Literature Library

Currently indexing 7514 titles

The Economics of Linen Nets: A Solution to the Microplastic Waste Problem in Waters

Uusivuori E. The Economics of Linen Nets: A Solution to the Microplastic Waste Problem in Waters. University of Helsinki; 2019. Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/307348
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Thesis

Oceans, seas, lakes and other waterbodies are increasingly suffering from too much plastic waste. Numerous sources are contributing to this plastic waste problem. Additionally, conventional fishing nets, made out of nylon, are causing environmental damage by disintegrating into microplastics. The breakdown process stops there, as these microscopic particles are non-biodegradable. Microplastics remain in waters for years causing harm to marine organisms that ingest them. Linen fishing nets are a valid alternative and more ecological production of nets. This study aims to compare the costs of these new linen nets with conventional nets. These costs can be related to the environmental benefits of these alternative nets. The research objective is to study the question under which conditions it would be optimal to choose linen nets over conventional (nylon) fishing nets. The conditions examined are economic and policy, environmental and technological. This research question is put into the wider context of microplastics. A rotation model, typically used in forest economics, is applied to analyze the optimal lengths of periods to renew both a linen and a nylon fishing net. A comparison of the costs is conducted and a subsidy-based policy instrument is determined for the fishers using linen nets.

A subsidy-based policy could be applied to make fishing enterprises in Finland use ecological fishing gear. The results suggest that the costs of such a policy would be reasonable, estimated between €1.1 and €4.5 million in this study. Importantly, an increase in the use of ecological nets would lead to a decrease in the total microplastic load in waterbodies.

Does Capture Fisheries In The Vicinity of Tin Mining Area Sustainable? : A case study in Bangka Island, Indonesia

Ramadona T, Rengi P, Warningsih T, Septya F, Ngesti SM, Purnomo A. Does Capture Fisheries In The Vicinity of Tin Mining Area Sustainable? : A case study in Bangka Island, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;430:012015. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/430/1/012015
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The purpose of this research was to determine capture fisheries status in a sustainability perspective based on ecology, economy, social, technology and ethic dimensions. A data analysis method which used was Multidimensional Scaling with RAPFISH technique. All dimensions in this study were based on FAO's attribute and was modified based on fisheries condition in research location. Score multidimensional analysis is 45,69. These results indicate that the multidimensional sustainability status of capture fisheries on Bangka Island is in a less sustainable status. The result showed that ecology was the dimension which has the lowest score in order to support captured fisheries sustainability in Bangka Island. The result also formulated sensitive attribute in every condition and gave management recommendations for the sustainability of captured fisheries based on that attribute. This study showed the importance of dimension integration and stakeholder's teamwork multisectoral in order to manage the sustainability of captured fisheries.

Problems of Sustainable Development of Russian Fishing Industry in the Concept of Rational Nature Management of Arctic Resources

Savelieva S, Motina T, Volkova T. Problems of Sustainable Development of Russian Fishing Industry in the Concept of Rational Nature Management of Arctic Resources. KnE Life Sciences [Internet]. 2020 . Available from: https://knepublishing.com/index.php/KnE-Life/article/view/6107
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In recent years, special attention has been paid to the issues of rational nature management and ecological state of the natural environment of the Arctic zone, given the important economic, social and environmental role of this region. The active industrial development of the Arctic zone unambiguously leads to a change in the living conditions of marine biological resources. The Arctic plays an important role in Russian fisheries. The paper considers the conceptual provisions of rational nature management in the conditions of industrial development of the Russian Arctic and identifies the problems and conditions for sustainable development of the Russian fisheries.

Management of Fishing Operational on Lift Net in Lekok Waters, Pasuruan Regency, East Java

Satrya D. Management of Fishing Operational on Lift Net in Lekok Waters, Pasuruan Regency, East Java. E3S Web of Conferences [Internet]. 2020 ;142:02001. Available from: https://www.e3s-conferences.org/articles/e3sconf/abs/2020/02/e3sconf_icals2019_02001/e3sconf_icals2019_02001.html
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Indonesia is an archipelago country, catching fish is one of the sectors that is highly evolved in Indonesia. One of the waters in Indonesia which has great fishery potential is Pasuruan Regency in East Java. Lift net is a fishing tool that is still widely used by small-scale fishermen in Indonesia, formed rectangular which was operable in coastal waters at night by using light fishing. The purposes of this article are to investigate how to operate a lift net and to explore deeper about the management of lift net operation in Lekok Waters, Pasuruan Regency. Data collection was done by using observation, interview, active participation and documentation. This research discuss about boat and the equipment, catcher tool components, location, length time of trip, procedures of fishing, types of fish, tools maintenance and business management. Based on the analysis of Revenue Cost Ratio (R/C Ratio) proved R/C ratio is > 1, then the effort of catching fish by using lift net in Lekok Pasuruan is profitable. The value of BEP in units of the unit catchment is 1,278 kg, and the values BEP in-unit rupiah is Rp.9,064,516.

Exploring the Link between Small Scale Fish Trade and Local Livelihoods in Developing Country Near Shore Marine Fishery

Wamukota A. Exploring the Link between Small Scale Fish Trade and Local Livelihoods in Developing Country Near Shore Marine Fishery. Journal of Economics, Management and Trade [Internet]. 2020 :1 - 6. Available from: http://www.journaljemt.com/index.php/JEMT/article/view/30210
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The paper reviews critical findings regarding the influence of fish marketing on local livelihoods and resources in a near shore African marine fishery. Literature search was conducted using search engines google scholar, scopus, and web of science using the key words: Fish, fish trade, global market, livelihood, marine/coastal, with the objectives of exploring the relationship between fish markets, livelihoods (at the household level) as well as the resource itself. In addition, country reports from research organizations (both published and unpublished) as well as FAO reports were consulted. The search was undertaken in November 2019. Results from literature search were analyzed thematically based on livelihood indicators including fish marketing channels, determinants of income, occupations and fish price transmission. Linkages vary with respect to fish type, species and usage type, highlighting the need for disaggregated analyses to respond to specific objectives and market factors. The review points out that not all fish types are exported/linked to the tourism industry and that even for those linked to the global market, the benefits do not trick down. A strong interaction between fish and local staple is evident, an indication that small scale fisheries are likely to have local benefits than benefits attributed to global market linkages.

Exploration of Northern Commercial Fishing Area Resources and Sustainable Use Challenges and Ways to Resolve them

Shchetinskiy V, Petrov B. Exploration of Northern Commercial Fishing Area Resources and Sustainable Use Challenges and Ways to Resolve them. KnE Life Sciences [Internet]. 2020 . Available from: https://knepublishing.com/index.php/KnE-Life/article/view/6165
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The present article is based on the review of the current patent, scientific and technical sources. It indicates the main challenges of fishing industry in the North-West Russia with the Murmansk Region taken as an example. The basic fishing techniques, being employed by the local fishing companies, are considered. The article defines the main challenges of the Northern commercial fishing area resources exploration and sustainable use. It substantiates the necessity to increase the share of fishing tools with better selectivity. It is concluded that the raw-materials supply crisis is likely to set in the fish processing industry. The article analyses the existing methods of processing applied to the underutilized fishing grounds. It reveals a correlation between the intensiveness of research applied to specific fishing grounds and the consumer demand availability and scope. It is concluded that predominantly research is made with regard to the use of underutilized species for production of dietary supplements and components which alter some food properties. The article substantiates the necessity to use the non-conventional hydrobiont species for food production, based on the consumer demand data. A study of the main standards has been performed with regard to regulation of the hydrobiont catching issues. The article reviews the underutilized species of the Northern commercial fishing area which are most prospective from the production and processing point of view. It concludes with the prospects of the proposed option for the fishing industry development and its probable impact on the development of coastal infrastructure and of the whole region.

Valuing natural habitats for enhancing coastal resilience: Wetlands reduce property damage from storm surge and sea level rise

Rezaie AMohammad, Loerzel J, Ferreira CM. Valuing natural habitats for enhancing coastal resilience: Wetlands reduce property damage from storm surge and sea level rise. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0226275. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226275
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Storm surge and sea level rise (SLR) are affecting coastal communities, properties, and ecosystems. While coastal ecosystems, such as wetlands and marshes, have the capacity to reduce the impacts of storm surge and coastal flooding, the increasing rate of SLR can induce the transformation and migration of these natural habitats. In this study, we combined coastal storm surge modeling and economic analysis to evaluate the role of natural habitats in coastal flood protection. We focused on a selected cross-section of three coastal counties in New Jersey adjacent to the Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve (JCNERR) that is protected by wetlands and marshes. The coupled coastal hydrodynamic and wave models, ADCIRC+SWAN, were applied to simulate flooding from historical and synthetic storms in the Mid-Atlantic US for current and future SLR scenarios. The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was used to project the potential migration and habitat transformation in coastal marshes due to SLR in the year 2050. Furthermore, a counterfactual land cover approach, in which marshes are converted to open water in the model, was implemented for each storm scenario in the present and the future to estimate the amount of flooding that is avoided due to the presence of natural habitats and the subsequent reduction in residential property damage. The results indicate that this salt marshes can reduce up to 14% of both the flood depth and property damage during relatively low intensity storm events, demonstrating the efficacy of natural flood protection for recurrent storm events. Monetarily, this translates to the avoidance of up to $13.1 and $32.1 million in residential property damage in the selected coastal counties during the ‘50-year storm’ simulation and hurricane Sandy under current sea level conditions, and in the year ‘2050 SLR scenario’, respectively. This research suggests that protecting and preserving natural habitats can contribute to enhance coastal resilience.

Preliminary Investigation on the Type and Ditribution of Microplastics in the West Coast of Karimun Besar Island

Amin B, Galib M, Setiawan F. Preliminary Investigation on the Type and Ditribution of Microplastics in the West Coast of Karimun Besar Island. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;430:012011. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/430/1/012011
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

High anthropogenic activity on the west coast of Karimun Besar Island contributes certain amount of wastes, especially plastics. Plastics will be degraded due to natural mechanism to smaller parts and known as microplastics. Small size and wide spread distribution has caused microplastics can be found widely in the waters and coastal areas. This study aims to determine type and abundance of microplastic in sediment on the west coast of Karimun Besar Island. Sampling of sediment for microplastic was determined based on hydrodynamic conditions by placing quadrat in the highest tidal boundary area. Sediment samples were collected in February 2019 using 4 inch PVC pipe from two different depth, i.e 0-10 and 10-20 cm. Separation of microplastic particles from sediments was carried out in Marine Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science University of Riau through several stages, namely (a) drying, (b) separation of densities and (c) sorting visually. The results of the study found only 3 types of microplastic, i.e. fragments, films and fibers. Microplastic abundance in sediments was found between 1976.67-2203.33 particles/kg of sediment with fibers being the dominant type. Fiber has the highest abundance in both depths followed by films and fragments. ANOVA and t-test analysis, showed that the quantity of microplastic between stations and between two different depths were not significantly different (p > 0,05).

Is the Whole Greater than the Sum of its Parts? Strengthening Caribbean Regional Integration

Hassan AAl, Burfisher M, Chow JTS, Ding D, Di Vittorio F, Kovtun D, McIntyre A, Ötker I, Santoro M, Shui L, et al. Is the Whole Greater than the Sum of its Parts? Strengthening Caribbean Regional Integration. International Monetary Fund; 2020.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Deeper economic integration within the Caribbean has been a regional policy priority since the establishment of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the decision to create the Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME). Implementation of integration initiatives has, however, been slow, despite the stated commitment of political leaders. The “implementation deficit” has led to skepticism about completing the CSME and controversy regarding its benefits. This paper analyzes how Caribbean integration has evolved, discusses the obstacles to progress, and explores the potential benefits from greater integration. It argues that further economic integration through liberalization of trade and labor mobility can generate significant macroeconomic benefits, but slow progress in completing the institutional arrangements has hindered implementation of the essential components of the CSME and progress in economic integration. Advancing institutional integration through harmonization and rationalization of key institutions and processes can reduce the fixed costs of institutions, providing the needed scale and boost to regional integration. Greater cooperation in several functional policy areas where the region is facing common challenges can also provide low-hanging fruit, creating momentum toward full integration as the Community continues to address the obstacles to full economic integration.

Marine Climate Change Impacts: Report Card 2020

Anon. Marine Climate Change Impacts: Report Card 2020.; 2020. Available from: http://www.mccip.org.uk/impacts-report-cards/full-report-cards/2020
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

The Report Card 2020 summarises the latest evidence from 26 topics regarding the physical, ecological, and social and economic impacts of climate change on UK coasts and seas. New topics for this year include oxygen, cultural heritage, and transport and infrastructure.

More than 150 scientists from over 50 leading research organisations have contributed to this year’s Report Card, producing 26 peer-reviewed scientific reports which give detailed information regarding the evidence bases on UK marine climate change impacts.

Short- & long-term effects of monetary and non-monetary incentives to cooperate in public good games: An experiment

Lefebvre M, Stenger A. Short- & long-term effects of monetary and non-monetary incentives to cooperate in public good games: An experiment. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0227360. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227360
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Using a common experimental framework, this paper addresses both the question of the short-term and the long-lasting effects of temporary monetary and non-monetary incentive mechanisms on increasing individual contributions to the public good. The results show that both punishments and rewards significantly increase contributions compared to the baseline, but that monetary sanctions lead to the highest contributions, whereas non-monetary sanctions lead to the lowest contributions. The four types of incentives display long-lasting effects, i.e., contributions do not go back to baseline levels directly after the withdrawal of the incentives. However, rewards appear to have much stronger persistent effects than sanctions, revealing some sort of delayed reciprocity.

Quantifying tourism booms and the increasing footprint in the Arctic with social media data

Runge CA, Daigle RM, Hausner VH. Quantifying tourism booms and the increasing footprint in the Arctic with social media data. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0227189. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227189
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Arctic tourism has rapidly increased in the past two decades. We used social media data to examine localized tourism booms and quantify the spatial expansion of the Arctic tourism footprint. We extracted geotagged locations from over 800,000 photos on Flickr and mapped these across space and time. We critically examine the use of social media as a data source in data-poor regions, and find that while social media data is not suitable as an early warning system of tourism growth in less visited parts of the world, it can be used to map changes at large spatial scales. Our results show that the footprint of summer tourism quadrupled and winter tourism increased by over 600% between 2006 and 2016, although large areas of the Arctic remain untouched by tourism. This rapid increase in the tourism footprint raises concerns about the impacts and sustainability of tourism on Arctic ecosystems and communities. This boom is set to continue, as new parts of the Arctic are being opened to tourism by melting sea ice, new airports and continued promotion of the Arctic as a ‘last chance to see’ destination. Arctic societies face complex decisions about whether this ongoing growth is socially and environmentally sustainable.

Marine seafood production via intense exploitation and cultivation in China: Costs, benefits, and risks

Szuwalski C, Jin X, Shan X, Clavelle T. Marine seafood production via intense exploitation and cultivation in China: Costs, benefits, and risks. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0227106. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227106
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Identifying strategies to maintain seafood supply is central to global food supply. China is the world’s largest producer of seafood and has used a variety of production methods in the ocean including domestic capture fisheries, aquaculture (both freshwater and marine), stock enhancement, artificial reef building, and distant water fisheries. Here we survey the outcomes of China’s marine seafood production strategies, with particular attention paid to the associated costs, benefits, and risks. Benefits identified include high production, low management costs, and high employment, but significant costs and risks were also identified. For example, a majority of fish in China’s catches are one year-old, ecosystem and catch composition has changed relative to the past, wild and farmed stocks can interact both negatively and positively, distant water fisheries are a potential source of conflict, and disease has caused crashes in mariculture farms. Reforming China’s wild capture fisheries management toward strategies used by developed nations would continue to shift the burden of production to aquaculture and could have negative social impacts due to differences in fishing fleet size and behavior, ecosystem structure, and markets. Consequently, China may need to develop novel management methods in reform efforts, rather than rely on examples from other large seafood producing countries. Improved accounting of production from fisheries and aquaculture, harmonization and centralization of historical data sets and systematic scientific surveys would improve the knowledge base for planning and evaluating future reform.

Spatial Distribution of Marine Debris Pollution in Mangrove-Estuaries Ecosystem of Kendari Bay

Rahim S, Widayati W, Analuddin K, Saleh F, Alfirman , Sahar S. Spatial Distribution of Marine Debris Pollution in Mangrove-Estuaries Ecosystem of Kendari Bay. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;412:012006. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/412/1/012006
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine debris is a solid material that is either accidentally or accidentally disposed of in a river that empties into the sea or is left directly in the sea. The research on marine debris is carried out in the estuary and mangrove forest areas of Kendari Bay which is assumed to be accommodated garbage sites that enter the coastal area. The purpose of this study is to identify the types of composition and potential sources of marine waste contributors found in several river estuaries and mangrove forest areas, to know the density of marine debris and to mapping the distribution of marine debris from several river estuaries and mangrove forest in Kendari Bay. This research was conducted by survey method and using 5x5 quadratic plots in a random sampling. The data obtained were analyzed statistically and map overlays. The results showed that the composition of marine debris types in mangrove ecosystems and estuaries in Kendari bay generally consisted of plastic (plastic bottles, plastic bags, ropes, pipettes, plastic cups), metals (beverage cans), rubber, glass (glass bottles) and others (cloth, paper and others) with the dominant amount of plastic waste. The highest total density of waste types in the four locations in the mangrove ecosystem and river estuary in Kendari Bay is at station 1 (Lahundape Mangrove Tracking Area). The density of plastic waste dominates the four locations in the mangrove ecosystem with the highest value of 3,024 items/m2 in the mangrove ecosystem around the estuary of Mandonga and Lahundape. The high distribution of marine debris in the mangrove ecosystem is found at station 1 and station 2 because it is directly related to the river flow which contributes greatly to marine debris input in Kendari Bay.

Navigating Complexities: Agent-Based Modeling to Support Research, Governance, and Management in Small-Scale Fisheries

Lindkvist E, Wijermans N, Daw TM, Gonzalez-Mon B, Giron-Nava A, Johnson AF, van Putten I, Basurto X, Schlüter M. Navigating Complexities: Agent-Based Modeling to Support Research, Governance, and Management in Small-Scale Fisheries. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00733/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The sustainable governance and management of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging, largely due to their dynamic and complex nature. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a computational modeling approach that can account for the dynamism and complexity in SSF by modeling entities as individual agents with different characteristics and behavior, and simulate how their interactions can give rise to emergent phenomena, such as over-fishing and social inequalities. The structurally realistic design of agent-based models allow stakeholders, experts, and scientists across disciplines and sectors to reconcile different knowledge bases, assumptions, and goals. ABMs can also be designed using any combination of theory, quantitative data, or qualitative data. In this publication we elaborate on the untapped potential of ABM to tackle governance and management challenges in SSF, discuss the limitations of ABM, and review its application in published SSF models. Our review shows that, although few models exist to date, ABM has been used for diverse purposes, including as a research tool for understanding cooperation and over-harvesting, and as a decision-support tool, or participatory tool, in case-specific fisheries. Even though the development of ABMs is often time- and resource intensive, it is the only dynamic modeling approach that can represent entities of different types, their heterogeneity, actions, and interactions, thus doing justice to the complex and dynamic nature of SSF which, if ignored can lead to unintended policy outcomes and less sustainable SSF.

Stakeholder Perspectives on Opportunities and Challenges in Achieving Sustainable Growth of the Blue Economy in a Changing Climate

Hoerterer C, Schupp MF, Benkens A, Nickiewicz D, Krause G, Buck BH. Stakeholder Perspectives on Opportunities and Challenges in Achieving Sustainable Growth of the Blue Economy in a Changing Climate. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00795/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Coastal marine environments provide livelihoods as billions of people around the world depend greatly on sustainability efforts in the Blue Economy. In this study, we investigated how stakeholders from important Blue Economy sectors along the German North Sea coast perceive the impacts of climate change on their daily work life and the growth of the Blue Economy. In a two-stage approach we first conducted two stakeholder workshops with representatives from the regional sea food sector, science, NGOs and local authorities, in order to identify important issues linked to climate change affecting environment, society, economy and policy. In the second stage, we conducted semi-structured interviews with key knowledge holders from the Blue Economy, to evaluate and validate the most important issues identified during the first stage, and the impacts on the respective sectors. The workshop participants identified perceptible effects of climate change on their marine environment. Early career scientists showed that they possess a clear focus on measures for climate change adaptation, transdisciplinary approaches and knowledge transfer. The interviews revealed that the climate change effects could be perceived as both negative and positive, depending on the sector. Other issues, especially political decisions and developments are perceived to have a greater immediate impact on the Blue Economy than the slow progress of climate change effects. Additionally, increased human activities, in the form of new or intensified uses like marine renewable energy generation, have a greater influence and lead to conflicts between the Blue Economy sectors. Our study showed that economic and societal stakeholders in Germanys North Sea region are aware of climate change and already perceive its effects on their businesses. Synergies and conflicts between the sectors and political decisions might influence sustainable growth of the Blue Economy in highly contested regions, such as the North Sea basin, much stronger than the effects of climate change. This calls for a more flexible and adaptive approach to policymaking, taking into account the changing environmental, social and economic realities.

Coral Reefs in the Gulf of Mexico Large Marine Ecosystem: Conservation Status, Challenges, and Opportunities

Gil-Agudelo DL, Cintra-Buenrostro CE, Brenner J, González-Díaz P, Kiene W, Lustic C, Pérez-España H. Coral Reefs in the Gulf of Mexico Large Marine Ecosystem: Conservation Status, Challenges, and Opportunities. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00807/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The importance of coral reefs (CR) within marine ecosystems has become widely recognized. Although shallow CR are not as abundant in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) as in other areas such as the Caribbean, their uniqueness, singularity, isolation, and conservation status make their conservation highly important. Corals and CR, both shallow and deep, are more widely distributed throughout the GoM than previously thought, providing new venues of research but also new challenges for their sustainable management. They are widely present in the three countries circumscribing the GoM (Cuba, Mexico, and the United States). Corals are also distributed throughout different depths, from the keys of Florida and Cuba, to the mesophotic reefs in Flower Garden Banks, Pulley Ridge, and submerged banks in the southern GoM; additional coral presence occurs even beyond mesophotic depths (∼30–150 m). Like reefs around the world, they are subject to an increased threat from anthropogenic causes, including overfishing, pollution, and climate change. But there is also hope. Some reefs in the area, such as those in Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary are probably the best-preserved reefs in the region, with coral cover greater than 50%, which is unusual in the Wider Caribbean. Others are experiencing new protections through the work of government and local communities. The objectives of this manuscript are to summarize the overall status of corals and CR in the GoM, analyze some of the current and future threats, and explore opportunities for their conservation in the region. Aside from the above mentioned anthropogenic threats bleaching, coral diseases, and hurricanes have been identified as main contributors for CR declines not only in the GoM but abroad; some nowadays present but likely to increase threats are invasion by alien species or by Sargassum spp. Among some of the opportunities identified are to capitalize on existing and emerging multilateral agreements and initiatives (e.g., GoM Large Marine Ecosystem, trinational sanctuaries agreement); increase financial support for conservation through international initiatives and the private sector; and a need to comprehend the inherent interconnection among corals, CR, and deeper bank ecosystems as they do not function in isolation.

Expected Economic and Biological Impacts of Recreational Atlantic Striped Bass Fishing Policy

Carr-Harris A, Steinback S. Expected Economic and Biological Impacts of Recreational Atlantic Striped Bass Fishing Policy. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00814/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Understanding how recreational angling effort responds to regulatory adjustment is important for rebuilding overfished stocks such as Atlantic striped bass Morone saxatilis. In this paper, we use stated preference choice experiment data to evaluate how individual angler participation may respond to changes in fishing trip characteristics, particularly the number of small, medium-sized, and trophy striped bass kept and released. We use these results to simulate the aggregate effect of alternative fishing policies in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut on angler welfare, angler effort, recreational fishing mortality, and female spawning stock biomass (SSB). We find that a wide range of economically efficient policies are available if the primary management objective is to control recreational fishing mortality. In contrast, we find that the range of efficient policies is quite narrow if the primary management objective is to protect female SSB. Additionally, only one of the 36 alternative policies analyzed; a one-fish harvest slot of 28″ to 36″, is expected to achieve a non-trivial reduction in both total and female spawning stock removals relative to the actual 2015 policy of one fish, 28″ or longer. Implementing a one-fish harvest slot of 28″ to 36″ comes with minimal costs in terms of foregone angler welfare due to the relatively low rate at which trophy striped bass in excess of 36″ are encountered.

Remote Sensing-Driven Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Growth Modeling to Inform Offshore Aquaculture Site Selection

Palmer SCJ, Gernez PM, Thomas Y, Simis S, Miller PI, Glize P, Barillé L. Remote Sensing-Driven Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Growth Modeling to Inform Offshore Aquaculture Site Selection. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00802/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Aquaculture increasingly contributes to global seafood production, requiring new farm sites for continued growth. In France, oyster cultivation has conventionally taken place in the intertidal zone, where there is little or no further room for expansion. Despite interest in moving production further offshore, more information is needed regarding the biological potential for offshore oyster growth, including its spatial and temporal variability. This study shows the use of remotely-sensed chlorophyll-a and total suspended matter concentrations retrieved from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), and sea surface temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), all validated using in situ matchup measurements, as input to run a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) Pacific oyster growth model for a study site along the French Atlantic coast (Bourgneuf Bay, France). Resulting oyster growth maps were calibrated and validated using in situ measurements of total oyster weight made throughout two growing seasons, from the intertidal zone, where cultivation currently takes place, and from experimental offshore sites, for both spat (R2 = 0.91; RMSE = 1.60 g) and adults (R2 = 0.95; RMSE = 4.34 g). Oyster growth time series are further digested into industry-relevant indicators, such as time to achieve market weight and quality index, elaborated in consultation with local producers and industry professionals, and which are also mapped. Offshore growth is found to be feasible and to be as much as two times faster than in the intertidal zone (p < 0.001). However, the potential for growth is also revealed to be highly variable across the investigated area. Mapping reveals a clear spatial gradient in production potential in the offshore environment, with the northeastern segment of the bay far better suited than the southwestern. Results also highlight the added value of spatiotemporal data, such as satellite image time series, to drive modeling in support of marine spatial planning. The current work demonstrates the feasibility and benefit of such a coupled remote sensing-modeling approach within a shellfish farming context, responding to real and current interests of oyster producers.

Site Suitability for Finfish Marine Aquaculture in the Central Mediterranean Sea

Porporato EMD, Pastres R, Brigolin D. Site Suitability for Finfish Marine Aquaculture in the Central Mediterranean Sea. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00772/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
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Type: Journal Article

Farm site selection plays a critical role in determining the productivity, environmental impact, and interactions of aquaculture activities with ecosystem services. Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) provide spatially extensive datasets at high temporal and spatial resolution, which can be useful for aquaculture site selection. In this paper we mapped a finfish aquaculture Suitability Index (SI) applying the Spatial Multi-criteria Evaluation (SMCE) methodology. The robustness of the outcome of the SMCE was investigated using Uncertainty Analysis (UA), and in parallel we evaluate a set of alternative scenarios, aimed at minimizing the subjectivity associated with the decision process. The index is based on the outputs of eco-physiological models, which were forced using time series of sea surface temperature data, and on data concerning Significant Wave Height (SWH), distance to harbor, current sea uses, and cumulative impacts. The methodology was applied to map the suitability for farming of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) within the Italian Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ), under three scenarios: Blue Growth, Economic and Environment. Tyrrhenian and Ionian coastal areas were found to be more suitable, compared to the Northern Adriatic and southern Sicilian ones. In the latter, and in the western Sardinia, the index is also affected by higher uncertainty. The application presented suggests that SRS data could play a significant role in designing the Allocated Zones for Aquaculture, assisting policy makers and regulators in including aquaculture within maritime spatial planning.

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