Literature Library

Currently indexing 10522 titles

Reclaimed artificial coastal territories for the development of urban areas

Shilin M, Ershova A, Matveev Y, Popov N, Mandryka O, Chusov A. Reclaimed artificial coastal territories for the development of urban areas Kalinina O. E3S Web of Conferences [Internet]. 2019 ;110:01025. Available from: https://www.e3s-conferences.org/articles/e3sconf/abs/2019/36/e3sconf_spbwosce2019_01025/e3sconf_spbwosce2019_01025.html
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The article discusses the possibility and perspectives of using the reclaimed artificial areas in the coastal zone of marine estuaries for the sustainable development of urban infrastructure and creation of modern architectural ensembles with the background of green economy using the example of Lakhta-Center on the northern coast of the Neva Bay (St. Petersburg, Russia). The geo-ecological stability of underwater and coastal landscapes of the coastal zone of the Neva Bay is analyzed using side scan sonar. The environmental sensitivity of coastal ecosystems is estimated. The received data can be used on practice for planning the construction work and for the development of the infrastructure of urbanized coastal zone of the Neva Bay. The general geo-ecological situation in the observed area is rather stable. The coastal zone has good perspectives for the development of a sustainable urban infrastructure against the backdrop of the green economy. The special attention should be paid to migration of birds and fish, who are using the North Lakhta coast as a temporary refugium during Spring and Autumn migrations. An effective solution from both environmental and economic points of view could be the organization of the Nature Conservation Reserve, which is spatially associated with the Lakhta Center zone. Such type of the complex using of the coastal zone could be a good example of the spatial planning in the environmentally sensitive area.

A nationwide assessment of litter on China's beaches using citizen science data

Chen H, Wang S, Guo H, Lin H, Zhang Y. A nationwide assessment of litter on China's beaches using citizen science data. Environmental Pollution [Internet]. In Press :113756. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749119337145
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

China is the largest plastic consumer in the world. Despite its plastic waste import ban in 2017, this populous economy inevitably generates a large amount of waste, including plastic waste, a considerable part of which has become marine litter. Data from the 2018 National Coastal Cleanup and Monitoring Project, the largest beach litter monitoring activities using the citizen science approach in China, have been retrieved and analyzed to understand spatial patterns, composition, and original usage of marine litter. Within this project, 24 beaches were surveyed every two months. As a result, the mean density was 3.85 ± 5.39 items m−2, much higher than that reported by previous studies in China. There were great differences in the spatial distribution of litter. The highest densities appeared in the runoff-affected area of the Yangtze River, which was another difference from previous studies. Low-density, easy-to-transport foamed plastics were the major contributor to marine litter in these areas. Along China's coast, approximately 90% of litter was from land-based sources, and over half of that originated from domestic sources. Including foamed plastic products, plastic litter with low recycling value dominated. Both natural and human factors influencing the spatiotemporal distribution and composition of litter are discussed. Socioeconomic factors, such as the lifestyle and consumption levels of citizens and local waste management systems, are possible explanations for the low-value characteristic of marine litter. The deviation between previous data and citizen science data in this study may be caused by many factors. Based on the discussion on these factors, some suggestions for citizen science research in China are also put forward.

Promoting sustainable and inclusive oceans management in Pacific islands through women and science

Michalena E, Straza TRA, Singh P, Morris CW, Hills JM. Promoting sustainable and inclusive oceans management in Pacific islands through women and science. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. In Press :110711. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0025326X19308677
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

The question of how to efficiently and effectively manage ocean resources in a sustainable way has reached the forefront of discussion at an international level, but women's contributions to this process have been underestimated or unrecognized. Inclusive management plays a major role in the effective creation, use and adoption of environmental governance, necessitating efforts to measure, monitor and advance inclusivity. In many Pacific island states, there is a lack of disaggregated data collection and management to assist reliable and liable gender-responsive decision-making by national and regional authorities. This lack of information leads to unquantified female contributions and unexplored potential for women to actively contribute to sustainable ocean management as traditional leaders, researchers or science-based managers and in accordance with traditional customs, cultures and processes. This paper examines the contribution of gender-disaggregated data in both (1) effective management of natural resources and (2) measurement and monitoring of the active involvement of women in ocean management. We seek to shift the question from simply “(How) are oceans used by women?” to “How can we build a clear path towards inclusive oceans management using science?”, drawing data mainly from gender and ocean management practices in Pacific Small Island Developing States. This work also seeks to ground in reality the increasing national and international evocations about social equity and avoidance of gender discrimination. Given the existing relationships of Pacific peoples with the ocean and the emerging status of ocean science-based governance, wider integration of science and women in marine management can make an interesting and positive impact in this region.

Mangrove regional feedback to sea level rise and drought intensity at the end of the 21st century

Mafi-Gholami D, Zenner EK, Jaafari A. Mangrove regional feedback to sea level rise and drought intensity at the end of the 21st century. Ecological Indicators [Internet]. 2020 ;110:105972. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1470160X19309677
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Mangrove ecosystems are threatened by climate change. We investigated the effects of expected future (year 2100) drought intensities and rising sea levels on the spatial extent and biomass production of mangroves located along the southern Iranian semi-desert coastal areas of the Persian Gulf (PG) and the Gulf of Oman (GO) under the projections of the RCP 8.5 climate change scenario. To do so, we first needed to establish a robust link of past drought intensities to spatial extents and biomass amounts of mangroves in the study region that would enable the prediction of biomass for the climatic conditions projected by the RCP 8.5 scenario for the year 2100. Large differences in drought intensities in the past pointed to a coordinated wet (1986–1998) and a dry (1998–2017) period throughout the study area and resulted in strong correlations of drought intensity to spatial extents and above- and below-ground biomass amounts. Whereas landward mangrove margins expanded modestly during the wet and contracted severely during the dry periods, leading to variable net areal gains and losses over time, seaward mangrove margins retreated during both periods, presumably due to rising sea levels. By the end of the 21st century, predicted values of biomass per hectare in the remaining mangroves exceeded current values by 47–64% (above-ground) and 41–48% (below-ground) due to a reduced drought intensity predicted for the region. Assuming no landward expansion, predicted mangrove areas declined between 4.9 and 7.2% for every 10 cm rise in sea levels, resulting in a net loss of total mangrove biomass between 18 and 56% throughout the study region at a sea level rise of 100 cm. Variability among sites at all times was partly due to differences in drought intensities, coastal topographies, and differential rates of sedimentation and subsidence/uplift, with greater adverse effects on the coastal areas of the GO than the PG. We conclude that adverse effects of rising sea levels on the extent of mangroves were only partly offset by the increased biomass in the remaining mangroves following reduced drought severities predicted for the end of the 21st century. It is still unclear to what degree mangroves can take advantage of lesser drought intensities predicted for the end of the 21st century and expand their landward margins.

Unmanaged climate risks to spent fuel from U.S. nuclear power plants: The case of sea-level rise

Jenkins LMartine, Alvarez R, Jordaan SMarie. Unmanaged climate risks to spent fuel from U.S. nuclear power plants: The case of sea-level rise. Energy Policy [Internet]. In Press :111106. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421519306937
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $19.95
Type: Journal Article

Climate change and its accompanying sea-level rise is set to create risks to the United States’ stockpile of spent nuclear fuel, which results largely from nuclear power. Coastal spent fuel management facilities are vulnerable to unanticipated environmental events, as evidenced by the 2011 tsunami-related flooding at the Fukushima plant in Japan. We examine how policy-makers can manage climate risks posed to the coastal storage of radioactive materials, and identify the coastal spent fuel storage sites that will be most vulnerable to sea-level rise. A geospatial analysis of coastal sites shows that with six feet of sea-level rise, seven spent fuel sites will be juxtaposed by seawater. Of those, three will be near or completely surrounded by water, and should be considered a priority for mitigation: Humboldt Bay (California), Turkey Point (Florida), and Crystal River (Florida). To ensure policy-makers manage such climate risks, a risk management approach is proposed. Further, we recommend that policy-makers 1) transfer overdue spent fuel from cooling pools to dry casks, particularly where located in high risk sites; 2) develop a long-term and comprehensive storage plan that is less vulnerable to climate change; and 3) encourage international nuclear treaties and standards to take climate change into account.

Challenge for the detection of microplastics in the environment

Lv L, Yan X, Feng L, Jiang S, Lu Z, Xie H, Sun S, Chen J, Li C. Challenge for the detection of microplastics in the environment. Water Environment Research [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/wer.1281
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $42.00
Type: Journal Article

As an emerging contaminant in the environment, microplastics have attracted worldwide attention. Although research methods on microplastics in the environment have been reported extensively, the data on microplastics obtained cannot be comparable due to different methods. In this work, we critically reviewed the analytical methods of microplastics, including sample collection, separation, identification and quantification. Manta trawl and tweezers or cassette corers are used to collect water samples and sediments, respectively. For biota sample, internal organs need to be dissected and separated to obtain microplastics. Density differences are often used to separate microplastics from the sample matrix. Visual classification is one of the most common methods for identifying microplastics, and it can be better detected by combining it with other instruments. However, they are not suitable for detection nanoplastics, which may lead to underestimation of risk. The abundance of microplastics varies with the detection method. Thus, the analytical methods for microplastics need to be standardized as soon as possible. Meanwhile, new methods for analyzing nanoplastics are urgently needed.

Distribution of zooxanthellate zoantharians in the Canary Islands: Potential indicators of ocean warming

López C, Moreno S, Brito A, Clemente S. Distribution of zooxanthellate zoantharians in the Canary Islands: Potential indicators of ocean warming. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science [Internet]. 2020 ;233:106519. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272771419307395
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Global warming is driving changes in the distribution patterns of many species, leading to a general tropicalization and meridionalization of biota. In this context, populations of some marine species are in regression while others are expanding their populations. Such is the case of benthic cnidarians belonging to the order Zoantharia and suborder Brachycnemina, whose populations are able to cause phase-shifts in coral reef ecosystems. Marine assemblages in the subtropical Canary Islands region consist of a combination of both temperate and tropical species, mainly due to the east-to-west seawater temperature gradient that naturally exists throughout the archipelago. This can reach a 2 °C difference (≈23-25 °C east to west in summer months). These biogeographical features make the archipelago a unique location to research into biota reorganisation processes. The aim of this study was to establish a baseline of the distribution and abundance data of zoantharian Brachycnemina populations in the Canary Islands. To elucidate whether these species are potential bioindicators of ocean warming processes, patterns of species distribution and their relationships with the temperature gradient across the archipelago were also evaluated. Results demonstrated that intertidal and subtidal populations of Palythoa aff. clavata and P. caribaeorum, respectively, followed distribution patterns related to the temperature ranges recorded in situ by data loggers. Extensive populations were found in the western islands where seawater temperatures are warmer than the eastern islands. Since biota reorganisation usually produces loss of ecosystem functions, it is essential to establish baseline datasets of climate change indicators and also effective monitoring programmes. These will allow early detection of phase-shifts before they lead to significant changes in ecosystem dynamics.

Detecting illegal cyanide fishing: Establishing the evidence base for a reliable, post-collection test

Murray JM, Bersuder P, Davis S, Losada S. Detecting illegal cyanide fishing: Establishing the evidence base for a reliable, post-collection test. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. In Press :110770. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0025326X19309269
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Ornamental fish have been legally harvested since the 1930's but in the 60's, cyanide fishing was first documented. Target fish exposed to the chemical are temporarily paralysed making them easier to catch, but with high post-capture mortality and significant ecological impacts, its use is banned in most exporting countries. To differentiate illegally caught fish from those sustainably collected, efforts to develop a post-collection detection test began nearly 30 years ago. However, even the most promising approach has been questioned by other researchers as unrepeatable under different experimental conditions. In this paper we summarise the evidence-base for establishing a cyanide detection test for live fish by evaluating current approaches. We describe the key knowledge gaps which continue to limit our progress in implementing a screening programme and highlight some alternative solutions which may provide greater short to medium term opportunities to prevent the illegal practise before fish enter the supply chain.

Assessing opportunities to support coral reef climate change refugia in MPAs: A case study at the Revillagigedo Archipelago

Carter AL, A. Wilson MW, Bello M, E. Hoyos-Padilla M, Inall ME, Ketchum JT, Schurer A, Tudhope AW. Assessing opportunities to support coral reef climate change refugia in MPAs: A case study at the Revillagigedo Archipelago. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2020 ;112:103769. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19301654
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Coral reef refugia are habitats which possess physical, biological and ecological characteristics that make them likely to be relatively resilient to future climate change. Identification of refugia locations will be important to ensure suitable marine conservation planning is undertaken to protect sites where coral ecosystems will be better preserved now and in the future. This paper presents (1) a review of current knowledge of the oceanographic conditions and coral community in the Revillagigedo Archipelago Large Scale Marine Protected Area, (2) the first assessment of the potential for the Revillagigedo Archipelago to act as a climate refugia site for corals and coral reefs in the eastern tropical Pacific, and (3) consequent management and learning opportunities, to inform reef conservation both locally and globally. Through utilising published literature, remote and in situ environmental data, and field observations it was found that the Revillagigedo area exhibits a combination of distinctive characteristics in the coral community and in oceanographic processes which support conditions of refugia. The potential for refugia is further enhanced due to the absence of significant secondary anthropogenic stressors. This leads to a recommendation to establish the Revillagigedo as a globally significant ‘sentinel site’ where, through long-term monitoring of oceanographic conditions and of the coral and associated ecosystems, the effects of climate change can be quantified, and the effectiveness of specific refugia attributes established. This information may then be used to underpin the recognition of potential coral refugia elsewhere, and to guide MPA designation and management decisions to enhance their effectiveness.

Growth responses of branching versus massive corals to ocean warming on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

Razak TB, Roff G, Lough JM, Mumby PJ. Growth responses of branching versus massive corals to ocean warming on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. In Press :135908. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719359030
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

As oceans continue to warm under climate change, understanding the differential growth responses of corals is increasingly important. Scleractinian corals exhibit a broad range of life-history strategies, yet few studies have explored interspecific variation in long-term growth rates under a changing climate. Here we studied growth records of two coral species with different growth forms, namely branching Isopora palifera and massive Porites spp. at an offshore reef (Myrmidon Reef) of the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Skeletal growth chronologies were constructed using a combination of X-radiographs, gamma densitometry, and trace element (Sr/Ca) analysis. General additive mixed-effect models (GAMMs) revealed that skeletal density of I. palifera declined linearly and significantly at a rate of 1.2% yr−1 between 2002 and 2012. Calcification was stable between 2002 and 2009, yet declined significantly at a rate of 12% yr−1 between 2009 and 2012 following anomalously high sea surface temperatures (SST). Skeletal density of massive Porites exhibited a significant non-linear response over the 11-year study period (2002−2012) in that density was temporarily reduced during the 2009–2010 anomalously hot years, while linear extension and calcification showed no significant trends. Linear extension, density and calcification rates of I. palifera increased to maximum growth of 26.7–26.9 °C, beyond which they declined. In contrast, calcification and linear extension of Porites exhibited no response to SST, but exhibited a significant linear decline in skeletal density with increasing SST. Our results reveal significant differences in coral growth patterns among coral growth forms, and highlight both the resistant nature of massive Porites and sensitivity of branching I. palifera. Future research should target a broad range of coral taxa within similar environments to provide a community-level response of ocean warming on coral reef communities.

Socio-ecological vulnerability to tipping points: A review of empirical approaches and their use for marine management

Lauerburg RAM, Diekmann R, Blanz B, Gee K, Held H, Kannen A, Mollmann C, Probst WN, Rambo H, Cormier R, et al. Socio-ecological vulnerability to tipping points: A review of empirical approaches and their use for marine management. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. In Press :135838. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719358334
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Sustainability in the provision of ecosystem services requires understanding of the vulnerability of social-ecological systems (SES) to tipping points (TPs). Assessing SES vulnerability to abrupt ecosystem state changes remains challenging, however, because frameworks do not operationally link ecological, socio-economic and cultural elements of the SES. We conducted a targeted literature review on empirical assessments of SES and TPs in the marine realm and their use in ecosystem-based management. Our results revealed a plurality of terminologies, definitions and concepts that hampers practical operationalisation of these concepts. Furthermore, we found a striking lack of socio-cultural aspects in SES vulnerability assessments, possibly because of a lack of involvement of stakeholders and interest groups. We propose guiding principles for assessing vulnerability to TPs that build on participative approaches and prioritise the connectivity between SES components by accounting for component linkages, cascading effects and feedback processes.

An illuminating idea to reduce bycatch in the Peruvian small-scale gillnet fishery

Bielli A, Alfaro-Shigueto J, Doherty PD, Godley BJ, Ortiz C, Pasara A, Wang JH, Mangel JC. An illuminating idea to reduce bycatch in the Peruvian small-scale gillnet fishery. Biological Conservation [Internet]. In Press :108277. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006320719302873
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Found in the coastal waters of all continents, gillnets are the largest component of small-scale fisheries for many countries. Numerous studies show that these fisheries often have high bycatch rates of threatened marine species such as sea turtles, small cetaceans and seabirds, resulting in possible population declines of these non-target groups. However, few solutions to reduce gillnet bycatch have been developed. Recent bycatch reduction technologies (BRTs) use sensory cues to alert non-target species to the presence of fishing gear. In this study we deployed light emitting diodes (LEDs) - a visual cue - on the floatlines of paired gillnets (control vs illuminated net) during 864 fishing sets on small-scale vessels departing from three Peruvian ports between 2015 and 2018. Bycatch probability per set for sea turtles, cetaceans and seabirds as well as catch per unit effort (CPUE) of target species were analysed for illuminated and control nets using a generalised linear mixed-effects model (GLMM). For illuminated nets, bycatch probability per set was reduced by up to 74.4 % for sea turtles and 70.8 % for small cetaceans in comparison to non-illuminated, control nets. For seabirds, nominal BPUEs decreased by 84.0 % in the presence of LEDs. Target species CPUE was not negatively affected by the presence of LEDs. This study highlights the efficacy of net illumination as a multi-taxa BRT for small-scale gillnet fisheries in Peru. These results are promising given the global ubiquity of small-scale net fisheries, the relatively low cost of LEDs and the current lack of alternate solutions to bycatch.

Bottom trawl catch comparison in the Mediterranean Sea: Flexible Turtle Excluder Device (TED) vs traditional gear

Vasapollo C, Virgili M, Petetta A, Bargione G, Sala A, Lucchetti A. Bottom trawl catch comparison in the Mediterranean Sea: Flexible Turtle Excluder Device (TED) vs traditional gear Guerrero AMedina. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(12):e0216023. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0216023
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Mediterranean Sea is a biodiversity hotspot where intense fishing pressure is associated with high bycatch rates of protected species (sea turtles and cetaceans) and top predators (sharks). Since the conservation of these species has become a priority, fishery scientists are faced with the challenge of reducing incidental catch, which entails high rates of mortality. Among the species threatened by fishing activities, the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) is a charismatic species considered as “vulnerable” at the global scale. In the Mediterranean Sea trawl nets are the gears with the highest probability of catching protected species incidentally. A new flexible Turtle Excluder Device (TED) was tested for the first time on commercial bottom trawlers to assess its effectiveness in reducing bycatch in the Mediterranean Sea. Analysis of the total catches of the hauls made with and without the TED showed that the difference in terms of weight was not significant. The catch of the main commercial species showed similar rates without a significant loss of size (i.e. total length) with the exception of the largest anglerfish (Lophius spp.). The bycatch of control nets included mostly rays and sharks, but never turtles, although the authors learned from the crews of other vessels operating in the same areas at the time of the trials that they had caught some loggerhead turtles. Our study demonstrates that TED scan be adopted without significantly affecting commercial catch. This informs fishers and managers for a practical and effective means that may reduce the bycatch of threatened species in coastal Mediterranean demersal multispecies fisheries. The measures involving gear modifications require significant investment but they are technically feasible and are capable of improving the conservation prospects of these endangered species. Besides ensuring normal earnings, the TED induced a significant reduction of debris and litter in the codend, thus reducing catch sorting time and improving catch quality.

Population productivity of shovelnose rays: Inferring the potential for recovery

D’Alberto BM, Carlson JK, Pardo SA, Simpfendorfer CA. Population productivity of shovelnose rays: Inferring the potential for recovery Patterson HM. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(11):e0225183. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0225183
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

There is recent evidence of widespread declines of shovelnose ray populations (Order Rhinopristiformes) in heavily fished regions. These declines, which are likely driven by high demand for their fins in Asian markets, raises concern about their risk of over-exploitation and extinction. Using life-history theory and incorporating uncertainty into a modified Euler-Lotka model, the maximum intrinsic rates of population increase (rmax) were estimated for nine species from four families of Rhinopristiformes, using four different natural mortality estimators. Estimates of mean rmax, across the different natural mortality methods, varied from 0.03 to 0.59 year-1 among the nine species, but generally increased with increasing maximum size. Comparing these estimates to rmax values for other species of chondrichthyans, the species Rhynchobatus australiaeGlaucostegus typus, and Glaucostegus cemiculus were relatively productive, while most species from Rhinobatidae and Trygonorrhinidae had relatively low rmax values. If the demand for their high-value products can be addressed then population recovery for some species is likely possible, but will vary depending on the species.

Cold-related Florida manatee mortality in relation to air and water temperatures

Hardy SK, Deutsch CJ, Cross TA, de Wit M, Hostetler JA. Cold-related Florida manatee mortality in relation to air and water temperatures Hyrenbach D. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(11):e0225048. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0225048
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Many tropical and subtropical species are sensitive to sudden temperature changes, especially drops in temperature. During winters 2009–2010 and 2010–2011, unusually cold temperatures occurred in many parts of Florida, USA, resulting in increased mortality of Florida manatees, sea turtles, fish, corals, and other species. The Florida manatee, in particular, is highly susceptible to cold stress and death when water temperatures drop below 20°C. We sought to characterize the magnitude and timing of reports of cold-related manatee carcasses in relation to fluctuations in water and air temperatures in central-east and central-west Florida during the six winters from 2008 to 2014. We used a generalized linear model to predict counts of manatee carcasses with a cold-related cause of death reported over 7-day bins in relation to various short-term (two weeks or less) and cumulative (incrementally summed from the start of the winter) heating-degree-day effects (HDD; < 20°C) and a categorical winter variable. Using water temperature data, the top-ranked model in both regions included a short-term temperature effect (14-day HDD sum) that preceded increases in reports of cold-related manatee carcasses by 7 days. Cumulative exposure to cold weather over the winter amplified effects on mortality in the central-east region. Quantifying the relationship between cold events and manatee mortality helps us prepare for rescue and salvage operations when extremely cold weather is forecast. This is especially important because anticipated loss or degradation of warm-water refuges due to human activities and sea level rise could potentially impact the manatee population in the future. These methods could also be applied to other species susceptible to cold-related mortality.

UK deep‐sea conservation: Progress, lessons learned, and actions for the future

Chaniotis PD, Robson LM, Lemasson AJ, Cornthwaite AL, Howell KL. UK deep‐sea conservation: Progress, lessons learned, and actions for the future. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/aqc.3243
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article
  1. Despite a relatively long history of scientific interest fuelled by exploratory research cruises, the UK deep sea has only recently emerged as the subject of targeted and proactive conservation. Enabling legislation over the past 10 years has resulted in the designation of marine protected areas and the implementation of fisheries management areas as spatial conservation tools. This paper reflects on progress and lessons learned, recommending actions for the future.
  2. Increased investment has been made to improve the evidence base for deep‐sea conservation, including collaborative research surveys and use of emerging technologies. New open data portals and developments in marine habitat classification systems have been two notable steps to furthering understanding of deep‐sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in support of conservation action.
  3. There are still extensive gaps in fundamental knowledge of deep‐sea ecosystems and of cause and effect. Costs of new technologies and a limited ability to share data in a timely and efficient manner across sectors are barriers to furthering understanding. In addition, whilst the concepts of natural capital and ecosystem services are considered a useful tool to support the achievement of conservation goals, practical application is challenging.
  4. Continued collaborative research efforts and engagement with industry to share knowledge and resources could offer cost‐effective solutions to some of these barriers. Further elaboration of the concepts of natural capital and ecosystem services will aid understanding of the costs and benefits associated with human–environment interactions and support informed decision‐making in conserving the deep sea.
  5. Whilst multiple challenges arise for deep‐sea conservation, it is critical to continue ongoing conservation efforts, including exploration and collaboration, and to adopt new conservation strategies that are implemented in a systematic and holistic way and to ensure that these are adaptive to growing economic interest in this marine area.

Strong time dependence of ocean acidification mitigation by atmospheric carbon dioxide removal

Hofmann M, Mathesius S, Kriegler E, van Vuuren DP, Schellnhuber HJ. Strong time dependence of ocean acidification mitigation by atmospheric carbon dioxide removal. Nature Communications [Internet]. 2019 ;10(1). Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-13586-4
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In Paris in 2015, the global community agreed to limit global warming to well below 2 ∘∘C, aiming at even 1.5 ∘∘C. It is still uncertain whether these targets are sufficient to preserve marine ecosystems and prevent a severe alteration of marine biogeochemical cycles. Here, we show that stringent mitigation strategies consistent with the 1.5 ∘∘C scenario could, indeed, provoke a critical difference for the ocean’s carbon cycle and calcium carbonate saturation states. Favorable conditions for calcifying organisms like tropical corals and polar pteropods, both of major importance for large ecosystems, can only be maintained if CO22 emissions fall rapidly between 2025 and 2050, potentially requiring an early deployment of CO22 removal techniques in addition to drastic emissions reduction. Furthermore, this outcome can only be achieved if the terrestrial biosphere remains a carbon sink during the entire 21st century.

Higher fish biomass inside than outside marine protected areas despite typhoon impacts in a complex reefscape

McClure EC, Sievers KT, Abesamis RA, Hoey AS, Alcala AC, Russ GR. Higher fish biomass inside than outside marine protected areas despite typhoon impacts in a complex reefscape. Biological Conservation [Internet]. 2020 ;241:108354. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320719303088
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

No-take marine protected areas (MPAs) are an important tool for conserving marine biodiversity and managing fisheries. However, with increasing environmental change driven by local and global stressors, it is critical to understand whether MPAs can continue to provide social, economic and conservation benefits in the long-term. Here, we compare coral reef benthic and fish assemblages across 17 paired MPA-fished control sites on three heavily populated, high elevation “mainland” islands, and four lowly populated, low elevation “offshore” islands that differed in their exposure to recent typhoons. Despite lower cover of macroalgae in MPAs compared to fished areas, especially on mainland islands, there were no consistent differences in benthic assemblages or total hard coral cover between paired MPA and fished reefs. Typhoons had severe negative effects on live hard coral cover, regardless of island type or MPA protection, and typhoon impacted reefs supported different fish assemblages and lower total biomass of fish, compared to non-impacted reefs. Although fish assemblage structure and total biomass differed between mainland and offshore islands, MPAs consistently supported a higher total biomass of fish than fished areas, with the magnitude of the MPA effect lower on typhoon impacted reefs. Our findings suggest that despite inherent differences in environmental conditions between mainland and offshore island coral reefs, MPAs can provide benefits to fish biomass, even when reefs are affected by typhoons. The development of management strategies that incorporate sound coastal land-use practices, while positioning MPAs in areas less prone to typhoon impact, will provide MPAs the best chance of success if climatic extremes increase.

Eavesdropping on dolphins: Investigating the habits of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) through fixed acoustic stations

Alessi J, Mandich A, Wurtz M, Paoli C, Bianchi CNike, Morri C, Povero P, Brunoldi M, Bozzini G, Casale A, et al. Eavesdropping on dolphins: Investigating the habits of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) through fixed acoustic stations Cimmaruta R. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(12):e0226023. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226023
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This study investigates the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, Montagu 1821) habitat use in the Portofino marine protected area (NW Italy) and adjacent waters, a core area for the dolphins and a highly touristic area in the Mediterranean Sea. A permanent automated real-time passive acoustic monitoring system, able to detect and track dolphins continuously, was tested in the area within the activities of the Life+ Nature project ARION. The habits of bottlenose dolphins was investigated considering the resident rate inside the area, which quantifies the amount of time dolphins spent in these waters, by means of random forest regression. The dependency of dolphin resident rate was analyzed in relation to four explanatory variables: sea surface temperature, season, time of day, and proximity to the coast. Dolphins spent more time in the area during spring and when sea surface temperature ranged between 15–16°C. Summer resulted the season with lower dolphin residency with significant difference between working day and weekend, in the last the lowest residency was recorded. Main findings provide important information to properly manage the area in order to protect bottlenose dolphins.

A typology of different perspectives on the spatial economic impacts of marine spatial planning

Gustavsson M, Morrissey K. A typology of different perspectives on the spatial economic impacts of marine spatial planning. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning [Internet]. 2019 ;21(6):841 - 853. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1523908X.2019.1680274?journalCode=cjoe20
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $43.00
Type: Journal Article

Marine spatial planning aims to create a framework for the oceans and seas that minimise conflicts between economic activities within the marine environment while maintaining good environmental status. Although reports by international – and national – organisations suggest there are economic benefits to marine spatial planning this analysis has, to date, been aspatial. Employing an explorative Q methodology approach with ten participants, this paper seeks to address this spatial and distributive gap by exploring stakeholders (marine renewable energy, fishing industry, aquaculture and marine tourism) perceptions of the economic impacts of marine spatial planning across varying (local to national) geographical scales in the U.K. The paper develops a typology of three different perspectives on the economic impacts of marine spatial planning: the optimistic ‘place-makers’; the sceptical ‘place-holders’; and the utilitarian ‘place-less’. Findings highlight that participants loading onto a specific ‘type’ cannot simply be explained by stakeholder categorisation. This research contributes to the coastal management literature by identifying differing perceptions on the ‘spatial economic impact’ of marine spatial planning by economic actors utilising marine and coastal areas in the U.K.

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