Farming of Arctic charr mainly takes place in land‐based farms applying intensive rearing methods with relatively high production costs. Depending on local conditions at each site, it is possible to regulate important environmental factors to improve productivity and well‐being of the fish. Knowledge about how these different environmental factors affect various farming traits is important to reduce production costs. This review shows how rearing temperature, photoperiod, salinity and feeding rate can affect farming traits such as growth rate, maturation and feed conversion efficiency of Arctic charr. High growth rate during juvenile phase when the fish are reared at higher temperatures can result in higher incidence of maturation during the on‐growing period. Overall, more moderate rearing temperature regimes seem to result in better long‐term growth rates. Photoperiod manipulation and feed ration can be used as tools to improve growth and reduce maturation. It is possible to rear Arctic charr successfully up to market size in salinities up to c. 27–28 ppt. However, extended rearing resulted in higher ratio of sexually mature fish at 29 than at 25 possibly linked to higher rearing temperatures in brackish water. Future studies should focus on better preserving the potential high growth rate of Arctic charr during juvenile phase into the on‐growing period and establish protocols to improve the seawater tolerance of Arctic charr.
There has been a recent proliferation of large‐scale marine protected areas (MPAs) containing pelagic habitats. These contribute substantially toward meeting the area‐based goal of Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 and to managing pelagic ecosystem pressures, including fishing. We assessed theoretical and empirical evidence for the achievement of ecological objectives by static and dynamic spatial management of pelagic fisheries. Exceptionally few studies have assessed ecological responses to MPAs that constrain pelagic fisheries, leaving substantial uncertainty over their efficacy. Assessments have provided a limited basis for causal inferences and have not evaluated whether other management tools would be more effective. Pelagic MPAs have relatively high promise to mitigate fisheries bycatch of species of conservation concern with “slow” life history traits and that form temporally and spatially predictable hotspots, and for some species, to protect habitats important for critical life history stages. It would be challenging to design MPAs to maintain absolute biomass levels of target stocks near targets and above limits: MPAs would need to be extensive to account for broad and variable distributions, and account for catch risk outside of the MPA, including from displaced fishing effort and fishing‐the‐line. For non‐overexploited stocks, which is the status of most target pelagic species and their prey, there would likely be little response in absolute stock biomass to an MPA. While pelagic MPAs have a higher promise of increasing target stocks’ local abundance, evidence with a robust basis for inferring causality is needed. Reducing fishing mortality of prey species might not affect the biomass of their pelagic predators because prey species experience light fishing pressure and because there may be a weak correlation between the absolute abundance of forage fish and their predators. There is an especially limited basis for predicting the effects of MPAs on fisheries‐induced evolution (FIE) in pelagic species. We describe how pelagic MPAs could be designed to achieve five ecological objectives without causing cross‐taxa conflicts and exacerbating FIE. To fill substantial gaps in knowledge, we prescribe counterfactual‐based modeling of time series data of standardized catch records to infer causation in assessments of ecological responses to pelagic MPAs.
In partially protected marine areas, such as recreational fishing havens (RFHs), fishery‐independent surveys and recreational angler surveys represent two of the few available methods of collecting length‐frequency data to monitor population responses to protection from commercial fishing and the impacts of ongoing recreational fishing. Although length data plays an important role in facilitating stock assessment and monitoring within RFHs, little is known about the relative magnitude and direction of size‐selective biases introduced by fishery‐independent surveys and angler surveys. This study quantitatively compared length data derived from the two methods for three exploited species or taxa (bream species complex of Acanthopagrus spp. [hybrid complex of Black Bream A. butcheri × Yellowfin Bream A. australis], Dusky Flathead Platycephalus fuscus, and Sand Whiting Sillago ciliata) sampled from two estuarine RFHs in Australia. When all lengths sampled by each method were compared, the species‐specific length frequencies derived from angler surveys and fishery‐independent surveys differed significantly in all cases but for Dusky Flathead from one RFH. Following standardization for minimum‐legal‐length restrictions, the angler survey method captured a more representative spectrum of lengths for Acanthopagrus spp. For Dusky Flathead, angler surveys and fishery‐independent surveys performed equally in terms of the lengths captured. Although length frequencies for Sand Whiting above minimum legal length differed significantly between the methods in both RFHs, spatial inconsistencies precluded a clear conclusion for this species. The fact that neither method consistently outperformed the other across all species supports the idea that using both angler surveys and fishery‐independent surveys in a complimentary manner may enable a clearer understanding of size compositions across multiple species for monitoring and stock assessment purposes and thereby facilitate an ecosystem‐based approach to fishery assessment and management.
Marine bioinvasions require integrating monitoring tools with other complementary strategies. In this study, we collected information about the invasive Callinectes sapidus in Italy, Croatia and Montenegro, by means of online questionnaires administered to recreational fishers (n = 797). Our records matched the current distribution of the species: C. sapidus resulted far more common in the Adriatic, than in the Tyrrhenian sector. Most respondents rated the species as ‘occasional’ or ‘rare’. Moreover, the more C. sapidus was considered to be abundant, the more fishers tended to perceive it as a negative disturbance over fisheries and the environment. Our findings suggest that C. sapidus is more common than previously thought in the most of the study area, and it could have reached the levels of a true invasions in the south-eastern Adriatic Sea. This experience demonstrates that online questionnaires can be appropriate tools to effectively engage stakeholders in alien species monitoring.
This study examined the effects of SCUBA bubbles on fish counts in underwater visual surveys conducted in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM). Specifically, paired fish surveys were conducted at each survey site, utilizing two different gear types: open-circuit SCUBA (OC) and closed-circuit rebreather (CCR). Bubble exhaust released from the OC equipment is a potential source of bias for in-situ fish observations, as the associated audio and visual disturbances could either attract or repel fishes depending on whether their behavior is more driven by curiosity or caution. The study area, is a large (~1.5 million km2) and extremely remote marine protected area in which the response of coral reef fishes to divers represent natural behavior of naive fishes with little or no previous contact with humans. Historically, surveys conducted on OC in this area have shown an abundance of large roving piscivores and this study set out to determine the extant, if any, the audible and visual disturbances of OC bubbles have. The species typically seen in these prior surveys were Caranx ignobilis, Caranx melampygus, Aprion virescens, and a couple of species of sharks. We found differences in counts for some roving piscivores, including significantly more jacks observed on OC than CCR (Caranx ignobilis 57% more, and Caranx melampygus 113% more). Instance of first encounter, i.e. the time when a fish was first observed during a survey, also varied for some species. Higher numbers of Aprion virescens (p = 0.04), and C. melampygus (p = <0.001) were observed in the first 5-minutes of counts by divers on OC (i.e. when they were using breathing apparatus that produced noises that could be heard over long distances). Although not the focus of the study, we also assessed differences between OC and CCR counts for other groups of fishes. Estimated abundance of benthic damselfish was higher on OC than CCR, and counts of butterflyfish were lower on OC; but there were no significant differences for the other groups considered. This is an important control study that documents the natural responses of coral reef fishes to SCUBA bubbles generated by in-situ surveys.
- Marine protected areas (MPAs) can be effective tools for marine resource management. However, despite evidence of the positive effects of MPAs, such as increases in body sizes of organisms targeted by fisheries, there is often heterogeneity in biological outcomes among them.
- Because fishing can drastically impact fish populations, the goal of this study was to determine if the levels of exploitation prior to protection could predict variation in the magnitude of MPA effects.
- Using a diver‐operated stereo–video camera system, we compared sizes of fishes targeted by anglers within seven MPAs spanning the Southern California Bight to nearby comparison areas (non‐MPAs). We used fine‐scale data on pre‐closure fishing pressure to test responses of fishes to protection along a gradient of exploitation.
- Fish size responded to protection in proportion to pre‐closure fishing pressure, with MPAs in areas with high pre‐closure fishing having greater responses in average lengths and size distributions than those in areas with low fishing pressure.
- This response was evident in species heavily targeted by recreational fishing, but not in species that were not targeted in fisheries.
- Synthesis and applications. Pre‐closure fishing pressure of an area can impact the efficacy of MPAs, and, when available, should be considered when predicting and evaluating MPA performance. Prioritizing heavily exploited areas for protection when implementing spatial management tools could maximize ecological outcomes.
Ecosystem services, as public goods, are often undersupplied because private markets do not fully take into account the social cost of production. To alleviate the concern about this imbalance situation, payments for ecosystem services (PES) have emerged as a preferable alternative. While temples in Korea have owned a considerable part of the national parks, a PES approach can be used as a viable option to alleviate the conflicts among visitors, non-visitors, and temples. The purpose of this paper is to assess the economic values of ecosystem services provided by temple forests as a compensation mechanism. Using a contingent valuation method, an online survey was conducted with 1000 respondents. Study results showed that the economic benefits of the conservation of temple forests were estimated to be substantial, ranging from ₩5980 (US $5.42) to ₩7709 ($7.08) per household per year. The results also confirmed the effects of social factors such as individuals’ trust in the government’s environmental policies and importance on the conservation of temples’ cultural and religious values on the willingness to pay. With a growing interest in securing ecosystem services through a PES approach, estimating economic benefits of the conservation of inholdings in public protected areas will be a valuable piece of information as an important policy decision-making tool
Using the green economy framework of DeLacy , this paper evaluated the policy environment regarding the green economy concept and circumstance in the destination of Wakatobi Island, Indonesia. The four policy clusters of the green economy framework guided the investigation in order to provide an understanding of the existing green economy framework policies and identify policy gaps that were pertinent to the transformation to the green economy of the tourism sector in the destination of Wakatobi Island. The policy analysis was also informed by observations in the destination to explore the extent that the destination has implemented green economy policies. It was found that the policy environment in Indonesia is generally conducive for the tourism sector to transform into a green economy. However, most of the green economy initiatives in the country are policy-level adaptation. Further, there is a strong need to incorporate measurement of indicators of progress towards the success of implementation of the published policies.
We examined the relationships between bathymetry, latitude and energy and the diversity of marine benthic invertebrates across wide environmental ranges of Canada's three oceans.
Canadian Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic Oceans from the intertidal zone to upper bathyal depths, encompassing 13 marine ecoregions.
We compiled 35 benthic datasets that encompass 3,337 taxa (70% identified to species and 21% to genus) from 13,172 samples spanning 6,117 sites. Partitioning the analyses by different gear types, ecoregions or sites, we used Hill numbers to examine spatial patterns in α‐diversity. We used resampling and extrapolation to standardized sampling effort and examined the effects of depth, latitude, chemical energy (export particulate organic carbon [POC] flux), thermal energy (bottom temperature) and seasonality of primary production on the benthic biodiversity.
The Canadian Arctic harboured the highest benthic diversity (e.g. epifauna and common and dominant infauna species), whereas the lowest diversity was found in the Atlantic. The Puget Trough (Pacific), Beaufort Sea, Arctic Archipelago, Hudson Bay, Northern Labrador and Southern Grand Bank (Atlantic) were the “hotspots" of diversity among the ecoregions. The infauna and epifauna both exhibited hump‐shaped diversity–depth relationships, with peak diversity near shelf breaks; latitude (positively) predicted infaunal diversity, albeit weakly. Food supply, as inferred from primary production and depth, was more important than thermal energy in controlling diversity patterns. Limitations with respect to calculating POC flux in coastal (e.g. terrestrial runoff) and ice‐covered regions or biological interactions may explain the negative POC flux–infaunal diversity relationship.
We show previously unreported diversity hotspots in the Canadian Arctic and in other ecoregions. Our analyses reveal potential controlling mechanisms of large‐scale benthic biodiversity patterns in Canada's three oceans, which are inconsistent with the prevailing view of seafloor energy–diversity relationships. These results provide insightful information for conservation that can help to implement further MPA networks.
Mangrove ecosystems have an important role and provide ecosystem services that support the surrounding life, but their existence gets to experience pressure and degradation continuously. This study aims to analyze the ecosystem services carrying capacity of Angke Kapuk Mangrove (MAK) Jakarta Bay. The carrying capacity of the MAK ecosystem area was analyzed by examining the condition of ecosystem services and the carrying capacity of the protected function of the MAK and surrounding ecosystems. The condition of ecosystem services refers to the carrying capacity (D3TLH) map of the Muara Angke Kapuk mangrove ecosystem Area, Jakarta Bay, P3EJawa KLHK, while the carrying capacity of the protected function refers to the 2014 Ministry of Environment (KLH) D3TLH Guidelines and remote sensing and GIS techniques. MAK ecosystem areas are mostly in the low ecosystem services category. The results of the analysis show that the carrying capacity of the protected area of MAK ecosystem in Penjaringan District is 0.32, which means the carrying capacity of the protected function of the region is categorized damaged. These results provide an overview of the challenges and threats that occur in the MAK ecosystem area so that it requires attention and strategic efforts in maintaining the sustainability of ecosystem services.
Moving toward new ways of governing ecosystems in varied contexts worldwide is likely to be a critical part of achieving the global Sustainable Development Goals, yet understanding of the tensions between forces driving and opposing such sustainability transformations is very limited. Here, I shed light on this critical research and policy domain by applying participatory actor and influence mapping (Net-Map) and innovation histories methods to understand the power relations and social processes involved in enabling and blocking the institutionalization of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM) in the Philippines. Drawing upon a case study of an intermunicipal alliance in Lanuza Bay, the results highlight how challenges such as vested and divergent interests, corruption, weak coordination between levels of government, and the particular contingencies of place conspire to weaken and undermine initial EAFM successes. I conclude that agents of resistance, the role of power and agency, and socio-political realities need to be central to resilience conceptualizations of sustainability transformations.
Coastal waters of Ondo State, Nigeria have diverse assemblage of fish, yet there is dearth of information on its plankton composition. This study investigates plankton components in relation to physicochemical characteristics of the coastal waters bordering Olotu, Ayetoro and Bijimi in providing baseline information that can be used for planning and implementation of policies for monitoring, impacts assessment and conservation. Surface water samples were collected on monthly basis from March to June 2015 to analyze physicochemical parameters while plankton net of 55μm mesh size was used for collection of plankton using standard methods prescribed by APHA. The light and dark bottle method was used to determine primary productivity. Shannon-wiener, Margalef and Equitability Indices were used for diversity. Values of the physicochemical parameters observed ranged as follows: temperature, 27.47±2.06-29.27±0.31ºC; turbidity, 43.43±0.91-65.33±2.52NTU; pH, 5.54±0.31-6.12±0.30; BOD, 2.20±0.29-5.43±0.54 mg/l; COD, 6.08±2.71-6.66±1.52 mg/l; dissolved oxygen, 6.39±0.39-7.78±0.19 mg/l and salinity, 2.03±0.06-3.77±0.04 mg/l. Fifteen species of phytoplankton and three developmental stages of zooplankton were recorded. Phytoplankton accounted for 83.3% as against 16.7% zooplankton. Diatoms (93.3%) and dinoflagellates (6.7%) represented phytoplankton whereas 66.7% of zooplankton belonged to the phylum Arthropoda. Primary productivity ranged between 132.194±13.48m-3hr-1 and 134.48±15.27m-3hr-1. Some dominant species recorded were Coscinodiscus, Biddulphia, Copepod, Skeletonema and Ditylum. pH and Temperature were major determinant of the composition, diversity and abundance of plankton. The observed plankton group indicates the suitability of the creeks as habitat and breeding ground for diverse aquatic species. The water quality falls within acceptable range hence the environment can be classified as healthy ecosystem.
Caribbean countries, including Jamaica, face substantial risks from storms and hurricanes. Coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds protect communities from storms, and are critical for the sustainability of many economic activities, jobs, and inclusive growth.
A recent report, “Forces of Nature,” examines the considerable flood risk reduction services that mangroves provide to Jamaica, together with benefits related to fisheries production, and carbon sequestration.
This report supports the growing interest within the development agenda to include nature-based solutions for disaster risk management and provides vital information for discussion on climate change adaptation and mitigation, insurance, and disaster recovery decisions.
A comprehensive research study of Cabeza de Toro and Punta Cana’s fishing and tourism industries reveal viability of economic solutions between the hospitality industry, fishermen, and the government to reduce practices harmful to the coastal marine ecosystem. Recent research studies of Punta Cana and Cabeza de Toro’s coastal marine ecosystem demonstrate diminishing coral coverage and reduced fish populations. Causes for the decline of the coastal marine ecosystem include overfishing, illegal fishing of species conducive to coral health, and the destruction of mangrove sanctuaries. By methods of survey and in-person interview, researchers gathered data on over 20% of Cabeza de Toro’s fisherman population with the intent of further developing a co-management plan for the recently established marine protected area. Data collection included qualitative and quantitative research into income and livelihoods of Cabeza de Toro fishermen, fishing practices, interest in alternative work opportunities, and strength of social responsibility and environmental beliefs. Findings demonstrate that viable economic applications exist in forging partnerships between fishermen, the tourism and hospitality industries, and the local government.
Transboundary conservation has an important, yet often undervalued, role in the international conservation regime. When applied to the legally ambiguous and interconnected marine environment this is magnified. The lack of clear guidance for transboundary marine conservation from the international conservation community exacerbates this problem, leaving individual initiatives to develop their own governance arrangements. Yet, well-managed transboundary marine protected areas (MPAs) have the potential to contribute significantly to global conservation aims. Conversely, in a period where there is increasing interest in marine resources and space from all sectors, the designation of MPAs can create or amplify a regional conflict. In some instances, states have used MPAs to extend rights over disputed marine resources, restrict the freedom of others and establish sovereignty over maritime space. Six case studies were taken from Europe, North Africa and the Middle East to illustrate how states have interpreted and utilized different legislative mechanisms to either come together or diverge over the governance of marine resources or maritime space. Each of the case studies illustrates how different actors have used the same legislative tools, but with different interpretations and applications, to justify their claims. It is clear that the role of science combined with a deeper engagement with stakeholders can play a critical role in tempering conflict between states. Where states are willing to cooperate, the absence of clear guidelines at the global level means that often ad hoc measures are put into place, with the international frameworks then playing catch up. Balancing different jurisdictional claims with the conservation of the marine environment, whilst considering the increasing special economic interests will become increasingly difficult. Developing a transboundary conservation tool, such as the simple conservation caveats found in the Barcelona Convention and Antarctic Convention, which allow for the establishment of intergovernmental cooperation without prejudicing any outstanding jurisdictional issue, would provide a framework for the development of individual transboundary MPAs.
Impactful communication remains a vexing problem for climate science researchers and public outreach. This article identifies a range of moving images and screen-based media used to visualize climate change, focusing especially on the Arctic region and the efforts of the United Nations. The authors examine the aesthetics of big data visualization of melting sea ice and glaciers made by NASA and similar entities; eye-witness, expert accounts and youth-produced documentaries designed for United Nations delegates to the annual COP events such as the Youth Climate Report; Please Help the World, the dystopian cli-fi narrative produced for the UN’s COP 15; and Isuma TV’s streaming of works by Indigenous practitioners in Nunavut.
Studying the distribution of zooplankton in relation to their prey and predators is challenging, especially in situ. Recent developments in underwater imaging enable such fine-scale research. We deployed the Lightframe On-sight Keyspecies Investigation (LOKI) image profiler to study the fine-scale (1 m) vertical distribution of the copepods Calanus hyperboreus and C. glacialis in relation to the subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) at the end of the grazing season in August in the North Water and Nares Strait (Canadian Arctic). The vertical distribution of both species was generally consistent with the predictions of the Predator Avoidance Hypothesis. In the absence of a significant SCM, both copepods remained at depth during the night. In the presence of a significant SCM, copepods remained at depth in daytime and a fraction of the population migrated in the SCM at night. All three profiles where the numerically dominant copepodite stages C4 and C5 of the two species grazed in the SCM at night presented the same intriguing pattern: the abundance of C. hyperboreus peaked in the core of the SCM while that of C. glacialis peaked just above and below the core SCM. These distributions of the same-stage congeners in the SCMs were significantly different. Lipid fullness of copepod individuals was significantly higher in C. hyperboreus in the core SCM than in C. glacialis above and below the core SCM. Foraging interference resulting in the exclusion from the core SCM of the smaller C. glacialis by the larger C. hyperboreus could explain this vertical partitioning of the actively grazing copepodite stages of the two species. Alternatively, specific preferences for microalgal and/or microzooplankton food hypothetically occupying different layers in the SCM could explain the observed partitioning. Investigating the observed fine-scale co-distributions further will enable researchers to better predict potential climate change effects on these important Arctic congeners.
The article discusses the possibility and perspectives of using the reclaimed artificial areas in the coastal zone of marine estuaries for the sustainable development of urban infrastructure and creation of modern architectural ensembles with the background of green economy using the example of Lakhta-Center on the northern coast of the Neva Bay (St. Petersburg, Russia). The geo-ecological stability of underwater and coastal landscapes of the coastal zone of the Neva Bay is analyzed using side scan sonar. The environmental sensitivity of coastal ecosystems is estimated. The received data can be used on practice for planning the construction work and for the development of the infrastructure of urbanized coastal zone of the Neva Bay. The general geo-ecological situation in the observed area is rather stable. The coastal zone has good perspectives for the development of a sustainable urban infrastructure against the backdrop of the green economy. The special attention should be paid to migration of birds and fish, who are using the North Lakhta coast as a temporary refugium during Spring and Autumn migrations. An effective solution from both environmental and economic points of view could be the organization of the Nature Conservation Reserve, which is spatially associated with the Lakhta Center zone. Such type of the complex using of the coastal zone could be a good example of the spatial planning in the environmentally sensitive area.
China is the largest plastic consumer in the world. Despite its plastic waste import ban in 2017, this populous economy inevitably generates a large amount of waste, including plastic waste, a considerable part of which has become marine litter. Data from the 2018 National Coastal Cleanup and Monitoring Project, the largest beach litter monitoring activities using the citizen science approach in China, have been retrieved and analyzed to understand spatial patterns, composition, and original usage of marine litter. Within this project, 24 beaches were surveyed every two months. As a result, the mean density was 3.85 ± 5.39 items m−2, much higher than that reported by previous studies in China. There were great differences in the spatial distribution of litter. The highest densities appeared in the runoff-affected area of the Yangtze River, which was another difference from previous studies. Low-density, easy-to-transport foamed plastics were the major contributor to marine litter in these areas. Along China's coast, approximately 90% of litter was from land-based sources, and over half of that originated from domestic sources. Including foamed plastic products, plastic litter with low recycling value dominated. Both natural and human factors influencing the spatiotemporal distribution and composition of litter are discussed. Socioeconomic factors, such as the lifestyle and consumption levels of citizens and local waste management systems, are possible explanations for the low-value characteristic of marine litter. The deviation between previous data and citizen science data in this study may be caused by many factors. Based on the discussion on these factors, some suggestions for citizen science research in China are also put forward.
The question of how to efficiently and effectively manage ocean resources in a sustainable way has reached the forefront of discussion at an international level, but women's contributions to this process have been underestimated or unrecognized. Inclusive management plays a major role in the effective creation, use and adoption of environmental governance, necessitating efforts to measure, monitor and advance inclusivity. In many Pacific island states, there is a lack of disaggregated data collection and management to assist reliable and liable gender-responsive decision-making by national and regional authorities. This lack of information leads to unquantified female contributions and unexplored potential for women to actively contribute to sustainable ocean management as traditional leaders, researchers or science-based managers and in accordance with traditional customs, cultures and processes. This paper examines the contribution of gender-disaggregated data in both (1) effective management of natural resources and (2) measurement and monitoring of the active involvement of women in ocean management. We seek to shift the question from simply “(How) are oceans used by women?” to “How can we build a clear path towards inclusive oceans management using science?”, drawing data mainly from gender and ocean management practices in Pacific Small Island Developing States. This work also seeks to ground in reality the increasing national and international evocations about social equity and avoidance of gender discrimination. Given the existing relationships of Pacific peoples with the ocean and the emerging status of ocean science-based governance, wider integration of science and women in marine management can make an interesting and positive impact in this region.