Assessments of the effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs) usually assume that fishing patterns change exclusively due to the implementation of an MPA. This assumption increases the risk of erroneous conclusions in assessing marine zoning, and consequently counter-productive management actions. Accordingly, it is important to understand how fishers respond to a combination of the implementation of no-take zones, and various climatic and human drivers of change. Those adaptive responses could influence the interpretation of assessment of no-take zone effectiveness, yet few studies have examined these aspects. Indeed, such analysis is often unfeasible in developing countries, due to the dominance of data-poor fisheries, which precludes full examination of the social-ecological outcomes of MPAs. In the Galapagos Marine Reserve (Ecuador), however, the availability of long-term spatially explicit fishery monitoring data (1997–2011) for the spiny lobster fishery allows such an analysis. Accordingly, we evaluated how the spatiotemporal allocation of fishing effort in this multiple-use MPA was affected by the interaction of diverse climatic and human drivers, before and after implementation of no-take zones. Geographic information system modelling techniques were used in combination with boosted regression models to identify how these drivers influenced fishers’ behavior. Our results show that the boom-and-bust exploitation of the sea cucumber fishery and the global financial crisis 2007–09, rather than no-take zone implementation, were the most important drivers affecting the distribution of fishing effort across the archipelago. Both drivers triggered substantial macro-scale changes in fishing effort dynamics, which in turn altered the micro-scale dynamics of fishing patterns. Fishers’ adaptive responses were identified, and their management implications analyzed. This leads to recommendations for more effective marine and fishery management in the Galapagos, based on improved assessment of the effectiveness of no-take zones.
No-take marine protected areas (MPAs) are a commonly applied tool to reduce human fishing impacts on marine and coastal ecosystems. However, conservation outcomes of MPAs for mobile and long-lived predators such as sharks are highly variable. Here, we use empirical animal tracking data from 459 individual sharks and baited remote underwater video surveys undertaken in 36 countries to construct an empirically supported individual-based model that estimates the conservation effectiveness of MPAs for five species of coral reef-associated sharks (Triaenodon obesus, Carcharhinus melanopterus, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, Carcharhinus perezi, and Ginglymostoma cirratum). We demonstrate how species-specific individual movement traits can contribute to fishing mortality of sharks found within MPAs as they move outside to adjacent fishing grounds. We discovered that the world’s officially recorded coral reef-based managed areas (with a median width of 9.4 km) would need to be enforced as strict no-take MPAs and up to 5 times larger to expect protection of the majority of individuals of the five investigated reef shark species. The magnitude of this effect depended on local abundances and fishing pressure, with MPAs required to be 1.6–2.6 times larger to protect the same number of Atlantic and Caribbean species, which occur at lower abundances than similar species in the western Pacific. Furthermore, our model was used to quantify partially substantial reductions (>50%) in fishing mortality resulting from small increases in MPA size, allowing us to bridge a critical gap between traditional conservation planning and fisheries management. Overall, our results highlight the challenge of relying on abundance data alone to ensure that estimates of shark conservation impacts of MPAs follow the precautionary approach.
We address the question of how to provide meaningful scientific information to support environmental decision making at the regional scale and at the temporal scale of several decades in a network of marine parks in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Where environmental sustainability is affected by slow-dynamics climate change processes and one-off investments in large infrastructure which can affect a region for decades to come, both strategic and reactive planning is necessary and prediction becomes as urgent as standard adaptive management. At the interface between future studies, socio-economic modelling and environmental modelling, we define 18 scenarios of economic development and climate change impacts and five management strategies. We explore these potential futures using coupled models of terrestrial and marine ecosystem dynamics. We obtain a projection of the Kimberley marine system to the year 2050, conditional on the chosen scenarios and management strategies. Our results suggest that climate change, not economic development, is the largest factor affecting the future of marine ecosystems in the Kimberley region, with site-attached species such as reef fish at greatest risk. These same species also benefit most from more stringent management strategies, especially expansion of sanctuary zones and Marine Protected Areas.
Marine debris has become an important pollution issue in recent years. Its existence has impacted to marine environment, harmed marine life, and also effected human health and lives. Marine debris study in western and southern Aceh is necessary to compare debris sources, amounts, and locations. The research outputs can provide input to the government to adopt more comprehensive policies and provide important information to targets protection in the coastal areas. Eight sites (two sites for each regency: at shoreline area and estuary stream mouth area) were selected from four regencies located in western and southern Aceh namely the regency of Aceh Jaya, west Aceh, southwestern Aceh, south Aceh. Marine debris was grouped by seven categories namely: plastic, glass, metal, rubber, cloth/fabric, processed lumber, and other/unclassifiable. The results indicated that marine debris was dominated by plastic (86.6%). The highest of debris density (0.145 items/m2) were found in southwestern Aceh and South Aceh Regency. Shoreline and recreational activities have known as the largest source of marine debris (74.8 %), followed by medical/personal hygiene activities (10.8%) dumping activities (85 items, 9.2%), smoking or related activities (4.1%) and activities related to ocean/waterway (1.1%).
Both Indonesia and the Philippines are located in the same region of Southeast Asia. These countries are facing significant threat related to nation's sovereignty due to overlapping waters to the biggest claimant of PRC (People's Republic of China) by using Nine-dash line claim. After some failure agreements between region organization of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) through DOC (Declaration on the Conduct) in 2002, several strategies are undertaking in soft politics, renaming several portions of waters under political reasons. West Philippines Sea has been used by the Philippines to enhance sense of belonging and nationalism, meanwhile in Indonesia even though was not active claimant in South China Sea conflict, strategies done quietly recent in 2017 by using North Natuna Sea terms to call Indonesian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in northern part of Natuna Island which overlapped to China's claim. Descriptive method through literature study have been used in this research to answer research questions. Some findings in research were even though renaming areas are close related to the political reasons, these actions could uplift capacity in terms of national marine protection, yet Chinese marine surveillance not automatically disappear after renaming those areas respectively. Unending confrontation could hamper bilateral negotiation in the region, meanwhile environmental degradation related to coral ecosystem remain high.
The sensitivity to changes in water quality inherent to seagrass communities makes them vital for determining the overall health of the coastal ecosystem. Numerous efforts including community-based coastal resource management, conservation and rehabilitation plans are currently undertaken to protect these marine species. In this study, the relationship of water quality parameters, specifically chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and turbidity, with seagrass percent cover is assessed quantitatively. Support Vector Machine, a pixel-based image classification method, is applied to determine seagrass and non-seagrass areas from the orthomosaic which yielded a 91.0369% accuracy. In-situ measurements of chl-a and turbidity are acquired using an infinity-CLW water quality sensor. Geostatistical techniques are utilized in this study to determine accurate surfaces for chl-a and turbidity. In two hundred interpolation tests for both chl-a and turbidity, Simple Kriging (Gaussian-model type and Smooth- neighborhood type) performs best with Mean Prediction equal to −0.1371 FTU and 0.0061 μg/L, Root Mean Square Standardized error equal to −0.0688 FTU and −0.0048 μg/L, RMS error of 8.7699 FTU and 1.8006 μg/L and Average Standard Error equal to 10.8360 FTU and 1.6726 μg/L. Zones are determined using fishnet tool and Moran’s I to calculate for the seagrass percent cover. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) is used as a regression analysis to quantify the relationship of seagrass percent cover and water quality parameters. The regression analysis result indicates that turbidity has an inverse relationship while chlorophyll-a has a direct relationship with seagrass percent cover.
For decades, marine scientists have known that fisheries throughout the world result in mortality for cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises). Incidental catch (also known as by-catch) in fisheries is considered the biggest threat to the survival of cetaceans globally. Migratory species such as cetaceans are exposed to various threats because they are nomadic. From a conservation and management perspective, the level of protection given to cetaceans differs according to their geographical location. This study was conducted to determine the extent of by-catchin the study area and identify measures taken by fishers to minimize by-catch. During a 20-day period, 222 fishers were interviewed in six locations - East Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, Ternate, Morotai, Seram, and Biak - to identify the interaction between marine mammals and tuna fishing activities, particularly related with the usage of different fishing gear and fishing practices. Twenty cetacean species from by-catchwere identified by respondents including three species of baleen whales and 17 species of toothed whales (including dolphins). Results from this survey indicated that interactions between marine mammals and tuna fisheries in Indonesian seas are primarily due to cetacean predation on tuna (e.g., pilot whales). To manage and minimize cetacean by-catchin the Indonesian seas, one of the recommendations from the authors of this study is the development of a Marine Mammal Mitigation Plan.
The marine fisheries resources worldwide are facing depletion but traditional management methods may not be adequate to overcome this problem. A new fishery management approach which focuses on protecting the critical stages in the life cycle of the selected marine species is presented in this paper. The fisheries refugia concept focuses on temporal and a spatially defined marine or coastal area in which specific management measures are implemented to sustain the targeted species. This concept was initiated by SEAFDEC-UNEP-GEF in the South East Asia region and are participated by six member countries namely Malaysia, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines. In Malaysia, two sites were selected for this project which is the lobster refugia (Panulirus spp. and Thenus orientalis) in Tanjung Leman, Johor and the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) refugia at Kuala Baram, Miri, Sarawak. This paper discusses the activities carried out to establish these two refugia. These activities include resource surveys of lobsters and tiger prawns at different life stages (larvae, juvenile and adult) and socio-economic profiling of fishers communities at both sites. Several stakeholder consultation sessions were also held with fishers and local agencies to promote the refugia concept and gather feedbacks on the implementation of the new management approach. Two information centers were set up at Tanjung Leman and Kuala Baram, Miri with the objectives of disseminating information regarding the fisheries refugia project and its benefits to the stakeholders. Likewise, in collaboration with the local television station RTM, two fisheries refugia documentaries were produced and broadcast nationwide. The targeted outcome of this project is to have these two sites gazetted as fisheries refugia so that the wild resources of lobsters and tiger prawns are sustainably managed through spatial and seasonal closure during the critical stages of their life cycle.
Mangroves provide several important functions such as gatherings, nurseries, living areas, and eating habitats. The best management plan designed for the conservation of mangrove wetlands must be considered as well as an ecological and social facility. The purpose of this study was to analyze the sustainability of mangrove ecosystem management from the ecological, economic, social, institutional and technological dimensions using the MDS (Multi Dimension Scaling) method through the RAP-MANGROVE (Rapid Assessment for Mangrove) approach in Pangkah Wetan and Pangkah Kulon Villages, Ujungpangkah District, Gresik Regency, East Java Province. The results of the study show that the sustainability index of the mangrove ecosystem in the Pangkah Wetan Village for ecological, institutional, and technological dimensions are less sustainable, while for economic and social dimensions are sufficiently sustainable; while in the Pangkah Kulon Village for ecological, social, institutional, and technology dimensions are sufficiently sustainable, while for economic dimension is sustainable. Based on the results of leverage analysis, it shows attributes that are very sensitive to the sustainability status of mangrove ecosystems, for the ecological dimension are fauna diversity in mangrove ecosystems, and coastline changes. The sensitive attributes in the economic dimension are a type of direct use mangrove ecosystems for community, and contributions mangrove ecosystem to increasing labor; while in social dimension are mangrove ecosystems damaged by community and community access to utilize mangrove ecosystems. The sensitive attributes in the institutional dimension are involvement of community institutions regarding mangrove ecosystem management and the existence of sanctions for violating regulations in the mangrove ecosystem; while in technological dimension are processing techniques for mangrove products, and the techniques for capturing biota in mangrove ecosystems. The results of the Monte Carlo analysis show that the overall dimensions in this study are adequate and valid (indicated by the difference between MDS and Monte Carlo <5%), while the Goodness of Fit analysis shows an S-stress value of <0.25 for each dimension, so the RAP-MANGROVE model in this analysis it is a good model and can be used to analyze the accuracy of the sustainability of mangrove ecosystem management.
Mangrove forests are considered very productive ecosystems in tropical coastal areas. They consist of valuable resources which provide services in terms of physical, biological and socio-economic functions. Human intervention and development have impacted the coastal ecosystems. The research was carried out to assess the biodiversity of mangrove ecosystem for sustainable tourism in Dampier strait, Raja Ampat. The data collected in Manswar islands, Gam islands, and the southern part of Waigeo island, and Batanta islands. Mangrove sampling was carried out at 7 (seven) stations which were selected randomly. The baseline data were used to develop the model of integrated and sustainable mangrove forest management in marine protected area Raja Ampat. The maximum number of visitors to each mangrove destination in Dampier Strait MPA ranged from 376 persons per year for Pandawa Resort to 39,486 person per year for the Nature Reserve Waringkabom. Two management areas were designed for mangrove ecotourism, namely Batanta management area and Gam island, Manswar islands, and South of Waigeo management area. These areas could be assigned as mangrove ecotourism based on resort management, based on property right of local community management and local customary management, and based on partnership and collaboration management.
Climate change has detrimental impacts on the ocean such as ocean acidification, the occurrence of extreme weather, increasing frequency of storms, and sea level and temperature rise, which will threaten the marine ecosystem existence and threaten the marine economic potential. Indonesia, with 6.4 million km2 area of waters, hold enormous fisheries potential wealth and enormous potential economic value. Data from the Marine and Fisheries Ministry notes that the marine economic potential reaches IDR 3000 trillion and there only IDR 291.8 trillion of the total potency that already gained. Sustainable fisheries development must be in accordance with the development principles that benefit the present generation but still pay attention to sustainability for future generations. Blue economy policies and programs become the right and effective approach for marine development to encourage optimal and sustainable utilization and exploitation of fisheries resources. This research is a legal research by using statute approach to relevant legal materials. This study aims to integrate the blue economy principle in to marine and fisheries policies and reconstruct the existing policies. The result of this study is a proposed model of blue economy-based policy to get a sustainable national marine and fisheries management.
Marine protected area (MPA) plays important roles to achieve biodiversity conservation and fisheries management goals, and as the main tool for ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). However, the goals of the local MPA in Indonesia is faced with the legal problems due to the enactment of Law No. 23/2014 on Local Government, regulate that the district or municipality government is no longer has authority to manage shoreline area within four miles as well as local MPA. The new law implies mismanagement of the MPA due to lack of capacity provincial government to manage the additional area of authority. There is no responsible institution focus to manage the MPA yet. This study aims to analyze the deregulation of Bontang City authority to manage the MPA. This research was conducted from January to April 2019 using normative juridical methods on the legal basis of MPA management. The results of this study suggested that based on Law No. 23/2014, actually the Bontang City Government still has opportunity to manage the MPA even though this area within the authority of Provincial Government. The authority of the Bontang City is still imbedded in several local government agencies, such as the Environment Agency, Community and Village Empowerment Service, and Fisheries Service. The institutional strengthening of the local MPA Bontang is proposed in two stages, in the short term through establishment of a Working Group involving the government of East Kalimantan Provinces and the City of Bontang, while in the long term to establish a new institution of the Technical Implementation Unit is under the Provincial Marine and Fisheries Agency.
Microorganisms drive the biogeochemical cycles that link abiotic and biotic processes in the aqueous environment and are intricately associated with plastic debris. The presence of microplastics in water and sediment introduces new concerns as small particle size allows for increased pathways of microplastics in the food web and element cycles. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on microbe‐plastic interactions and summarize the potential impact of biogeochemical processes on plastic distribution, cycling, transport, and sedimentation. We explore how microbe‐plastic interactions influence the exposure of consumers to microplastics and plastic degradation products. Key methods used to elucidate biofilm development, microbial biodegradation, and microplastic detection in the aqueous environment are discussed. Finally, we comment on potential future questions and research directions needed to further define the role of microorganisms in the environmental fate of microplastics.
Marine microplastics pollution has been a new challenge to marine environmental protection. The research results have shown that microplastics exist everywhere in the ocean. However, understanding of the transport of microplastics in the ocean, including coastal zones, is not clear. This paper provides a holistic overview of the modelling of microplastic transportation. The transport processes are complex, including surface drifting, vertical mixing, beaching, and settling. Besides the dynamic conditions of oceans, the transportation of microplastics is influenced by their physical characteristics, such as size, shape, and density. For buoyant particles, a Lagrange track model is used to simulate the surface drift process, considering current, windage effect, and Stokes drift. It is difficult to observe the vertical mixing process of microplastics because of their small size (<5 mm), therefore the parameters of the vertical mixing process in the model are still less known. Large accumulation of microplastics in sediments may be a result of settlement and entrainment. Also, biofilm formation can increase their density and thus, deposition. Considering sedimentation of microplastics is somewhat different from sediment deposition, some primary parameters (e.g., diffusivity, Stokes-drift, settling rate, biofouling rate) are required in future studies to better understand the transport of marine microplastics.
Planktivorous pelagic fish are susceptible to accumulating microplastics (MP), which have the same size range as their prey and accumulate in their feeding and spawning grounds. We analyzed stomach contents of pelagic fish (European sardine, horse mackerel, anchovy, chub mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, and bogue) from Atlanto‐Iberian waters to investigate the relationship between MP ingestion, their diet composition and select a potential bioindicator. We found significant differences between diet of the studied fish species in terms of prey type and size. MP ingestion was significantly related to diet composition. Species with diets that include smaller prey (European sardine, chub mackerel, and bogue) had lower MP concentration in the stomachs than fish depending on larger mesozooplanktonic prey. Horse mackerel had the highest proportion of larger prey (> 1000 μm) and the highest MP abundance in the stomachs, and thus are a suitable bioindicator for MP monitoring in the pelagic Iberian ecosystem.
Aquaculture is one of the world’s fastest growing food production sectors and presents an opportunity for rural community development that can support coastal livelihoods. An ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA) has been recommended to facilitate socially and environmentally sustainable development, yet there remains a need to better involve people in planning and operational aspects. Community-based management may help to implement principles of the EAA; however, context-specific research is needed to understand its potential application and suitability. This research explores opportunities for community-based marine aquaculture (CBMA) for nonfinfish in the context of Nova Scotia, Canada, through a series of stakeholder interviews. Results suggest that all stakeholder groups interviewed were positive about the potential for CBMA to support sustainable aquaculture growth in the province; however, key questions around operationalizing CBMA remain. The aquaculture industry is on a continual path for growth worldwide and, therefore, it becomes increasingly important to proactively examine strategies such as CBMA that can help to facilitate EAA in a way that genuinely puts people at the centre of aquaculture development and governance.
Does humanity's future lie in the ocean? As demand for resources continues to grow and land-based sources decline, expectations for the ocean as an engine of human development are increasing. Claiming marine resources and space is not new to humanity, but the extent, intensity, and diversity of today's aspirations are unprecedented. We describe this as the blue acceleration—a race among diverse and often competing interests for ocean food, material, and space. Exploring what this new reality means for the global ocean and how to steer it in a sustainable and equitable way represents an urgent challenge.
With oceans under increasing pressure from human activities, sustainable development and conservation efforts are working to set meaningful targets for healthy oceans. Determining whether those targets are achieved requires indicators that measure status and progress. Here, I reflect upon lessons learned from a decade of developing and calculating the Ocean Health Index.
Oceans, seas, lakes and other waterbodies are increasingly suffering from too much plastic waste. Numerous sources are contributing to this plastic waste problem. Additionally, conventional fishing nets, made out of nylon, are causing environmental damage by disintegrating into microplastics. The breakdown process stops there, as these microscopic particles are non-biodegradable. Microplastics remain in waters for years causing harm to marine organisms that ingest them. Linen fishing nets are a valid alternative and more ecological production of nets. This study aims to compare the costs of these new linen nets with conventional nets. These costs can be related to the environmental benefits of these alternative nets. The research objective is to study the question under which conditions it would be optimal to choose linen nets over conventional (nylon) fishing nets. The conditions examined are economic and policy, environmental and technological. This research question is put into the wider context of microplastics. A rotation model, typically used in forest economics, is applied to analyze the optimal lengths of periods to renew both a linen and a nylon fishing net. A comparison of the costs is conducted and a subsidy-based policy instrument is determined for the fishers using linen nets.
A subsidy-based policy could be applied to make fishing enterprises in Finland use ecological fishing gear. The results suggest that the costs of such a policy would be reasonable, estimated between €1.1 and €4.5 million in this study. Importantly, an increase in the use of ecological nets would lead to a decrease in the total microplastic load in waterbodies.
The purpose of this research was to determine capture fisheries status in a sustainability perspective based on ecology, economy, social, technology and ethic dimensions. A data analysis method which used was Multidimensional Scaling with RAPFISH technique. All dimensions in this study were based on FAO's attribute and was modified based on fisheries condition in research location. Score multidimensional analysis is 45,69. These results indicate that the multidimensional sustainability status of capture fisheries on Bangka Island is in a less sustainable status. The result showed that ecology was the dimension which has the lowest score in order to support captured fisheries sustainability in Bangka Island. The result also formulated sensitive attribute in every condition and gave management recommendations for the sustainability of captured fisheries based on that attribute. This study showed the importance of dimension integration and stakeholder's teamwork multisectoral in order to manage the sustainability of captured fisheries.