicit integration of national ‘green GDP’ accounting. Ecological Indicators [Internet]. 2014 ;46:293 - 314. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X14002222
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The economic value of ecosystem services (non-market) and the market value (represented by a proxy of gross domestic product (GDP)) represent the synthetic green GDP of the earth and of different nations. Mapping and estimating national green GDPs is a challenging task. In this study, we estimated the global market and non-market monetary values using two images, GlobCover 2009 and nighttime satellite imagery, as well as a comprehensive dataset. We also developed an integrated method supported by geographic information system (GIS) techniques, focused on spatial heterogeneity and real value, to create synthetic green GDP maps at global and national scales. Our results show that in 2009, for the entire biosphere, the ecosystem services value (ESV) could be estimated at US$ 149.61 trillion. Approximately 75.15% of the ESV is contributed by marine systems. The world GDP in 2009 was about US$ 71.75 trillion (for 225 countries or regions), resulting in a ratio of total ESV to GDP of approximately 2.09–1. Nighttime satellite imagery represents a more spatially explicit indicator of market value than does GDP. We also found that the distribution of the synthetic national green GDPs follows Zipf's Law, which holds that internal coherence exists among countries. A crude but simple indicator of the %ESV indicates that the relationship between the GDP and ESV is not always in a fixed pattern. The reliability of this result was demonstrated by comparing it with previous research and other relevant indices. We found a very high degree of confidence associated with this product. The method presented here is generally applicable at the global and continental scales and is applicable at the national scale for mapping the ESV and GDP. We hope that the results of this study will inform both policy-makers and the public about national green GDPs and encourage them to incorporate these values into policy decisions.

Biodiversity data requirements for systematic conservation planning in the Mediterranean Sea

Levin N, Coll M, Fraschetti S, Gal G, Giakoumi S, Göke C, Heymans JJacomina, Katsanevakis S, Mazor T, Öztür B, et al. Biodiversity data requirements for systematic conservation planning in the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series [Internet]. 2014 ;508:261 - 281. Available from: http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v508/p261-281/
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Mediterranean Sea’s biodiversity and ecosystems face many threats due to anthropogenic pressures. Some of these include human population growth, coastal urbanization, accelerated human activities, and climate change. To enhance the formation of a science-based system of marine protected areas in the Mediterranean Sea, data on the spatial distribution of ecological features (abiotic variables, species, communities, habitats, and ecosystems) is required to inform conservation scientists and planners. However, the spatial data required is often lacking. In this review, we aimed to address the status of our knowledge for 3 major types of spatial information: bathymetry, classification of marine habitats, and species distributions. To exemplify the data gaps and approaches to bridge them, we examined case studies that systematically prioritize conservation in the Mediterranean Sea. We found that at present the data required for conservation planning is generally more readily available and of better quality for the European countries located in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Additionally, the Mediterranean Sea is lagging behind other marine regions where rigorous criteria for conservation planning has been applied in the past 20 yr. Therefore, we call upon scientists, governments, and international governmental and non-governmental organizations to harmonize current approaches in marine mapping and to develop a framework that is applicable throughout the Mediterranean region. Such coordination between stakeholders is urgently needed before more countries undertake further extensive habitat mapping, so that future conservation planning can use integrated spatial datasets.

Are marine protected areas and priority areas for conservation representative of humpback whale breeding habitats in the western South Atlantic?

de Castro FR, Mamede N, Danilewicz D, Geyer Y, Pizzorno JLuis A, Zerbini AN, Andriolo A. Are marine protected areas and priority areas for conservation representative of humpback whale breeding habitats in the western South Atlantic?. Biological Conservation [Internet]. 2014 ;179:106 - 114. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320714003309
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) is an important component of conservation strategies for large marine vertebrates. Thus, quantitative evaluations are necessary to assess whether their habitats are protected by these areas. In this study, the representativeness of government-established MPAs and identified priority areas for conservation (PACs) relative to the Brazilian wintering habitat of humpback whales was assessed using satellite telemetry data (n = 74 individuals). Argos-derived location data were filtered and modeled using a switching state space model (SSSM) and overlaid on shapefiles for MPAs and PACs. Humpback whales occurred in only 18.31% of the 71 MPAs observed within the species range. A lower frequency of locations was recorder inside rather than outside these areas. MPAs of Integral Protection used by humpback whales correspond to only 0.64% of the species wintering habitat. In contrast, a total of 40% of the 55 PACs observed within the same area was occupied by the whales, with a higher frequency of locations documented inside the PACs. Our results suggest that PACs encompass the species habitat in a more representative manner than MPAs. Because the former do not provide legal protection, they do not effectively contribute to the species conservation. We suggest PACs used by the species, especially Abrolhos Bank PAC, can be used as basis to refine conservation efforts of humpback whales in their breeding grounds in light of increased anthropogenic stressors. We also demonstrate that animal movement data obtained from satellite telemetry studies are useful for assessing the representativeness of MPAs and to improve management of whales.

Improving the Outlook for Caribbean Coral Reefs: A Regional Plan of Action 2014 – 2019

Marshall P, Dowd A, Catzim N, Nichols K eds. Improving the Outlook for Caribbean Coral Reefs: A Regional Plan of Action 2014 – 2019. Townsville: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority; 2014 p. 32.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

A key element of the Caribbean region’s vulnerability to climate change is the threat to coral reef ecosystems. Regional Heads of Government throughout the Caribbean have recognized the important role that coral reefs play in national economies and their crucial contribution to sustainable development. Accordingly, governments, regional leaders and coastal communities have begun to take measures to address the region’s vulnerability and build resilience to climate change.

The Coral Reef Plan of Action provides a roadmap for navigating the challenges of sustainably managing coral reefs to protect biological diversity while sustaining provision of goods and services that these ecosystems provide to the people of the Caribbean.

The plan presents a set of objectives for improving the outlook for Caribbean reefs by 2018. These are the result of regional consultations that identified the priority needs expressed by regional leaders, stakeholders, officials and experts who together have accumulated the experience required for tackling the issues faced in the sustainable management of Caribbean coral reefs. The objectives are grouped under four goals:

  1. Improve the health and resilience of Caribbean coral reefs
  2. Strengthen adaptive capacity of communities
  3. Build foundations for national and regional action
  4. Advocate globally for stronger action on climate change

Investment in achieving the goals and objectives in this plan will be further guided through development of an associated implementation plan, and a program of monitoring, evaluation and reporting. With the support of the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre, the Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism will lead implementation of this plan to ensure it has the best chance of building the resilience of coral reefs to the impacts of climate variability and change in the Caribbean region.

This Coral Reef Plan of Action is aligned with relevant initiatives, sub-regional strategies and plans targeted at Caribbean coral reefs. These include the Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism’s Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management Strategy and Action Plan, the 2012 Report Card for the Mesoamerican Reef, and the Strategic Action Programme for the Sustainable Management of the Shared Living Marine Resources of the Caribbean Large Marine Ecosystems and Adjacent Regions (CLME+SAP).

The Plan supports the vision articulated in the Liliendaal Declaration and contributes to strategic elements and goals elaborated in the Regional Framework for Achieving Development Resilient to Climate Change (Regional Framework) and its associated Implementation Plan (see Appendix 1). Through an integrated approach across these strategic initiatives, the Coral Reef Plan of Action will help build regional coordination and national commitment, motivate actions and stimulate much-needed support and investment from the international community in a coordinated effort to improve the outlook for Caribbean coral reefs.

Guidelines for Integrating Human Dimensions into MPA Planning and Management

Sowman M, Raemaekers S, Sunde J. Guidelines for Integrating Human Dimensions into MPA Planning and Management. WWF-SA and the University of Cape Town; 2014 p. 140.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are one of the key tools used to achieve conservation, biodiversity and fisheries management objectives around the world. Increasingly though, conservation planners, MPA managers, researchers and local communities are calling for a more people-centred approach to MPA planning and management, recognising that long-term conservation and fisheries management objectives will not be realised unless human dimensions and societal concerns are adequately addressed.

To date, many MPAs have been established, planned and managed with little consideration of the human dimensions – social, cultural, economic, political and governance issues – and impact of the MPA on local communities. In order to address this challenge, WWF South Africa and the Environmental Evaluation Unit (EEU) at the University of Cape Town, undertook a three year long project looking at how to integrate human and ecological dimensions in MPA governance.

Funded by the WWF Nedbank Green Trust and based on a number of Phd and Masters dissertations, the EEU have developed a comprehensive and collaborative set of guidelines which was finalised in March 2014 around MPA planning, titled ‘Integrating Human Dimensions into MPA Planning and Management’.

This project explores how MPAs can become more meaningful to society in terms of addressing social, economic and ecological objectives. It highlights the importance of considering issues such as human values, aspirations, lifestyles, cultural heritage, livelihoods, local economic activities and institutional arrangements in the development of MPAs and their management strategies. Provided in a short and long form, the guidelines are available for download and use by all.

Seychelles Marine Spatial Planning Initiative Workshop #2

Anon. Seychelles Marine Spatial Planning Initiative Workshop #2. Seychelles Marine Spatial Planning Initiative; 2014 p. 26.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

The Seychelles Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) Initiative is a public process focused on planning for, and management of, the sustainable and long-term use and health of the Seychelles Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), a marine area covering 1,374,000 km2 and 115 islands. The MSP Initiative is a government-led process, with planning and facilitation managed by a partnership between The Nature Conservancy, the Government of Seychelles, and the United Nations Development Programme - Global Environment Facility Programme Coordinating Unit. Funding for the Initiative is being provided by UNDP-GEF grants to the Government of Seychelles, and an Oceans 5 grant to The Nature Conservancy.

Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) provides a participatory and transparent way to focus on sustainable uses for the Seychelles marine environment and minimise spatial conflicts between uses. The Seychelles MSP Initiative takes an integrated, multi-sector approach and will balance ecological, social, cultural and economic objectives. The participatory nature of MSP encourages communities and private sector partners to provide advice, information and input to the Seychelles Initiative.

Article 38 of the Constitution of Seychelles provides the authority for planning and the guiding principles, vision and goals of the Seychelles Sustainable Development Strategy (SSDS) helps provide the framework for the MSP Initiative. The Initiative will develop an integrated, multi-use marine zoning and climate change adaptation plan to optimise the sustainable use and effective management of the Seychelles marine environment while ensuring and improving the social, cultural and economic wellbeing of its people. This marine plan will serve as the basis for guiding the strategies and decisions of the Seychelles Conservation & Climate Adaptation Trust (SeyCCAT) that was established by the Government of Seychelles for a Debt-for-Climate-Change-Adaptation swap. Phase I of the MSP Initiative (February 2014 – June 2015) will produce a suite of design options, tools and management strategies as a basis for further development and implementation of the national multi-use plan.

The Seychelles MSP Initiative was launched at a workshop on 4-5 February 2014 in Victoria. The key objectives of that workshop were to introduce the MSP Initiative being facilitated by The Nature Conservancy, and identify the key components that will support the Seychelles Blue Economy. People at the workshop identified seven sectors important to the scope of the planning process (in no particular order): biodiversity conservation, cultural heritage, fisheries, marine transportation, petroleum (mineral & aggregate) extraction, renewable energy, and tourism. Focusing on the seven sectors, participants were led through a 10-20 year visioning exercise to describe what they did and did not want to see for these sectors over this time scale. The results of the visioning exercise were refined into general goals by the workshop participants and ranked in order of low, medium, and high priority.

A website is currently being developed for the MSP Initiative (www.seychellesmarinespatialplanning.com) that will host all the relevant background documents, reports and presentations. The website will be used to keep all stakeholders updated on progress of the process and should be accessible by early July. In the interim, all related handouts and documents are included in the annex section.

Towards Reef Resilience and Sustainable Livelihoods: a handbook for Caribbean reef managers

Mumby PJ, Flower J, Chollett I, Box SJ, Bozec Y-M, Fitzsimmons C, Forster J, Gill D, Griffith-Mumby R, Oxenford HA, et al. Towards Reef Resilience and Sustainable Livelihoods: a handbook for Caribbean reef managers. Exeter: University of Exeter; 2014 p. 176.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

The project has produced a handbook that aims to provide reef managers with tools, information and recommendations on management of coral reef ecosystems. The handbook sections range from ecological history and biogeography, resilience as well as climate change issues to fisheries, governance and the monitoring of coral reef ecosystems.

Within each section are practical stand-alone ‘briefs’. These briefs offer concise information on particular reef-related issues, utilising some of the most recent scientific research to inform management actions. Each of the briefings is a unique grab-and-go resource. The accessible format also provides a useful resource for students, researchers, policy-makers and anyone interested in the future of Caribbean coral reefs.

Towards Investment in Sustainable Fisheries: A framework for financing the transition

Bonzon K, de Vos K, Holmes L, Strauss K. Towards Investment in Sustainable Fisheries: A framework for financing the transition. Environmental Defense Fund and The Prince of Wales’s International Sustainability Unit; 2014 p. 86.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Research suggest three key enablers of sustainable and profitable fisheries that, together, provide the basis for increased value: 

  • Secure tenure aligns the incentives and empowers the fishing industry to pursue sustainable use of the resource and is a vital first step in the transition
  • Sustainable harvests determine how much fish can be caught sustainably and enable the creation of both management and investment frameworks
  • Monitoring and enforcement provide assurance that fishers will comply with sustainable management and reduce the chance of illegal activity that could undermine the transition

These conditions, particularly establishing secure tenure, provide the platform for unlocking greater social, economic and environmental value in fisheries and are vital to investment activities. With the conditions described above in place, investment can be channelled towards the three key drivers of increased fisheries value:

  • Improving stock health leads to higher long-term yields and makes fish less costly to find and catch
  • Increasing operational efficiency reduces fishing and delivery-related costs, improving profit margins and thus improving the returns from fishing as a whole
  • Increasing market value through improved market access, certification, branding and long-term partnerships returns more value to fishers 
  • A clear business case for the transition that includes a contextual analysis of the project as well as a bioeconomic and financial model of the investment proposition
  • Investable entities to act as counterparty to the investment; these can be existing, modified, or newly created entities
  • Mechanisms for capturing return from the beneficiaries of the transition to share the upside of a transitioned fishery with the investor, such as dividends, taxes, or fees
  • Risk management through appropriate identification and articulation of risks, as well as efforts to mitigate or manage risk

Structuring the investment to align and coordinate sources of capital can create a financially sustainable transition and match investors to the financial, environmental and social returns that fisheries provide. Project developers can consider two key points:

  • Sources of capital, or investors, fall along a spectrum based on, among other things, target returns, type of investment and target terms. Traditionally, fishery transitions have been funded by ‘impact-only’ investors who expect no return or little financial return
  • Combining capital to sequence, blend or layer investment structures can effectively reduce and spread risk, while leveraging larger pools of capital. Including different types of investors will ultimately unlock the resources needed to start to address the scale of the challenge that lies ahead

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