Alien species and bottom trawl fisheries are of significant concern in the Eastern Mediterranean as both can put pressure on coastal systems whilst some alien species also constitute an important component of the trawl catches. Using an Ecopath model representing the Gulf of Mersin (Northeastern Mediterranean) for the period September 2009 to September 2013, this study describes the impacts of alien species and bottom trawl fisheries on the structure and functioning of this Northeastern Mediterranean food web. Our results show that the increase in alien species has had an important ecological impact on ecosystem structure and function. The alien species have had mostly negative impacts on native taxa, and trawl fisheries may have helped some alien species gain an advantage over native species, particularly at lower trophic levels. The Mixed Trophic Impact analysis showed that trawling and trawl discards had a noticeable direct and indirect impact on the food web, to the extent that trawling now affects the ecological role of the alien species. The cumulative overall impact of alien demersal functional groups on the pelagic domain, and vice versa suggest that alien species now play a role in benthic-pelagic coupling, and that this role is mediated by the fisheries. These results support the idea that alien species and trawling are now both important factors in structuring the Northeastern Mediterranean food web. It will thus be critical to consider both factors, as well as their interactions, when developing ecosystem-based management approaches for the region.
Two-dimensional numerical modelling of swell wave dynamics on idealized fringing reefs is performed using SWAN, covering a wide range of bathymetries, climate forcing conditions and water depths over the reefs. The results illustrate the impact of reef geometry and bathymetry, coral species and sea level rise on key hydrodynamic parameters on the reef and on forces on corals. The modelling demonstrates that one-dimensional models underestimate the wave action on the reef flat. Wide short reefs and narrow long reefs have similar wave heights at the centre of the reef flat. For a given reef length, the wave height first decreases with increasing reef width, then increases to a local maximum when reef width is approximately equal to the reef length, and then decreases for further increases in width. This pattern is a result of combined dissipation and refraction processes, which combine to lead to different zones of cross-reef wave transformation. Provided that a reef retains its hydrodynamic functions in breaking and refracting the waves, sea level rise enhances the wave heights and wave orbital velocities on the reef flat. If vertical coral growth does not keep pace with sea level rise, loss of the hydrodynamic functions of the reef may occur on deeper reefs, and result in a reduction of near bed velocities with sea level rise. Hydrodynamic forces on corals vary by coral species and SLR changes the magnitude of the forces on different species in different ways, which may lead to less favourable conditions for certain coral species. For long period swell, the intermediate size corals are drag-dominated and behave similarly to branching corals, whereas for short period swell their behavior is similar to that of the inertia-dominated massive corals. For intermediate corals different responses to SLR may therefore be expected for different overall regional wave climates. Over time, this process may contribute to changes in the structural complexity of reefs. The influence of sea level rise on the forces on corals on the reef flat is different under swell and cyclonic wind conditions since wind influences wave period in the latter case.
Environmental NGOs are increasingly called upon to respect human rights when undertaking conservation programs. Evaluating a family planning program running alongside marine management measures in Madagascar, we find that family planning services provided by an environmental NGO can support women’s reproductive rights. Family planning services allow the option of smaller families, and give more time to work, increased income and better health. These benefits do not translate into increased support for, or participation in, marine management, however, and women who are able to work more are typically fishing more. We identify patriarchal norms as a key factor preventing the family planning programme from manifesting in improved resource stewardship, limiting opportunities for women to participate fully in resource management meetings and diversify their livelihood outside traditional tasks, including fishing. We propose that a successful human rights-based approach must be more comprehensive, targeting multiple rights and challenging existing institutions and power structures.
This study focuses on the impacts of variable shoreface closure depth limits on coastal responses to increases in sea levels along a sandy barrier in southern Brazil. Upper and lower shoreface limits for sediment exchanges are largely regulated by the wave climate and they tend to move offshore as the temporal scale increases. Therefore, because closure depth limits are a source of uncertainty in simulations of coastal response to sea level rise, to elucidate how important changes in these limits are under such conditions, four simulation experiments were performed with variable combinations of upper and lower shoreface closure depth values. Direct methods for closure depth delineation require long term data sets with field surveys, which are rarely available; therefore, indirect approaches are applied widely. To calculate closure depth values here, we apply Hallermeier's equations using two wave data sources: one measured (via wave buoys) and one modeled Wave Watch III and Simulating Waves Nearshore Model (WWIII/SWAN). Evaluation of coastal response under rising sea levels was possible via application of an aggregated coastal modeling approach using the random shoreface translation model (RanSTM). Shoreline retreat distances resulting from each combination of upper (hc) and lower (hi) shoreface closure depth values (cases) in model simulations were compared: Case 1 (hc = 7.4 m; hi = 42.1 m), Case 2 (hc = 7.4 m; hi = 35.7 m), Case 3 (hc = 6.2 m; hi = 35.7 m), and Case 4 (hc = 6.2 m; hi = 42.1 m). Statistical analysis via the Kruskal-Wallis test demonstrated that shoreline retreat was significantly affected (at P < 0.01) by the variations in lower shoreface limit. The recession distance was greater when the lower shoreface limit was deeper. Overall results indicate that the choice of lower shoreface limiting depth is indeed crucial in influencing coastal response to sea level rise, and hence in future shoreline position forecasts. Therefore, these results show the relevance of determining such limits with confidence when modeling coastal response to sea level rise, especially when this rise is being predicted over longer temporal scales.
Global sea-level rise since the Nineteenth Century is expected to eventually cause recession of many shores, however most swell-exposed sandy beaches have not yet shown such response. This study analysed a 70-year air photo and beach profile record for swell-dominated Ocean Beach (western Tasmania) to show an abrupt change of long-term shoreline position variability circa 1980, from episodic erosion and accretion since at least 1947 to persistent recession with no recovery up to the present. Dating of back-dune peats exposed in the dune scarp showed that recent shoreline recession exceeds any in the last 1800 years. Investigation of potential causes identified recent-onset sea-level rise (SLR) on a tectonically-stable coast and increasing winds driving increased wave-setup as drivers with sufficient explanatory power to account for the observed changes, although data limitations and residual uncertainties mean additional contributing factors such as interdecadal wave direction changes cannot be ruled out. We hypothesise that Ocean Beach has experienced earlier recession in response to SLR and other climate change effects than many other beaches owing to exposure to a very high-energy storm-dominated wave climate, littoral drift efficiently delivering eroded sand to a large-capacity active sand sink, and low variability in swell-wave directions and inter-annual sea-levels. We hypothesise that sea-level rise with higher onshore wind speeds generating increased wave setup at Ocean Beach since before the 1980s has increased upper beach erosion event frequency until the formerly stable or gaining sand budget reversed to deficit. A major storm or storm cluster abruptly tipped the beach into its current recessional mode when its sand budget was close to deficit. Factors causing an early shoreline response to sea-level rise at this site are applicable more widely as potential indicators of beaches likely to respond earlier than others to climate-induced changes including not only SLR but also wind climate changes.
The coastal zone is a locus where many activities of society intersect with natural processes that shape the coastal zone and the resource base available. In the EU, regional legislation exists to specifically manage the coastal and inshore marine space and resources (e.g. Marine Strategy Framework Directive) whilst policy areas such as land-use planning, property rights and key aspects of consenting processes remain under the authority of Member States. Interactions exist between these different policy drivers at multiple scales, but the overall landscape is characterised by tensions or weak links between drivers originating from the EU and national priorities leading to a complex, non-linear and confusing policyscape. This paper reviews how legislation, and implementing organisations, in Ireland have evolved in the context of EU environmental perspectives that have progressed from conservation-centric to addressing modern day challenges such as regional development for Blue Growth and aspirations of international agreements (e.g. Convention on Biological Diversity, UN Agenda 2030). Through an analysis employing principles of Evolutionary Governance Theory, the way different governance institutions have co-evolved to understand how dependencies between current actors and objectives influence each other is examined. The study explores appropriate governance approaches to land-sea interactions utilising examples from implementation of the EU Maritime Spatial Planning Directive in selected EU Member States, and how they take land-sea interactions into account. This is contrasted with examples from other EU legislation and policies such as those relating to river basin management, the marine environment, and integrated coastal management. The paper concludes with tentative recommendations on how policies addressing land-sea interactions need to evolve to better deliver on global policy drivers.
The Ocean Affairs Council (OAC) is a central administrative agency under the Executive Yuan (cabinet) that was established by the government on April 28, 2018, in southern Taiwan. Taiwan has accomplished several important breakthroughs in ocean affairs and governance aiming to integrate and coordinate all ocean-related affairs through the establishment of the OAC. The OAC includes three agencies: the Coast Guard Administration (CGA), the Ocean Conservation Administration (OCA) and the National Academy of Marine Research (NAMR). Establishing the OAC allows Taiwan's government to focus more attention on ocean affairs, ocean governance and ocean countries. In addition, Taiwan now has its own specific marine agency and the capacity to establish future marine policy, maritime security, coastal management, marine resource conservation and sustainable development, marine science and technology research, and marine cultural and educational policy. Academics and legislators have worked with the Legislative Yuan for more than 20 years before the four ocean affairs-related organization acts were passed in 2015. However, the Legislative Yuan's proposal was suspended in 2016, and its unveiling ceremony was not held until April 2018. This paper seeks to introduce the missions of the OAC, CGA, OCA, and NAMR to provide a full overview of the new accomplishments and legal measures in the implementation of a national marine policy in Taiwan. Moreover, experiences will be shared with readers to provide an understanding of the reasons behind establishing Taiwan as an ocean country, and Taiwan's organizational blueprint will be outlined. Finally, we provide a reference for those who want to establish an ocean management agency.
During the production, use and disposal of plastic products, microplastics (MPs) are dispersed into the surrounding environment and have inevitable impacts on mangrove ecosystems in estuaries and offshore areas. In the mangroves of Southern China, the systematic evaluation of the distribution, characteristics and ecological risks of MPs is lacking. In this study, surface sediments (0-5 cm depth) were collected from six representative mangroves in China to explore MP contamination and its associated ecological risk. Based on the results, MP concentrations of MPs in mangrove sediments were as follows : FT (2249±747 items/kg), ZJ (736±269 items/kg), DF (649±443 items/kg), DZG (431±170 items/kg), YX (424±127 items/kg), and FCG (227±173 items/kg). The higher MP concentration in the Futian mangrove was mainly related to inputs from the Pearl River, the third largest river in China. The predominant shape, colour, and size of MPs were fibrous, white-transparent, and 500 -5,000 μm, respectively. The main MP polymer types were polypropylene, polyethylene, and polystyrene. Degradation artefacts were present on surface of MPs as well as metallic and non-metallic elements. MPs concentration in mangrove sediments increased with increasing social-economic development of surrounding districts, which indicated the clear influence of anthropogenic activity on MP pollution in these mangroves. Furthermore, total organic carbon (TOC) and silt content were positively associated with MPs (P < 0.01), indicating a facilitatory role in deposition of MPs in mangroves. Based on a comprehensive evaluation using the potential ecological risk factor (Ei), potential ecological risk (RI), polymer risk index (H) and pollution load index (PLI), MPs were found to present ecological risks in these mangroves, with the highest risk occurring in the Futian mangrove.
This study combines published datasets with unpublished data on plastic ingestion in several North Sea fish species. The combined dataset of 4389 individuals from 15 species allows the analysis of spatial distribution and temporal variability of plastic uptake in fish. Airborne fibre contamination was observed to be the main contributor to fibres encountered in the samples. The number of fibres in samples was strongly related to the time needed to process a sample, not to the number of individual fishes in the sample. Accurate correction for secondary fibre contamination was not possible, but corrections required would be similar to fibre numbers observed in the samples. Consequently, all fibres were omitted from further analysis. The frequency of occurrence and the average number of plastics in fish is generally low (1.8% and 0.022 pieces per organism respectively), with only cod having a higher prevalence (12.3%). While latitude of catch locations influences plastic uptake in fish, no correlation with the distance to the coast was found. Slightly less plastics were ingested in winter, and a decrease in plastics ingested was observed between 2009 and 2018. These factors should be considered when fish species, catch location and time are discussed as indicators for plastic pollution in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. We recommend considering demersal cod and pelagic sprat as two species suitable for monitoring plastic ingestion in biota, both on the seafloor and in the water column.
This paper focuses on local conflicts over marine conservation in southeastern Tanzania. It draws from ethnographic fieldwork conducted in 2014 and 2015 in a coastal village located inside the boundaries of a marine park. The paper first examines why villagers have come to contest the park, and subsequently outlines the various forms of resistance they employ to mobilize their opposition. Some people are willing to protest openly, as evidenced by the destruction of the park's gatehouse office and directory signs in 2013. However, an immediate violent response to such acts from state paramilitary forces has instilled fear in villagers. The swift crackdown, coupled with ongoing surveillance from ranger patrols, has engendered a degree of discipline in some people. Rather than risking further repercussions, many villagers engage in ‘everyday forms of resistance’ through subtle acts of noncompliance to the conservation regulations. These practices are entangled with material benefits and moral statements about customary rights to resources. They may also facilitate political mobility by destabilizing conservation management, while simultaneously avoiding open confrontation with governing authorities. I refer to this overall process as the (un)making of marine park subjects.
Swim-with-whale tourism is a lucrative and rapidly growing industry worldwide. Whale-watching can cause negative effects on the behaviour of targeted animals. Although this is believed to be particularly true for close-up interactions, such as swim-with operations, few empirical studies have investigated this. In 2016, the Western Australian State Government commenced a swim-with humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) trial in the Ningaloo Marine Park, where 11 commercial licences were granted. The swim-with trial was conducted during both the northern and southern whale migration (August to November), during which we assessed potential short-term behavioural effects on humpback whales to swim-with activities. From both an independent research vessel (n = 300 h) and on-board commercial swim-with vessels (n = 357 h), we collected group-follow data (n = 224) on whale behaviour before, during and after swim-with activities. Behavioural effects on whales were investigated, including movement patterns (deviation and directness index, heading, swim speed), surfacing patterns (dive duration and respiration rate) and occurrence of agonistic behaviours. Results showed that the most common type of vessel approach to place swimmers in the water was in the path of whales (89.8% of interactions). During in-path approaches, vessels travelled significantly faster (P = .002) compared to when approaching from the side (side/line abreast approaches). When vessels approached in the whales' path, whales exhibited horizontal and vertical avoidance strategies by adopting a less predictable path (deviating from 32° to 46°), increasing turning angles away from the vessel (heading from 73° to >90°), increasing swim speeds (from 1.68 to 1.89 ms−1), and decreasing the duration of their dives (from 224 to 194 s). Whales displayed a higher frequency of agonistic behaviours when a swim-with vessel was <100 m distance from them compared to >100 m away (P = .011). Young-of-year calves were present during 19.6% (18 of 92) of group-follows that included swim attempts. To reduce potential impacts on whales and increase swimmer safety, we recommend to avoid in-path vessel approaches, not place swimmers in the water with groups of whales that perform agonistic behaviours, and avoid swimming with young-of-year calves.
The present study deals with the monitoring for a real implementation of management policies in marine environments and the potential conflicts between professional and recreational fishery in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. A comprehensive database of fishing effort and fisheries infringements from professional small-scale and recreational fisheries was screened to identify hotspots areas of fishing pressure in the coastal zones of Ionian Sea. Mapping points showed that the number of the recorded infringements conducted both by professional and recreational fishers are too low (1 and 6 recorded infringements per 104 km2 of vessel days per year) and that fishing effort, and subsequently the recorded infringements, are not evenly distributed but concentrated on specific fishing grounds. These revealed high-risk areas prone to illegal fishing activities and are implying problems in the implementation of the fisheries regulations rather than a low delinquency of the fishers to comply with the rules. Findings represents a step forward in applying tracking technology to the surveillance of small-scale fishery and are crucial towards the specification of the critical zones for setting an efficient control system.
Synthetic polymer-based materials are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, where weathering processes lead to their progressive fragmentation and the leaching of additive chemicals. The current study assessed the chemical content of freshwater and marine leachates produced from car tire rubber (CTR), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) microplastics, and their adverse effects on the microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata (freshwater) and Skeletonema costatum (marine) and the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. A combination of non-target and target chemical analysis revealed a number of organic and metal compounds in the leachates, including representing plasticizers, antioxidants, antimicrobials, lubricants, and vulcanizers. CTR and PVC materials and their corresponding leachates had the highest content of tentatively identified organic additives, while PET had the lowest. The metal content varied both between polymer leachates and between freshwater and seawater. Notable additives identified in high concentrations were benzothiazole (CTR), phthalide (PVC), acetophenone (PP), cobalt (CTR, PET), zinc (CTR, PVC), lead (PP) and antimony (PET). All leachates, except PET, inhibited algal growth with EC50 values ranging from 0.5% (CTR) and 64% (PP) of the total leachate concentration. Leachates also affected mussel endpoints, including the lysosomal membrane stability and early stages endpoints as gamete fertilization, embryonic development and larvae motility and survival. Embryonic development was the most sensitive parameter in mussels, with EC50 values ranging from 0.8% (CTR) to 65% (PET) of the total leachate. The lowest impacts were induced on D-shell larvae survival, reflecting their ability to down-regulate motility and filtration in the presence of chemical stressors. This study provides evidence of the relationship between chemical composition and toxicity of plastic/rubber leachates. Consistent with increasing contamination by organic and inorganic additives, the leachates ranged from slightly to highly toxic to mussels and algae, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the overall impact of plastic-associated chemicals on aquatic ecosystems.
Global climate change has attracted worldwide attention. The ocean is the largest active carbon pool on the planet and plays an important role in global climate change. However, marine plastic pollution is getting increasingly serious due to the large consumption and mismanagement of global plastics. The impact of marine plastics on ecosystem responsible for the gas exchange and circulation of marine CO2 may cause more greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, in this paper, threats of marine microplastics to ocean carbon sequestration are discussed. Marine microplastics can 1) affect phytoplankton photosynthesis and growth; 2) have toxic effects on zooplankton and affect their development and reproduction; 3) affect marine biological pump; and 4) affect ocean carbon stock. Phytoplankton and zooplankton are the most important producer and consumer of the ocean. As such, clearly, further research should be needed to explore the potential scale and scope of this impact, and its underlying mechanisms.
A major goal of ecology is to understand how spatial heterogeneity determines patterns of species diversity and composition. Studies have demonstrated positive relationship between environmental heterogeneity and diversity, but evidence from marine ecosystems is controversial and scarce in terms of how spatial heterogeneity and diel period mediate this relationship. We used fish communities from four Southwestern Atlantic vessel reefs to assess whether positive heterogeneity-diversity relationships (HDR) hold for these mobile organisms and whether the relationships weaken with nightfall. We sampled fishes in three habitats of contrasting structural complexity (high, low and control), over day and night, and employed two complementary diversity frameworks: partitioning of gamma diversity into independent alpha and beta components (Jost's approach) and partitioning of beta diversity into turnover and nestedness components (Baselga's approach). We recorded 5005 fishes belonging to 76 species and 31 families. As expected, the mean alpha diversity of rare species (0D) doubled from control to high complexity areas and decreased by half from day to night. The diversity of typical species (1D) also doubled from control to high complexity areas, but did not reduce at night. Complexity and diel period did not have significant effect on the diversity of dominant species (2D). No relationship between complexity and alpha diversity was weakened at night. Beta diversity of the three diversity orders significantly differed from 1 (totally homogeneous vessel reef), indicating that complexity underlies patterns of beta diversity. This effect was consistent in both diel periods, contradicting expectations of weaker influence of complexity at night. The turnover component of beta diversity was consistently greater than nestedness at day and nigth (2.8 and 1.9-fold, respectively). Our findings support positive HDR for the diversity of rare and typical species. Dominant species also respond to heterogeneity by replacing each other across the complexity gradient, but not by becoming more numerous in high complexity areas. Diel changes did not affect the strenght of HDR, revealing an uninterrupted role of environmental heterogenity on fish communities. Conserving heterogeneous, structurally complex habitats is crucial for conserving marine fish diversity.
Global threats to ocean biodiversity have driven international targets calling for a worldwide network of marine protected areas (MPAs). In line with these targets, the Commission on the Conservation of Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) has been working towards adopting MPAs in the Southern Ocean. CCAMLR is considered a leader in science-based management and has been guiding the way on international MPAs. The west Antarctic Peninsula, threatened by climate change and industrial fishing, has been a priority area for MPA planning in CCAMLR. Since 2011, Chile and Argentina have worked to develop an Antarctic Peninsula MPA proposal which they submitted to CCAMLR in 2018. We use the Antarctic Peninsula MPA proposal process as a case study for understanding the science-policy interface in this international conservation regime. Specifically, we use existing frameworks for co-production of actionable science to examine the Antarctic Peninsula MPA process. We show that the Antarctic Peninsula MPA Proponents engaged in a highly collaborative, transparent, and science-based process which exemplified best practices for actionable science and co-production. Despite following best practices for actionable science, the MPA proposal has not yet been adopted, largely due to political barriers. We elaborate on the importance of co-production of actionable science and its effectiveness as well as to limitations in the Southern Ocean and beyond. Finally, we highlight that science-policy best practices may not be sufficient to drive consensus and the ultimate need for political will in the decision-making underpinning MPA designation in the Southern Ocean.
Numerous organisations collect data in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), but they are rarely analysed together due to different program objectives, methods, and data quality. We developed a weighted spatio-temporal Bayesian model and used it to integrate image-based hard-coral data collected by professional and citizen scientists, who captured and/or classified underwater images. We used the model to predict coral cover across the GBR with estimates of uncertainty; thus filling gaps in space and time where no data exist. Additional data increased the model's predictive ability by 43%, but did not affect model inferences about pressures (e.g. bleaching and cyclone damage). Thus, effective integration of professional and high-volume citizen data could enhance the capacity and cost-efficiency of monitoring programs. This general approach is equally viable for other variables collected in the marine environment or other ecosystems; opening up new opportunities to integrate data and provide pathways for community engagement/stewardship.
The UK has adopted a feature-based approach to MPA designation and monitoring to meet international and national obligations. Despite operational challenges, this approach is considered key to optimising conservation outcomes whilst making efficient use of limited resources. Drawing on lessons learnt from the UK's MPA Programme we discuss the practical issues which arise from: i) effective selection of conservation features identified as surrogates for biodiversity, ii) adequacy of feature representation across the MPA network and iii) implementation of quantifiable conservation objectives and ability to monitor progress in relation to them [4,5]. There is recognition that high-level feature surrogates adopted for MPA designation may not adequately represent the full range of biodiversity present across UK marine habitats, and several of these features are indiscernible using acoustic mapping techniques. This results in our inability to accurately map their distribution and extent. Additionally, monitoring progress in relation to conservation targets is hampered by a lack of reliable indicators to assess change in their ecological status. Recommendations for the optimisation of MPA designation and monitoring using a systematic, evidence based approach are provided. These include: 1) flexibility in feature classifications to allow additional features to be designated as required, 2) communication of limitations in the evidence base to enable informed use in adaptive management decisions, 3) use of innovative technologies to more accurately map habitat features and 4) development of wider UK and regional sea scale monitoring programmes which align with an ecosystem based approach to the ongoing assessment of marine biodiversity.
Ecosystem services have become a dominant paradigm for understanding how people derive well-being from ecosystems. However, the framework has been critiqued for over-emphasizing the availability of services as a proxy for benefits, and thus missing the socially-stratified ways that people access ecosystem services. We aim to contribute to ecosystem services’ theoretical treatment of access by drawing on ideas from political ecology (legitimacy) and anthropology (entanglement). We hypothesize that where customary and modern forms of resource management co-exist, changes in customary institutions will also change people’s ability to and means of benefiting from ecosystem services, with implications for well-being. We ask a) what are the constellations of social, economic, and institutional mechanisms that enable or hinder access to a range of provisioning ecosystem services; and b) how are these constellations shifting as different elements of customary institutions gain or lose legitimacy in the process of entanglement with modernity? Through a qualitative mixed-methods case study in a coastal atoll community in Papua New Guinea, we identify key access mechanisms across the value chain of marine provisioning services. Our study finds the legitimacy of customary systems – and thus their power in shaping access – has eroded unevenly for some ecosystem services, and some people within the community (e.g. younger men), and less for others (e.g. women), and that different marine provisioning services are shaped by specific access mechanisms, which vary along the value chain. Our findings suggest that attention to entanglement and legitimacy can help ecosystem services approaches capture the dynamic and relational aspects of power that shape how people navigate access to resources in a changing world. We contend that viewing power as relational illuminates how customary institutions lose or gain legitimacy as they become entangled with modernity.