Literature Library

Currently indexing 8050 titles

Diverging Strategies to Planning an Ecologically Coherent Network of MPAs in the North Sea: The Roles of Advocacy, Evidence and Pragmatism in the Face of Uncertainty

Caveen AJ, Fitzsimmons C, Pieraccini M, Dunn E, Sweeting CJ, Johnson ML, Bloomfield H, Jones EV, Lightfoot P, Gray TS, et al. Diverging Strategies to Planning an Ecologically Coherent Network of MPAs in the North Sea: The Roles of Advocacy, Evidence and Pragmatism in the Face of Uncertainty. In: Advances in Marine Biology. Vol. 69. Advances in Marine Biology. Elsevier; 2014. pp. 325 - 370. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128002148000098
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book Chapter

The North Sea is one of the most economically important seas in the world due to productive fisheries, extensive oil and gas fields, busy shipping routes, marine renewable energy development and recreational activity. Unsurprisingly, therefore, the use of marine protected areas (here defined widely to include fisheries closed areas and no-take marine reserves) in its management has generated considerable controversy—particularly with regards to the design of a regional ecologically coherent MPA network to meet international obligations.

Drawing on three MPA processes currently occurring in the UK North Sea, we examine the real-world problems that make the designation of MPA networks challenging. The political problems include: disagreement among (and within) sectors over policy objectives and priorities, common access to fisheries resources at the EU level increasing the scale at which decisions have to be made and lack of an integrated strategy for implementing protected areas in the North Sea. The scientific problems include the patchy knowledge of benthic assemblages, limited knowledge of fishing gear–habitat interactions, and the increased risk of unforeseen externalities if human activity (predominantly fishing) is displaced from newly protected sites. Diverging stakeholder attitudes to these problems means that there is no consensus on what ecological coherence actually means.

Ultimately, we caution against ‘quick-fix’ solutions that are based on advocacy and targets, as they create confusion and undermine trust in the planning process. We argue for a more pragmatic approach to marine protection that embraces the complexity of the social and political arena in which decisions are made.

Establishment, Management, and Maintenance of the Phoenix Islands Protected Area

Rotjan R, Jamieson R, Carr B, Kaufman L, Mangubhai S, Obura D, Pierce R, Rimon B, Ris B, Sandin S, et al. Establishment, Management, and Maintenance of the Phoenix Islands Protected Area. In: Advances in Marine Biology. Vol. 69. Advances in Marine Biology. Elsevier; 2014. pp. 289 - 324. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128002148000086
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book Chapter

The Republic of Kiribati's Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA), located in the equatorial central Pacific, is the largest and deepest UNESCO World Heritage site on earth. Created in 2008, it was the first Marine Protected Area (MPA) of its kind (at the time of inception, the largest in the world) and includes eight low-lying islands, shallow coral reefs, submerged shallow and deep seamounts and extensive open-ocean and ocean floor habitat. Due to their isolation, the shallow reef habitats have been protected de facto from severe exploitation, though the surrounding waters have been continually fished for large pelagics and whales over many decades. PIPA was created under a partnership between the Government of Kiribati and the international non-governmental organizations—Conservation International and the New England Aquarium. PIPA has a unique conservation strategy as the first marine MPA to use a conservation contract mechanism with a corresponding Conservation Trust established to be both a sustainable financing mechanism and a check-and-balance to the oversight and maintenance of the MPA. As PIPA moves forward with its management objectives, it is well positioned to be a global model for large MPA design and implementation in similar contexts. The islands and shallow reefs have already shown benefits from protection, though the pending full closure of PIPA (and assessments thereof) will be critical for determining success of the MPA as a refuge for open-ocean pelagic and deep-sea marine life. As global ocean resources are continually being extracted to support a growing global population, PIPA's closure is both timely and of global significance.

Inadequate Evaluation and Management of Threats in Australia's Marine Parks, Including the Great Barrier Reef, Misdirect Marine Conservation

Kearney B, Farebrother G. Inadequate Evaluation and Management of Threats in Australia's Marine Parks, Including the Great Barrier Reef, Misdirect Marine Conservation. In: Advances in Marine Biology. Vol. 69. Advances in Marine Biology. Elsevier; 2014. pp. 253 - 288. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128002148000074
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book Chapter

The magnificence of the Great Barrier Reef and its worthiness of extraordinary efforts to protect it from whatever threats may arise are unquestioned. Yet almost four decades after the establishment of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia's most expensive and intensely researched Marine Protected Area, the health of the Reef is reported to be declining alarmingly. The management of the suite of threats to the health of the reef has clearly been inadequate, even though there have been several notable successes. It is argued that the failure to prioritise correctly all major threats to the reef, coupled with the exaggeration of the benefits of calling the park a protected area and zoning subsets of areas as ‘no-take’, has distracted attention from adequately addressing the real causes of impact. Australia's marine conservation efforts have been dominated by commitment to a National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. In so doing, Australia has displaced the internationally accepted primary priority for pursuing effective protection of marine environments with inadequately critical adherence to the principle of having more and bigger marine parks. The continuing decline in the health of the Great Barrier Reef and other Australian coastal areas confirms the limitations of current area management for combating threats to marine ecosystems. There is great need for more critical evaluation of how marine environments can be protected effectively and managed efficiently.

Marine Protected Area Networks in California, USA

Botsford LW, J. White W, Carr MH, Caselle JE. Marine Protected Area Networks in California, USA. In: Advances in Marine Biology. Vol. 69. Advances in Marine Biology. Elsevier; 2014. pp. 205 - 251. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128002148000062
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book Chapter

California responded to concerns about overfishing in the 1990s by implementing a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) through two science-based decision-making processes. The first process focused on the Channel Islands, and the second addressed California's entire coastline, pursuant to the state's Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA). We review the interaction between science and policy in both processes, and lessons learned. For the Channel Islands, scientists controversially recommended setting aside 30–50% of coastline to protect marine ecosystems. For the MLPA, MPAs were intended to be ecologically connected in a network, so design guidelines included minimum size and maximum spacing of MPAs (based roughly on fish movement rates), an approach that also implicitly specified a minimum fraction of the coastline to be protected. As MPA science developed during the California processes, spatial population models were constructed to quantify how MPAs were affected by adult fish movement and larval dispersal, i.e., how population persistence within MPA networks depended on fishing outside the MPAs, and how fishery yields could either increase or decrease with MPA implementation, depending on fishery management. These newer quantitative methods added to, but did not supplant, the initial rule-of-thumb guidelines. In the future, similar spatial population models will allow more comprehensive evaluation of the integrated effects of MPAs and conventional fisheries management. By 2011, California had implemented 132 MPAs covering more than 15% of its coastline, and now stands on the threshold of the most challenging step in this effort: monitoring and adaptive management to ensure ecosystem sustainability.

Understanding the Scale of Marine Protection in Hawai‘i: From Community-Based Management to the Remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

Friedlander AM, Stamoulis KA, Kittinger JN, Drazen JC, Tissot BN. Understanding the Scale of Marine Protection in Hawai‘i: From Community-Based Management to the Remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: Advances in Marine Biology. Vol. 69. Advances in Marine Biology. Elsevier; 2014. pp. 153 - 203. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128002148000050
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book Chapter

Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai‘i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai‘i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100–400 m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai‘i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities.

The Creation of the Chagos Marine Protected Area: A Fisheries Perspective

Dunne RP, Polunin NVC, Sand PH, Johnson ML. The Creation of the Chagos Marine Protected Area: A Fisheries Perspective. In: Advances in Marine Biology. Vol. 69. Advances in Marine Biology. Elsevier; 2014. pp. 79 - 127. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128002148000037
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book Chapter

From a fisheries perspective, the declaration of a 640,000 km2 “no-take” Marine Protected Area (MPA) in the Chagos Archipelago in 2010 was preceded by inadequate consideration of the scientific rationale for protection. The entire area was already a highly regulated zone which had been subject to a well-managed fisheries licensing system. The island of Diego Garcia, the only area where there is evidence of overfishing has, because of its military base, been excluded from the MPA. The no-take mandate removes the primary source of sustenance and economic sustainability of any inhabitants, thus effectively preventing the return of the original residents who were removed for political reasons in the 1960s and 1970s. The principles of natural resource conservation and use have been further distorted by forcing offshore fishing effort to other less well-managed areas where it will have a greater negative impact on the well-being of the species that were claimed to be one of the primary beneficiaries of the declaration. A failure to engage stakeholders has resulted in challenges in both the English courts and before an international tribunal.

The South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands MPA: Protecting A Biodiverse Oceanic Island Chain Situated in the Flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

Trathan PN, Collins MA, Grant SM, Belchier M, Barnes DKA, Brown J, Staniland IJ. The South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands MPA: Protecting A Biodiverse Oceanic Island Chain Situated in the Flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. In: Advances in Marine Biology. Vol. 69. Advances in Marine Biology. Elsevier; 2014. pp. 15 - 78. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128002148000025
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book Chapter

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) are surrounded by oceans that are species-rich, have high levels of biodiversity, important endemism and which also support large aggregations of charismatic upper trophic level species. Spatial management around these islands is complex, particularly in the context of commercial fisheries that exploit some of these living resources. Furthermore, management is especially complicated as local productivity relies fundamentally upon biological production transported from outside the area. The MPA uses practical management boundaries, allowing access for the current legal fisheries for Patagonian toothfish, mackerel icefish and Antarctic krill. Management measures developed as part of the planning process designated the whole SGSSI Maritime Zone as an IUCN Category VI reserve, within which a number of IUCN Category I reserves were identified. Multiple-use zones and temporal closures were also designated. A key multiple-use principle was to identify whether the ecological impacts of a particular fishery threatened either the pelagic or benthic domain.

Introduction to Marine Managed Areas

Hilborn R. Introduction to Marine Managed Areas. In: Advances in Marine Biology. Vol. 69. Advances in Marine Biology. Elsevier; 2014. pp. 1 - 13. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128002148000013
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book Chapter

No issue in marine conservation and management seems to have generated as much interest, and controversy as marine protected areas (MPAs). In the past 30 years, a substantial scientific literature on the subject has developed, international agreements have set targets for proportion of the sea to be protected, and hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent on research and advocacy for MPA establishment. While the objectives of MPAs are diverse, few studies evaluate the success of MPAs against stated objectives. It is clear that well-enforced MPAs will protect enough fish from exploitation that within reserves abundance increases, fish live to be larger, and measures of diversity are higher. What is much more poorly understood is the impacts of reserve establishment on areas outside reserves. Theory suggests that when stocks are seriously overfished outside reserves, the yield and abundance outside the reserves may be increased by spillover from the reserve. When stocks are not overexploited, reserve establishment will likely decrease the total yield. The chapters in this volume explore a broad set of case studies of MPAs, their objectives and their outcomes.

SeaStates G20 2014

Pike EP, Shugart-Schmidt KLP, Moffitt RA, Saccomanno VR, Morgan LE. SeaStates G20 2014. Seattle: Marine Conservation Institute; 2014 p. 18. Available from: http://www.marine-conservation.org/seastates/g20/2014/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Marine Conservation Institute created SeaStates G20 2014 using MPAtlas.org, an interactive resource to learn more about marine protected areas around the world that includes specifics about their protection status, general history, human-use information and contact details. Previous to SeaStates G20 2014, Marine Conservation Institute published SeaStates US 2013, the first ever quantitative, scientifically rigorous national ranking of US states’ protection of their ocean waters. SeaStates US 2014 expanded the analysis to waters of the broader US exclusive economic zone and found that most states and territories are failing to safeguard US marine life, seafood and coasts.

Social Assessment of Protected Areas: Early Experience and Results of a Participatory, Rapid Approach

Franks P, Roe D, Small R, Schneider H. Social Assessment of Protected Areas: Early Experience and Results of a Participatory, Rapid Approach. London, UK: International Institute for Environment and Development; 2014 p. 40. Available from: http://pubs.iied.org/14643IIED
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Assessing the positive and negative social impacts of protected areas is no easy task, but it can be done with relatively simple, low cost methodologies. Designed for this purpose, the Social Assessment of Protected Areas (SAPA) methodology can be applied to any protected area (PA), regardless of its management category and governance type, and to related conservation and development activities that are designed to support PA conservation. At the heart of the SAPA methodology is a multi-stakeholder process that enhances accuracy and credibility, and ensures that the assessment addresses the information needs not only of PA managers, but also of other key actors in government, civil society and the private sector. This working paper describes both the development of the SAPA methodology (work in progress), and some preliminary results that illustrate the type of information generated and the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology.

Compendium of Training Courses on Coastal and Marine Biodiversity and Marine Protected Areas in India

Khera N, Sivakumar K eds. Compendium of Training Courses on Coastal and Marine Biodiversity and Marine Protected Areas in India. New Delhi, India: Wildlife Institute of India (WII), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH; 2014.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Capacity development is the process of developing the capacities of individuals and institutions and shaping the joint learning processes, such that they are enabled to achieve sustainable results within their own system of reference. Capacity development facilitates change among people, in three dimensions: knowledge, skills and values/attitudes. As conservation of coastal and marine biodiversity along with managing marine protected areas is extremely challenging, the need for a combination of traditional and innovative capacity development measures is essentially required to deliver the knowledge products. This call for greater exchange of experiences and expertise among the training institutions within the environment sector and also with the other key sectors such as fi sheries and media. There are, however, not enough platforms to facilitate such an exchange among the training institutions and also to share information on training courses to the potential trainees.

Facilitating capacity development of individuals and institutions relevant to coastal and marine biodiversity conservation in India, through networking, trainings, and other measures and instruments, is one of the objectives of the ‘Conservation and Sustainable Management of Existing and Potential Coastal and Marine Protected Areas’ (CMPA) project under the Indo-German Biodiversity Programme. This project is being supported by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB), Government of Germany, and implemented by GIZ India, in partnership with the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC), Government of India.

To develop this Compendium, the CMPA project has partnered with the Wildlife Institute of India (WII), having a mandate to train Indian Forest Service officers, State Forest Service officers, as well as, other key stakeholders such as the Coast Guards and Customs etc.

This Compendium is intended to bring together, on one platform, the information on expertise and experience available at the training organisations based in different parts of India, on the theme of coastal and marine biodiversity. We congratulate the editors of this Compendium and all those institutions who have contributed to the development of this Compendium, and look forward to its effective use as a tool for networking among the training organisations.

Attaining Aichi Target 11: How well are marine ecosystem services covered by protected areas?

Spalding M, Burke L, Hutchison J, Ermgassen Pzu, Thomas H, Ashpole J, Balmford A, Butchart S, McIvor A, McOwen C, et al. Attaining Aichi Target 11: How well are marine ecosystem services covered by protected areas?. In: World Parks Congress. World Parks Congress. Sydney, Australia: The Nature Conservancy, University of Cambridge, UNEP WCMC; 2014.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Conference Paper

The spatial coverage of marine and coastal protected areas worldwide has shown a rapid increase in recent years. Over 32% of the world’s coral reefs and over 36% of the world’s mangrove forests now fall within protected areas. However, simple measures of extent are insufficient for assessing progress toward achieving global targets. Notably, the CBD Aichi Target 11 calls for ‘at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water areas, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services’ to be protected. There is, therefore, an urgent need to assess how well protected areas cover these areas of importance for ecosystem services.

Protected Planet Report 2014

Juffe-Bignoli D, Burgess ND, Bingham H, Belle EMS, de Lima MG, Deguignet M, Bertzky B, Milam AN, Martinez-Lopez J, Lewis E, et al. Protected Planet Report 2014. Cambridge, UK.: United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC); 2014.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

The Protected Planet Report 2014 follows the recommendation of the Protected Planet Report 2012 to provide a more complete overview of each of these elements of Aichi Biodiversity Target 11. Chapters summarise current knowledge and progress towards achieving each element of the target, and provide further guidance for implementation, based on data from the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA), a review of published literature, and expert review.

Governance challenges in scaling up from individual MPAs to MPA networks

Solandt J-L, Jones P, Duval-Diop D, Kleiven ARing, Frangoudes K. Governance challenges in scaling up from individual MPAs to MPA networks. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems [Internet]. 2014 ;24(S2):145 - 152. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/aqc.2504/abstract
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article
  1. With the drive for greater numbers and areas of MPAs to be put in place to meet national and international targets, challenges have emerged in both the establishment and development of sustainable governance of the networks of sites that are emerging.
  2. Using 12 presentations given in a workshop on ‘Improving participation for better governance of MPAs’ at the 3rd International Marine Protected Areas Congress in October 2013, this paper reviews a range of top-down, bottom-up and collaborative approaches to governance, looking at all phases in the process from design of an MPA network to its implementation, as well as considering individual MPAs.
  3. Designation of MPA networks requires significant investment of resources to engage local stakeholders in discussions over potential site location and management measures.
  4. Scaling-up from individual MPAs to networks of MPAs will often also require a scaling-up of governance approaches, including top-down approaches.
  5. Balancing the need to provide for the participation of local users in each constituent MPA with the need to address a variety of challenges, whilst achieving wider-scale objectives through the inclusion of top-down governance approaches is an important but neglected challenge in discussions concerning MPA networks.
  6. These case studies indicate that there are various ways in which this challenge can be addressed in different contexts and point to potential ‘good practice’ for other MPAs in similar scenarios.

Great skua (Stercorarius skua) movements at sea in relation to marine renewable energy developments

Wade HM, Masden EA, Jackson AC, Thaxter CB, Burton NHK, Bouten W, Furness RW. Great skua (Stercorarius skua) movements at sea in relation to marine renewable energy developments. Marine Environmental Research [Internet]. 2014 ;101:69 - 80. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014111361400155X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine renewable energy developments (MREDs) are an increasing feature of the marine environment. Owing to the relatively small number of existing developments and the early stage of their associated environmental monitoring programmes, the effects of MREDs on seabirds are not fully known. Our ability to fully predict potential effects is limited by a lack of knowledge regarding movements of seabirds at sea. We used GPS tracking to improve our understanding of the movements at sea of a protected seabird species breeding in Scotland, the great skua (Stercorarius skua), to better predict how this species may be affected by MREDs. We found that the overlap of great skuas with leased and proposed MREDs was low; particularly with offshore wind sites, which are predicted to present a greater risk to great skuas than wave or tidal-stream developments. Failed breeders overlapped with larger areas of MREDs than breeding birds but the overall overlap with core areas used remained low. Overlap with wave energy development sites was greater than for offshore wind and tidal-stream sites. Comparison of 2011 data with historical data indicates that distances travelled by great skuas have likely increased over recent decades. This suggests that basing marine spatial planning decisions on short-term tracking data could be less informative than longer-term data.

The new mode of marine planning in the UK: Aspirations and challenges

Scarff G, Fitzsimmons C, Gray T. The new mode of marine planning in the UK: Aspirations and challenges. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2015 ;51:96 - 102. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X14002000
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Since 2009, there has been a shift in UK marine governance with the Marine and Coastal Access Act in which a core mechanism is marine planning, designed to replace a fragmented, ad hoc, and bureaucratic process of marine management with a strategic, integrated, and centralised system. This shift has been justified by the UK government as a more efficient procedure for delivering sustainable development (SD), which is the overarching objective of UK environmental policy. This article, which is based on data from key informant interviews and secondary sources, analyses the shift to understand its aspirations and the challenges facing it. The issues focused on include its holistic approach; its centralising tendencies; its streamlining processes; and its implicit commitment to renewable energy. In these four issues there are tensions between aspirations and challenges, and the conclusion is that the success of the new mode of marine governance depends on satisfactorily resolving these tensions.

Angler perceptions of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) depredation and marine policy in Southern California

Cook TC, James K, Bearzi M. Angler perceptions of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) depredation and marine policy in Southern California. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2015 ;51:573 - 583. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X1400253X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) off the coast of Southern California are known to damage both commercial and recreational fishing activities, causing decreases to fish catch and damage to gear. Their increasing population has intensified the potential for conflict between sea lions and anglers, likely requiring changes to current legislation. The recreational fishing community in Southern California is a valuable and largely underutilized source for information and potential solutions to management and legislative problems. This recreational fishing survey-based study conducted in 2013 utilized personal interviews, conducted in the field with recreational anglers and commercial passenger fishing vessel (CPFV) crews in Southern California, to gather data on: (a) the occurrence and impact of sea lion depredation on the local fishing, (b) angler awareness and opinions on current legislation, and (c) the conflict between fishing activities and conservation efforts. Results show that surveyed CPFV operators and private boaters had the most conflict with sea lions and perceive them as more of a problem than anglers on piers, jetties or kayaks. The conflict was also reportedly more prevalent in San Diego County compared to the other counties surveyed (Orange, Los Angeles and Ventura). Participating CPFV operators were overwhelmingly in support of a government culling program for sea lions, while recreational angler respondents did not feel that a control program was necessary. These CPFV operators reported more money lost, and were willing to pay more for an effective deterrent device. There was also a consensus among respondents that fish catch is declining, yet anglers were unsatisfied with the effectiveness of current legislation designed to increase fish stocks. These data will provide a better understanding of California sea lion depredation in Southern California and its effect on recreational anglers in order to aid future mitigation efforts. Additionally, these results provide stakeholder feedback on local marine protected areas and other fisheries management legislation, and build a foundation for future conservation and education programs.

Regional economic and environmental analysis as a decision support for marine spatial planning in Xiamen

Huang W, Corbett JJ, Jin D. Regional economic and environmental analysis as a decision support for marine spatial planning in Xiamen. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2015 ;51:555 - 562. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X14002395
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The study explores the environmental input–output (EIO) model as a decision-support tool for marine spatial planning at the regional level. Using empirical data, an EIO model is developed to examine the economic and environmental impacts associated with two leading ocean industries in Xiamen. Results of the study show that, under select economic and environmental scenarios, waterfront tourism is generally preferable to marine transportation in terms of unit environmental and resource effects. Thus, it is more beneficial for the region to promote the growth of the waterfront tourism sector.

Status of the marine protected area network across the English channel (La Manche): Cross-country similarities and differences in MPA designation, management and monitoring

Rodríguez-Rodríguez D, Rees S, Mannaerts G, Sciberras M, Pirie C, Black G, Aulert C, Sheehan EV, Carrier S, Attrill MJ. Status of the marine protected area network across the English channel (La Manche): Cross-country similarities and differences in MPA designation, management and monitoring. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2015 ;51:536 - 546. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X14002541
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Recent international policy developments require states to conserve at least 10% of coastal and marine areas by creating effectively managed and ecologically coherent networks of protected areas in the marine environment. In the framework of the PANACHE project, the current status of designation, management and monitoring of the network of marine protected areas (MPAs) of an important environmental, social and economic marine area: the English Channel (the Channel) was examined. Currently 224 MPAs exist belonging to 12 different designation categories and covering 17 440 km2, or approximately 20.3% of the project area in the Channel. International protection targets in the marine environment are thus met at this regional scale, although the individual contributions of the UK and France are considerably different, with French MPAs accounting for nearly 80% of the total area protected. Differences between countries are also found regarding MPA designation categories (11 in France, 6 in the UK, 1 in the Channel Islands) and management structures (with more actors involved in the UK) and approach, whereas the monitoring techniques used are similar, although more standardised in the UK. Pending challenges include greater within-country and cross-country MPA designation, monitoring and management simplicity, integration and coordination as well as the assessment of management effectiveness and ecological coherence of the Channel network of MPAs.

Evaluation of a programme of integrated coastal zone management: The Ecoplata Programme (Uruguay)

Pérez-Cayeiro MLuisa, Chica-Ruiz JAdolfo. Evaluation of a programme of integrated coastal zone management: The Ecoplata Programme (Uruguay). Marine Policy [Internet]. 2015 ;51:527 - 535. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X14002413
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

There are two aims in this work: one is to contribute to the promotion of one of the most interesting experiments of integrated coastal zone management which has taken place in Latin America: the Ecoplata Programme in Uruguay. The other is to make an evaluation of the planning and implementation of the programme, i.e. that of a long-term Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) process which is full of both challenges and opportunities. Indeed, although there have been numerous ICZM experiments, on varying scales, which have been put into practice throughout the world in the last two decades, very few of them have involved an evaluation to check their levels of achievement.

Pages