Literature Library

Currently indexing 10429 titles

Linking Environmental DNA and RNA for Improved Detection of the Marine Invasive Fanworm Sabella spallanzanii

von Ammon U, Wood SA, Laroche O, Zaiko A, Lavery SD, Inglis GJ, Pochon X. Linking Environmental DNA and RNA for Improved Detection of the Marine Invasive Fanworm Sabella spallanzanii. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00621/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Environmental DNA is increasingly being used in marine invasive species surveillance despite the inability to discriminate between contemporary intracellular (i.e., living) and extracellularly persistent (i.e., legacy) DNA fragments. Environmental RNA is emerging as a powerful alternative when distinguishing the living portion of a community is essential. A positive relationship between DNA and RNA signals may justify the use of DNA only for more rapid and cost-effective detections. In this study environmental DNA and RNA were co-extracted from settlement plates and water samples collected in an Auckland harbor, New Zealand. Samples were analyzed using a specific droplet digital PCR assay for the invasive Mediterranean fanworm (Sabella spallanzanii), combined with metabarcoding of metazoan communities (Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I). The number and magnitude of S. spallanzanii detections was higher in DNA compared to RNA, and in water samples. An assessment of detection sensitivity and specificity using a Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) analysis supported a relationship between the magnitude of DNA signal and the likelihood of RNA detection for both sampled matrices. A prediction threshold of 400 COI copies in DNA samples provides an indicator for the detection of eRNA, hence the putative presence of living S. spallanzanii population under the conditions tested in this study. Metabarcoding community analysis revealed the taxonomic composition of the water samples to be more diverse than the plate samples which were largely dominated by mollusks. There was a strong association between mollusks and presumed extracellular droplet digital PCR signals. Nevertheless, droplet digital PCR detection signals based on environmental DNA were negatively correlated with metabarcoding diversity indices on plates. This highlights complex interactions between environmental DNA and RNA detections and environmental matrices that can affect targeted approaches. These interactions need to be considered when designing surveillance programs.

Fresh Submarine Groundwater Discharge Augments Growth in a Reef Fish

Lilkendey J, Pisternick T, Neumann SI, Neelayya DDumur, Bröhl S, Neehaul Y, Moosdorf N. Fresh Submarine Groundwater Discharge Augments Growth in a Reef Fish. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00613/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Fresh submarine groundwater discharge (fresh SGD), the efflux of terrestrial groundwater directly into the ocean, is a ubiquitous pathway for nutrient-rich freshwater to coastal ecosystems, altering their hydrography, hydrochemistry, and primary productivity. Yet only little is known about the effects of fresh SGD on the fitness of higher trophic levels such as teleost fish. Otolith analysis revealed that somatic growth rates were significantly higher and settlement to reef habitat took place significantly earlier in juvenile gray demoiselle Chrysiptera glauca exposed to fresh SGD as compared to strictly marine conditions. Contrary to expectations, feeding conditions were comparable in both habitats. We propose that physiologically beneficial environmental conditions brought about by the submarine influx of cold acidic freshwater enabled juvenile fish to exhibit elevated growth rates, thereby increasing their survival potential. This effect would directly link changes in groundwater on land to variations in marine primary and secondary consumer biomass at the coast.

Marine Heatwave, Harmful Algae Blooms and an Extensive Fish Kill Event During 2013 in South Australia

Roberts SD, Van Ruth PD, Wilkinson C, Bastianello SS, Bansemer MS. Marine Heatwave, Harmful Algae Blooms and an Extensive Fish Kill Event During 2013 in South Australia. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00610/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1132190_45_Marine_20191024_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In 2013, South Australia experienced unusually high and variable water temperatures (5°C above the historic average), with a peak sea surface temperature of approximately 27°C over a wide geographic area covering both gulfs and shelf waters. Over the same period and similar geographic area, a prolonged and widespread marine mortality event occurred. From January to May 2013, low level rates of incidental morbidity and mortality of abalone (Haliotis rubra and H. laevigata) and at least 29 fish species were observed. Mortalities were geographically extensive from Port MacDonnell on the South Coast of South Australia to Point Drummond on Eyre Peninsula, and including two gulf systems, spanning approximately 2,900 km of coastline. Mortalities were investigated using gross pathology, histopathology, bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Water samples were collected to assess water column nutrient status and phytoplankton biomass levels and community composition. High nutrient concentrations were suggestive of high phytoplankton productivity, with conditions conducive to diatom blooms. A harmful (abrasive) diatom, Chaetoceros coarctatus, was observed in higher concentrations than the historical average. Observed fish mortalities were restricted to a small proportion of the populations and primarily comprised of temperate small-bodied benthic inshore species. Fish histopathology was suggestive of prolonged stress (melanomacrophage aggregation in spleens and kidneys), physical gill damage (focal gill lesions likely caused by C. coarctatus) and lethal bacterial septicaemia. Infectious and notifiable diseases were ruled out in all fish and abalone samples. Abalone mortalities were also restricted to a small proportion of the population with thermal stress a likely contributing factor that resulted in terminal secondary bacterial infections. A marine heatwave event, which promoted blooms of algae, including C. coarctatus, was likely the primary cause of widespread marine mortalities throughout South Australia in 2013. With marine heatwaves projected to increase in frequency, duration and spatial extent, this investigation demonstrated that most at risk will be temperate species in shallow water habitats already at their upper thermal tolerance limits, particularly those with high site fidelity. This should be considered in future climate proofing strategies, including risk and impact assessments underpinning the management of marine resources, fisheries, aquaculture and ecotourism.

Coastal Resources Economics and Ecosystem Valuation

Milon J, Alvarez S. Coastal Resources Economics and Ecosystem Valuation. Water [Internet]. 2019 ;11(11):2206. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/11/11/2206/htm
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The papers in this special issue provide new insights into ongoing research to value coastal and marine ecosystem services, and offer meaningful information for policymakers and resource managers about the economic significance of coastal resources for planning, restoration, and damage assessment. Study areas encompass a broad geographic scope from the Gulf of Mexico in the United States, to the Caribbean, the European Union, Australia, and Southeast Asia. The focus of these papers ranges from theoretical perspectives on linkages between ecosystem services and resource management, to the actual integration of valuation information in coastal and marine resource policy decisions, and to the application of economic valuation methods to specific coastal and marine resource management problems. We hope readers will appreciate these new contributions to the growing literature on coastal and marine resource ecosystem services valuation.

Remote monitoring of a deep‐sea marine protected area: The Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents

S. Juniper K, Thornborough K, Douglas K, Hillier J. Remote monitoring of a deep‐sea marine protected area: The Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems [Internet]. 2019 ;29(S2):84 - 102. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/aqc.3020
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article
  1. Deep‐sea marine protected areas (MPAs) present particular challenges for management. Their remote location means there is limited knowledge of species and habitat distribution, and rates and scales of change. Yet, evaluating the attainment of conservation objectives and managing the impact of human activities both require a quantitative understanding of natural variability in species composition/abundance and habitat conditions.
  2. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) and Fisheries and Oceans Canada are collaborating in the development of remote monitoring tools for the Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents MPA in the north‐east Pacific. This 98.5 km2 MPA, located 250 km offshore Vancouver Island, encompasses five major fields of hydrothermal vents, at depths of 2200–2400 m. A real‐time cabled observatory was installed at the Endeavour site in 2010.
  3. Scientific research for the conservation, protection and understanding of the area is permitted within the MPA and is the primary activity impacting the area. Research activities require the use of submersibles for sampling, surveying and observatory infrastructure maintenance. Data and imagery from remotely operated vehicle dives and fixed subsea observatory sensors are archived in real time using ONC's Oceans 2.0 software system, enabling evaluation of the spatial footprint of research activity in the MPA and the baseline level of natural ecosystem change.
  4. Recent examples of database queries that support MPA management include: (1) using ESRI ArcGIS spatial analysis tools to create kernel density ‘heat maps’ to quantify the intensity of sampling and survey activity within the MPA; and (2) quantifying high‐frequency variability in vent fauna and habitat using sensor and fixed camera data.
  5. Collaboration between researchers and MPA managers can help mitigate the logistical challenges of monitoring remote MPAs. Recognition at the policy level of the importance of such partnerships could facilitate the extension of scientific missions to support more formal monitoring programmes.

You can choose your relatives: Building marine protected area networks from sister sites

Wenzel L, Cid G, Haskell B, Clark A, Quiocho K, Kiene W, Causey B, Ward N. You can choose your relatives: Building marine protected area networks from sister sites. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems [Internet]. 2019 ;29(S2):152 - 161. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/aqc.3041
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article
  1. The world's oceans are often perceived as barriers that separate countries. To counter these divisions and improve protection of ocean resources, marine protected area (MPA) managers have formed alliances that bridge jurisdictional boundaries to share strategies and resources with other protected areas.
  2. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries has embraced this sister site approach to connect MPA management based on ecological and cultural links. Designed to strengthen the management of ecologically and culturally connected areas, these relationships between protected areas serve as catalysts for effective stewardship of the ocean's biological resources and show the important benefits of transnational cooperation.
  3. This paper summarizes the lessons from over a decade of sister site partnerships, including case studies from Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary and four sites in the Caribbean working together to protect a shared population of humpback whales; the Gulf of Mexico Sister Site Network being developed by the USA, Mexico, and Cuba; Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument and Rapa Nui in Chile; and broader collaboration among MPAs in the USA and Chile on the Pacific coast.

Looking beyond the horizon: An early warning system to keep marine mammal information relevant for conservation

Agardy T, Cody M, Hastings S, Hoyt E, Nelson A, Tetley M, Di Sciara GNotarbarto. Looking beyond the horizon: An early warning system to keep marine mammal information relevant for conservation. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems [Internet]. 2019 ;29(S2):71 - 83. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/aqc.3072
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article
  1. Important marine mammal areas (IMMAs) are discrete portions of habitat, important to marine mammal species, that have the potential to be delineated and managed for conservation. Although IMMAs are not a blueprint for marine protected areas or other conservation designations, they are useful for providing a foundation for marine spatial planning and systematic conservation planning that can then lead to protected areas or special spatial regulations. To be most useful for supporting management and conservation, however, the information coming out of IMMAs needs to reflect current conditions.
  2. An ‘early warning system’ is proposed with a generic set of indicators to flag when marine mammal species in IMMAs require management interventions due to changing distributions or decreasing populations. Rather than signifying that quantitative thresholds have been reached, these indicators comprise alerting information derived from visual or acoustic census, satellite imagery analysis, whale‐watching logs, or increases in mortality reported by stranding networks that can trigger additional targeted research.
  3. Although it is possible that in some regions data will be sufficient to provide quantifiable indicators, the system is meant to rely on existing data sources, and be adaptable to the circumstances of each region.
  4. Regional expert groups can utilize early warning system information and feed it into IMMA‐related spatial planning in two ways: by nominating additional areas of interest, and by providing a scientific rationale for revising IMMA boundaries, to be considered at the next decadal IMMA regional expert workshop.
  5. IMMA‐driven consolidation of information that is as current as possible will prove valuable for enhancing regional cooperation to conserve marine mammals, and will be useful as countries implement new protected areas to conserve marine mammals and other marine biodiversity.

Marine zoning revisited: How decades of zoning the Great Barrier Reef has evolved as an effective spatial planning approach for marine ecosystem‐based management

Day JC, Kenchington RA, Tanzer JM, Cameron DS. Marine zoning revisited: How decades of zoning the Great Barrier Reef has evolved as an effective spatial planning approach for marine ecosystem‐based management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems [Internet]. 2019 ;29(S2):9 - 32. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/aqc.3115
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article
  1. For more than 40 years, marine zoning has played a key role while evolving as part of the adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Marine Park. The statutory zoning plan provides the primary integrating component that prohibits many threatening activities and manages the impacts of allowed human activities and competing uses by means of various zones, special management areas and other spatial management tools.
  2. How zoning is applied, however, has changed considerably since the first zoning plan was finalized in 1981. Today, zoning is applied in combination with other layers of marine spatial planning; the effective combination of these management tools provides the integrated approach, considered one of the best for managing a large marine protected area.
  3. The zoning plan provides the foundation for management of the GBR and is the fundamental component of the integrated marine spatial planning approach ensuring high levels of protection for significant areas of the GBR, while also allowing ecologically sustainable use.
  4. The paper outlines the legal and managerial contexts of zoning, providing 38 lessons that may be useful for marine zoning and ecosystem‐based management elsewhere. It outlines aspects of zoning that have worked well in the GBR Marine Park and what has changed in the light of experience and changing contexts, and seeks to clarify various misconceptions about zoning and marine spatial planning.
  5. The integrated management approach in the GBR utilizes a variety of spatial planning tools, which complement the underlying zoning; some of these comprise statutory management layers (e.g. designated shipping areas, special management areas, plans of management, fishery management arrangements, Traditional Owner agreements, defence training areas); other layers are non‐statutory (e.g. site plans).
  6. This paper is written for planners, managers and decision‐makers considering the use of zoning to achieve effective marine conservation, protection and ecologically sustainable use.

Pelagic ecoregions: Operationalizing an ecosystem approach to fisheries management in the Atlantic Ocean

Todorović S, Juan-Jordá MJosé, Arrizabalaga H, Murua H. Pelagic ecoregions: Operationalizing an ecosystem approach to fisheries management in the Atlantic Ocean. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;109:103700. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19300806
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Tuna Regional Fisheries Management Organizations have committed to adopting an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). Yet their progress has been relatively slow and patchy, lacking a long-term vision and a formalized plan to prescribe how fisheries will be managed from an ecosystem perspective. We argue that one of the impediments in this process has been the lack of well-defined spatial management units that are ecologically meaningful, as well as practical for fisheries management, to guide ecosystem-based planning, research and indicator assessments, to ultimately produce better integrated management advice. In this study, we propose seven potential ecoregions within the convention area of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT). The boundaries of the ecoregions rest on three pillars of information: the existing knowledge of biogeographic classifications of the pelagic environment, the spatial distribution of tuna and billfish species, and the spatial dynamics of the main fishing fleets targeting them. Each ecoregion is characterized by a set of ecologically meaningful biogeographic and oceanographic characteristics, tuna and billfish communities and fishing fleet patterns. The pelagic ecoregions proposed here aim to focus species- and fisheries-specific management of the tuna and billfish fisheries on specified regions. The proposed ecoregions represent an optimal, ecologically sound starting point, based on the best science available, to foster debate and consultative process in ICCAT for moving forward the implementation of the EAFM.

Partial protection disallowing trawling has conservation benefits in a subtropical marine park

Pryor SH, Schultz AL, Malcolm HA, Smith SDA. Partial protection disallowing trawling has conservation benefits in a subtropical marine park. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. In Press :105027. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0964569119303436
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Multiple-use Marine Protected Areas are typically predominantly zoned for partial protection, allowing ‘acceptable’ exploitation activities. However, biotic responses to Partially Protected Areas (PPAs) are varied, and the effectiveness of this approach in relation to management objectives can be ambiguous. Few studies have compared different levels of partial protection to provide insight into this issue. Using remote underwater video methods (stereo baited video, drop-camera) we compared fish and invertebrate assemblages between two PPA types with differing levels of protection (Habitat Protection - HP; and General Use - GU) on unconsolidated substrata in the subtropical Solitary Islands Marine Park, Australia. While both Management Types are fished, trawling is only allowed in GU. Despite high levels of spatial variation across the scales of investigation, we found fish and invertebrate assemblages differed significantly between the two Management Types. The abundance of two fish taxa and low-mobility and sessile benthic macro-invertebrates, and the mean size of the commercially targeted bluespotted flathead Platycephalus caeruleopunctatus, were each significantly greater in the un-trawled HP. Contrary to expectations, abundance of a conspicuous habitat former (pennatulacean seapens) and elasmobranchs did not differ significantly between Management Types. While unconsolidated sedimentary habitats are more homogenous than reef, our study revealed high assemblage diversity at a range of scales. Although assemblages and some individual taxa benefitted from a higher level of partial protection, the broader merit of this management approach remains unclear. Globally, PPA benefits likely depend on social, regulatory, environmental, and site-specific ecological factors.

Non-state legal systems and their role in governance of small-scale marine fisheries along the south west coast of India

Baiju KK, Parappurathu S, Ramachandran C, Kaleekal T. Non-state legal systems and their role in governance of small-scale marine fisheries along the south west coast of India. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. In Press :105020. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0964569119305460
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Highlights

• Non-state community actors play a proactive role in discharging the fishery management functions.

• The fishers in South Kerala, India make collective decisions through a Church-mediated community fishery management system.

• Kadakkody, a non-state system prevalent in North Kerala serves several parallel legal functions within the fishing community.

Potential physical impacts of sea-level rise on the Pearl River Estuary, China

Hong B, Liu Z, Shen J, Wu H, Gong W, Xu H, Wang D. Potential physical impacts of sea-level rise on the Pearl River Estuary, China. Journal of Marine Systems [Internet]. In Press :103245. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924796319303823
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

The response of a coastal region to sea-level rise depends on the local physical features, which should therefore be evaluated locally to provide an accurate vulnerability assessment. In this study, we conducted comprehensive analyses of the potential impacts of sea-level rise on the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), China with the aid of a fully calibrated three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. We found that in general, the salinity, stratification and tidal range will increase as the sea-level rises. Clear spatial variations were apparent in the response of these parameters, with different patterns occurring in different seasons. The strongest salinity increase was mostly at the front of the PRE, where freshwater and saltwater meets. In Lingding Bay (LDB), the rate of increase in stratification in response to the sea-level rise was found to be higher during high-flow conditions than that during low-flow conditions. The increases of tidal range and tidal current were amplified in the upstream direction, with the largest increase occurring in the upper tributaries. The change of vertical transport process in the PRE is not prominent and only in the upper LDB the vertical transport time increased for approximately two days. The upstream transport process was strengthened during the typical wet season and weakened during the typical dry season. The downstream transport slowed in both wet and dry seasons as the sea level rose. For a sea-level rise of 1 m, the dry season residence time increased by 8.5 days, while the wet season residence time showed only minor changes. It was also found that the fluvial input remained in the PRE for a longer time after the sea level rose, which would increase the retention time of dissolved substances and thus effect biogeochemical processes.

Small-Scale Coastal Fishing Shapes the Structure of Shallow Rocky Reef Fish in the Aegean Sea

Sini M, Vatikiotis K, Thanopoulou Z, Katsoupis C, Maina I, Kavadas S, Karachle PK, Katsanevakis S. Small-Scale Coastal Fishing Shapes the Structure of Shallow Rocky Reef Fish in the Aegean Sea. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00599/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Shallow rocky reef fish assemblages were studied in sites of low versus high fishing pressure (FP) across the Aegean Sea, in order to assess community structure at a large scale and investigate spatial variability in relation to FP, depth, and geographic location. A total of 15 pairs of high and low FP sites were selected (18 sites in North Aegean, 12 in South Aegean). The level of FP was defined based on a fishing pressure index specifically developed for coastal small-scale fisheries in the region. In each site, fish communities were investigated at two depth zones (5 and 15 m). Number of species, fish size (Total Length; TL) and abundance were recorded along strip transects through underwater visual surveys. Abundance and TL were used to estimate biomass, and fish species were assigned to distinct trophic and commercial status groups. An 8-fold range in fish density and a 14-fold range in fish biomass were detected, while community structure was affected by all variables considered (FP, depth, geographic location). The N Aegean sites scored higher in number of species and biomass of carnivorous fish, whereas the S Aegean had a higher biomass of several allochthonous and thermophilous species. Abundance and biomass estimates were higher in low FP sites, and primarily at the 15 m depth zone, where low FP sites had the double abundance and 2.8 times higher biomass. Biomass of carnivores was generally very low, except at deep sites of low FP. Given that sites of lower FP represent areas of lower conflicting interests for fisheries whilst providing enhanced biomass levels, they should be included in future marine conservation planning schemes, as they could contribute to the replenishment of fisheries and the boosting of conservation benefits provided by MPAs, once properly managed.

The Effects of Ship Noise on Marine Mammals—A Review

Erbe C, Marley SA, Schoeman RP, Smith JN, Trigg LE, Embling CBeth. The Effects of Ship Noise on Marine Mammals—A Review. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00606/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The number of marine watercraft is on the rise—from private boats in coastal areas to commercial ships crossing oceans. A concomitant increase in underwater noise has been reported in several regions around the globe. Given the important role sound plays in the life functions of marine mammals, research on the potential effects of vessel noise has grown—in particular since the year 2000. We provide an overview of this literature, showing that studies have been patchy in terms of their coverage of species, habitats, vessel types, and types of impact investigated. The documented effects include behavioral and acoustic responses, auditory masking, and stress. We identify knowledge gaps: There appears a bias to more easily accessible species (i.e., bottlenose dolphins and humpback whales), whereas there is a paucity of literature addressing vessel noise impacts on river dolphins, even though some of these species experience chronic noise from boats. Similarly, little is known about the potential effects of ship noise on pelagic and deep-diving marine mammals, even though ship noise is focused in a downward direction, reaching great depth at little acoustic loss and potentially coupling into sound propagation channels in which sound may transmit over long ranges. We explain the fundamental concepts involved in the generation and propagation of vessel noise and point out common problems with both physics and biology: Recordings of ship noise might be affected by unidentified artifacts, and noise exposure can be both under- and over-estimated by tens of decibel if the local sound propagation conditions are not considered. The lack of anthropogenic (e.g., different vessel types), environmental (e.g., different sea states or presence/absence of prey), and biological (e.g., different demographics) controls is a common problem, as is a lack of understanding what constitutes the ‘normal’ range of behaviors. Last but not least, the biological significance of observed responses is mostly unknown. Moving forward, standards on study design, data analysis, and reporting are badly needed so that results are comparable (across space and time) and so that data can be synthesized to address the grand unknowns: the role of context and the consequences of chronic exposures.

A global atlas of the environmental risk of marinas on water quality

Valdor PF, Gómez AG, Juanes JA, Kerléguer C, Steinberg P, Tanner E, Macleod C, Knights AM, Seitz RD, Airoldi L, et al. A global atlas of the environmental risk of marinas on water quality. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2019 ;149:110661. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0025326X19308094
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Estimating the potential environmental risks of worldwide coastal recreational navigation on water quality is an important step towards designing a sustainable global market. This study proposes the creation of a global atlas of the environmental risk of marinas on water quality by applying the Marina Environmental Risk Assessment (MERA) procedure. Calculations integrate three main risk factors: Pressure, State and Response. Applying the MERA approach to 105 globally distributed marinas has confirmed the utility, versatility and adaptability of this procedure as a novel tool to compare the environmental risks within and among regions (i.e. for area-based management), to identify the world's best practices (i.e. to optimize existing management) and to understand and adjust global risks in future development (i.e. improved planning).

Observational Needs Supporting Marine Ecosystems Modeling and Forecasting: From the Global Ocean to Regional and Coastal Systems

Capotondi A, Jacox M, Bowler C, Kavanaugh M, Lehodey P, Barrie D, Brodie S, Chaffron S, Cheng W, Dias DF, et al. Observational Needs Supporting Marine Ecosystems Modeling and Forecasting: From the Global Ocean to Regional and Coastal Systems. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00623/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Many coastal areas host rich marine ecosystems and are also centers of economic activities, including fishing, shipping and recreation. Due to the socioeconomic and ecological importance of these areas, predicting relevant indicators of the ecosystem state on sub-seasonal to interannual timescales is gaining increasing attention. Depending on the application, forecasts may be sought for variables and indicators spanning physics (e.g., sea level, temperature, currents), chemistry (e.g., nutrients, oxygen, pH), and biology (from viruses to top predators). Many components of the marine ecosystem are known to be influenced by leading modes of climate variability, which provide a physical basis for predictability. However, prediction capabilities remain limited by the lack of a clear understanding of the physical and biological processes involved, as well as by insufficient observations for forecast initialization and verification. The situation is further complicated by the influence of climate change on ocean conditions along coastal areas, including sea level rise, increased stratification, and shoaling of oxygen minimum zones. Observations are thus vital to all aspects of marine forecasting: statistical and/or dynamical model development, forecast initialization, and forecast validation, each of which has different observational requirements, which may be also specific to the study region. Here, we use examples from United States (U.S.) coastal applications to identify and describe the key requirements for an observational network that is needed to facilitate improved process understanding, as well as for sustaining operational ecosystem forecasting. We also describe new holistic observational approaches, e.g., approaches based on acoustics, inspired by Tara Oceans or by landscape ecology, which have the potential to support and expand ecosystem modeling and forecasting activities by bridging global and local observations.

A Yellow Sea Monitoring Platform and Its Scientific Applications

Kim YSun, Jang CJoo, Noh JHoon, Kim K-T, Kwon J-I, Min Y, Jeong J, Lee J, Min I-K, Shim J-S, et al. A Yellow Sea Monitoring Platform and Its Scientific Applications. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00601/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Yellow Sea is one of the most productive continental shelves in the world. This large marine ecosystem is experiencing an epochal change in water temperature, stratification, nutrients, and subsequently in ecological diversity. Research-oriented monitoring of these changes requires a sustainable, multi-disciplinary approach. For this purpose, the Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) constructed the Socheongcho Ocean Research Station (S-ORS), a steel-framed tower-type platform, in the central Yellow Sea about 50 km off the western coast of the Korean Peninsula. This station is equipped with about forty sensors for interdisciplinary oceanographic observations. Since its construction in 2014, this station has continuously conducted scientific observations and provided qualified time series: physical oceanographic variables such as temperature, salinity, sea level pressure, wave, and current; biogeochemical variables such as chlorophyll-a, photosynthetically active radiation, and total suspended particles; atmospheric variables including air temperature, wind, greenhouse gasses, and air particles including black carbon. A prime advantage is that this platform has provided stable facilities including a wet lab where scientists can stay and experiment on in situ water samples. Several studies are in process to understand and characterize the evolution of environmental signals, including air-sea interaction, marine ecosystems, wave detection, and total suspended particles in the central Yellow Sea. This paper provides an overview of the research facilities, maintenance, observations, scientific achievements, and next steps of the S-ORS with highlighting this station as an open lab for interdisciplinary collaboration on multiscale process studies.

Virtual Reality and Oceanography: Overview, Applications, and Perspective

Walcutt NL, Knörlein B, Sgouros T, Cetinić I, Omand MM. Virtual Reality and Oceanography: Overview, Applications, and Perspective. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00644/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

With the ongoing, exponential increase in ocean data from autonomous platforms, satellites, models, and in particular, the growing field of quantitative imaging, there arises a need for scalable and cost-efficient visualization tools to interpret these large volumes of data. With the recent proliferation of consumer grade head-mounted displays, the emerging field of virtual reality (VR) has demonstrated its benefit in numerous disciplines, ranging from medicine to archeology. However, these benefits have not received as much attention in the ocean sciences. Here, we summarize some of the ways that virtual reality has been applied to this field. We highlight a few examples in which we (the authors) demonstrate the utility of VR as a tool for ocean scientists. For oceanic datasets that are well-suited for three-dimensional visualization, virtual reality has the potential to enhance the practice of ocean science.

Ocean Literacy and Knowledge Transfer Synergies in Support of a Sustainable Blue Economy

Otero RMFernán, Bayliss-Brown GA, Papathanassiou M. Ocean Literacy and Knowledge Transfer Synergies in Support of a Sustainable Blue Economy. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2019.00646/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Since 2011, when the first European ocean literacy (OL) project was launched in Portugal, the number of initiatives about this topic in Europe has increased notoriously and their scope has largely widened. These initiatives have drawn from the seven “OL Principles” that were developed by the College of Exploration OL Network in 2005. They represent a source of inspiration for the many endeavors that are aiming to achieve a society that fully understands the influence of themselves – as individuals and as a population – on the ocean and the influence of the ocean on them. OL initiatives throughout the past years, globally, have resulted in the production of countless didactic and communication resources that represent a valuable legacy for new activities. The OL research community recognizes the need to build up the scope of OL by reaching the wider Blue Economy actors such as the maritime industrial sector. It is hoped that building OL in this sector will contribute to the long-term sustainable development of maritime activities. The ERASMUS+ project “MATES” aims to address the maritime industries’ skills shortages and contribute to a more resilient labor market. MATES’ hypothesis is that through building OL in educational, professional and industrial environments, it is possible to build a labor force that matches the skills demand in these sectors and increases their capacity to uptake new knowledge. The MATES partnership will explicitly combine OL and knowledge transfer by applying the “COLUMBUS Knowledge Transfer Methodology” as developed by the H2020-funded COLUMBUS project.

Demersal Fishing in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction: A Comparative Analysis of Regional Fisheries Management Organisations

Bell JB, Guijarro-Garcia E, Kenny A. Demersal Fishing in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction: A Comparative Analysis of Regional Fisheries Management Organisations. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00596/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In areas beyond national jurisdiction, there are ten regional fisheries bodies (RFBs) responsible for the management of bottom fisheries (ABNJ). Eight of these organizations are further termed “Regional Fisheries Management Organisations” (RFMOs) and have a legal mandate to regulate the sustainable use of marine living resources on the high seas. The remaining two, both in the equatorial Atlantic, are limited to advisory roles. Here we present comparisons between these organizations’ management of deep-water demersal fisheries, with particular respect to how they have respectively, adopted the suite of available measures for the mitigation of significant adverse impacts (SAIs) upon vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs). Each organization was scored against 99 performance criteria that either related to their capacity to implement management measures (“Capacity”); the number and effectiveness of measures they have implemented (“Action”); and the intensity and spatial extent of the activities they regulate (“Need”). For most organizations, action and need scores were proportional, as the more actions an organization takes to reduce risk to VMEs, the more it reduces the scope for improvement. However, comparisons between capacity and action scores indicate that, in some organizations, there remain several aspects of VME impact mitigation that could be improved. In the case of RFBs, or recently established RFMOs, capacity gaps are still considerable, suggesting that these organizations receive additional scientific, technical, legal, and financial support, to ensure that they are able to meet current and future objectives. Further, there is little evidence of significant cooperation between adjacent or overlapping organizations in the development and application of conservation measures, highlighting the need for an agreement on the management of biodiversity, rather than sectors, in ABNJ.

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