Literature Library

Currently indexing 10171 titles

A description of the marine planning system for England

Citation Information: Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs

Date: March 2011

Description: This document describes the marine planning system in England for the Marine Management Organisation (MMO) and other interested organisations and persons. It is being handed over to the MMO who will use and develop the guidance as they start to prepare Marine Plans.

The Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009, "the Act", defines arrangements for a new system of marine management, including the introduction of marine planning, across the UK. The new arrangements provided for the creation of the MMO. The MMO will deliver UK marine policy objectives for English waters through a series of statutory Marine Plans and other measures.

This document considers the following themes on the marine planning system:

  • its general purpose and benefits;
  • its scope, context, structure and implementation;
  • roles and responsibilities within the marine planning system;
  • the interaction between terrestrial and marine planning systems; and
  • decision making in Marine Plan areas and the transitional arrangements for decision making until the marine planning system has been fully implemented across the whole of England‘s marine area. 

The MMO must develop a system of marine planning which is consistent with the provisions within the Act. These requirements are detailed in this document where appropriate.

Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Lifting Trade Restrictive Measures

50 CFR Parts 300 and 635

Docket No. 120510051–2156–01

RIN 0648–BC16

Agency: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce.

Action: Proposed rule; request for comments.

Summary: NMFS proposes to adjust the regulations governing the trade of tuna and tuna-like species in the North and South Atlantic Ocean to implement recommendations adopted at the 2011 meeting of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (Commission). The proposed rule would lift the trade restrictions on importing bigeye tuna from Bolivia and Georgia. Additionally, the proposed rule would make administrative changes to the section containing species-specific harmonized tariff codes in support of the International Trade Program.

Dates: Written comments must be received on or before July 26, 2012.

The extrapolation of social landscape values to a national level in New Zealand using landscape character classification

Citation Information: Applied Geography; Volume 35, Issues 1–2, November 2012, Pages 84–94

Authors: Greg Brown and Lars Brabyn

Abstract: The human perception and valuation of landscapes is a complex process but has been pragmatically advanced through public participation GIS (PPGIS). PPGIS methods have the capacity to generate spatial data to empirically examine relationships between human landscape values and physical landscape character. In 2011, PPGIS methods were used to identify a range of social landscape values for two regions in southern New Zealand, Otago and Southland. Seven of these landscape values were analysed to identify significant relationships with physical landscape character from the New Zealand Landscape Classification system. In this paper we examine methods to extrapolate landscape values from this regional data set to a national level using these landscape value and character relationships. In the absence of empirical value data at a national level, we examine two quantitative approaches for extrapolating landscape values: (1) landscape component weights based on the percentage of value counts found within landscape components, and (2) landscape component weights based on the ratio of landscape values to the landscape area. We prepare and present maps of seven landscape values for the entire country of New Zealand to demonstrate the method. We conclude that landscape value extrapolation can assist impact assessment for land use change but should be kept simple for decision support.

Marine News - Issue 8

Citation Information: IUCN Global Marine and Polar Programme, Newsletter 2010-2011, Issue 8

Date: May 2011

Description: Marine News is the IUCN Global Marine and Polar Programme e-newsletter. It includes news stories related to a diversity of marine-related topics such as climate change mitigation and adaptation; threatened marine species; energy and industry; marine protected areas; marine invasive species; fisheries and aquaculture; ocean governance and the Arctic. It also highlights recent marine expeditions and outstanding marine photographs.

Table of Contents:

  • Editorial: High seas on the road to Rio+20
  • New Publications and Reports
  • New Projects: Seagrass and climate change; Ecotourism planning in Oman
  • Arctic: Arctic hotspots: Identification of the richest and most vulnerable places in the Arctic Ocean
  • Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: Urgent action needed to protect Earth’s blue carbon
  • Ocean Acidification: Rising ocean acidity: IUCN acts to enhance awareness, knowledge and action
  • Conserving Threatened Species: Following Flex: The first satellite-tagged western gray whale; Children – the ambassadors of our oceans: Marine turtle conservation in Vietnam
  • Marine Protected Areas: Mediterranean Sea: Better management for more biodiversity
  • Expeditions: From scientific expeditions to governance framework: A focus on seamounts in the southern Indian Ocean; Changing Oceans Expedition takes you on a Red Sea mission
  • Upcoming Events
  • Global Marine and Polar Programme Staff
  • FEATURES: Underwater Photographers of the Year; Protecting Unowned Oceans

Marine Conservation Ecology

Citation Information: Published April 18th 2011 by Routledge – 320 pages

ISBN: 978-1-84407-884-4

Authors: John Roff, Mark Zacharias

Description: This major textbook provides a broad coverage of the ecological foundations of marine conservation, including the rationale, importance and practicalities of various approaches to marine conservation and management. The scope of the book encompasses an understanding of the elements of marine biodiversity - from global to local levels - threats to marine biodiversity, and the structure and function of marine environments as related to conservation issues.

The authors describe the potential approaches, initiatives and various options for conservation, from the genetic to the species, community and ecosystem levels in marine environments. They explore methods for identifying the units of conservation, and the development of defensible frameworks for marine conservation. They describe planning of ecologically integrated conservation strategies, including decision-making on size, boundaries, numbers and connectivity of protected area networks. The book also addresses relationships between fisheries and biodiversity, novel methods for conservation planning in the coastal zone and the evaluation of conservation initiatives.

Oceans and the law of the sea

Citation Information: Sixty-sixth session; Item 77 (a) of the preliminary list; Report of the Secretary-General

Summary: The present report has been prepared pursuant to paragraph 240 of General Assembly resolution 65/37 of 7 December 2010, requesting the Secretary-General to present, for consideration by the Assembly at its sixty-sixth session, a comprehensive report on developments and issues relating to oceans and the law of the sea. The report is aimed at facilitating discussions on the topic of focus at the twelfth meeting of the United Nations Open-ended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea, on the theme entitled “Contributing to the assessment, in the context of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, of progress to date and the remaining gaps in the implementation of the outcomes of the major summits on sustainable development and addressing new and emerging challenges”. It constitutes the second part of the comprehensive report of the Secretary-General and is also being submitted to States Parties to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, pursuant to article 319 of the Convention.

Towards Integrated Coastal Zone Management: A Toolkit for Practitioners

Citation Information: Portman, M. E., and Fishhendler, I. (2011), Towards Integrated Coastal Zone Management: A Toolkit for Practitioners. Hebrew University: Jerusalem. 35 pp.

Description: During recent years, integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) has been the focus of considerable interest throughout the world, particularly in countries with heavily used coastal areas. ICZM offers policy makers and resource managers an operational framework for maintaining the value of coasts while supporting their sustainable use. Essentially, ICZM is an approach that can make key components of good planning and wise use of coastal areas a reality. While numerous attempts have been made to define both the scope and nature of ICZM, relatively few have discussed or evaluated how it is put into practice.

This toolkit is primarily intended for professionals responsible for the planning and management of coasts and their resources. It is targeted to situations in which economic, environmental and social concerns must be balanced. This introduction briefly answers some questions readers may have regarding the focus and purpose of this toolkit, who should use it, and what it can contribute to ICZM. The rest of the toolkit provides a comprehensive overview of ICZM starting with a focus on understanding what is meant by integration. It includes a discussion of why integration is important and how it relates to avoidance of or increases in conflict and controversy.

Although this toolkit describes ICZM mechanisms, it does not focus on the details of any one of them in particular. It is not intended to be a technical guide about the step-by-step implementation of an exact approach to ICZM. When available, references to sources of information are referenced in the text. Ultimately, this document can guide professionals who want to know more about the promise and potential of ICZM as a way to achieve multiple goals and objectives, including sustainable economic development, conservation and improved environmental quality along the coastal zone. However, its main purpose is to provide basic information that will be used in the future for evaluation of specific ICZM mechanisms under particular country contexts.

International Earth system expert workshop on ocean stresses and impacts

Citation Information: Rogers, A.D. & Laffoley, D.d’A. 2011. International Earth system expert workshop on ocean stresses and impacts. Summary report. IPSO Oxford, 18 pp.

Description: A high-level international workshop convened by IPSO met at the University of Oxford earlier this year. It was the first inter-disciplinary international meeting of marine scientists of its kind and was designed to consider the cumulative impact of multiple stressors on the ocean, including warming, acidification, and overfishing.

The 3 day workshop, co-sponsored by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), looked at the latest science across different disciplines.

The 27 participants from 18 organisations in 6 countries produced a grave assessment of current threats — and a stark conclusion about future risks to marine and human life if the current trajectory of damage continues: that the world's ocean is at high risk of entering a phase of extinction of marine species unprecedented in human history.

Delegates called for urgent and unequivocal action to halt further declines in ocean health.

The report summary (released 21 June 2011) outlines the main findings and recommendations. The full report will be released at a later date.

Managing the growing impacts of development on fragile coastal and marine ecosystems: Lessons from the Gulf

Citation Information: United Nations University; Institute for Water, Environment and Health; 2011

Authors: Hanneke Van Lavieren, John Burt, David A. Feary, Geórgenes Cavalcante, Elise Marquis, Lisa Benedetti, Charles Trick, Björn Kjerfve and Peter F. Sale

Description: A new report published by the United Nations University Institute on Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH) examines challenges facing the coastal and marine ecosystems of the Arabian Gulf region, and concludes that current management strategies are insufficient to ensure the future health of resources.  The main challenge is rampant coastal development, which has resulted in widespread loss of productive natural habitat.  The authors recommend the tighter regulation of coastal development by a single lead agency at the national level, backed up by integrated and comprehensive laws and policies.

Draft National Ocean Policy Implementation Plan

Citation Information: National Ocean Council, 2012

Description: As part of President Obama's National Policy for the Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes, the National Ocean Council released a draft National Ocean Policy Implementation Plan to address some of the most pressing challenges facing the ocean, our coasts, and the Great Lakes. The draft Implementation Plan describes more than 50 actions the Federal Government will take to improve the health of the ocean, coasts, and Great Lakes, which support tens of millions of jobs, contribute trillions of dollars a year to the national economy, and are essential to public health and national security.

The draft Implementation Plan will ensure the Federal Government targets limited resources effectively to deliver demonstrable results for the American people, including predictability for users, more efficient and coordinated decision-making, and improved sharing of data and technology. For each action, the Plan outlines key milestones, identifies responsible agencies, and indicates the expected timeframe for completion.

Alternative Development Models and Good Practices for Sustainable Coastal Tourism: A Framework for Decision Makers in Mexico

Citation Information: Center for Responsible Travel (CREST)

Date: March 2012

Editors: Martha Honey and David Krantz

Description: A new report by the Center for Responsible Travel (CREST) outlines strategies to ensure coastal tourism development in Mexico is conducted in an environmentally sustainable manner. Describing the potential environmental impacts of various facilities (coastal resorts, retirement homes, marinas, and golf courses), the publication offers guidance on the responsible development and operation of each, as well as case studies to illustrate good practices.

2011 Eco-Audit of the Mesoamerican Reef Countries

Citation Information: McField and Kushner. 2011. 2011 Eco-Audit of the Mesoamerican Reef Countries: Description of Indicators. Healthy Reefs Initiative and World Resources Institute.

Date: February 2012

Author: Melanie McField and Benjamin Kushner

Description: The Mesoamerican Reef (MAR) provides a diverse array of goods and services to the people of Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico. It is our shared heritage. Unfortunately, the health of the reef is declining, as documented by the 2008 and 2010 Report Cards published by the Healthy Reefs Initiative. The decline stems, at least in part, from inadequate management of threats to coral reefs. This Eco-Audit evaluates our efforts to protect and sustainably manage the region’s coral reefs; celebrates management success stories; and documents the extent to which recommended management actions have been implemented in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico. It seeks to catalyze faster, more effective management responses and to increase accountability within the public and private sectors and among nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).

An Innovative, Rigorous Process

The Healthy Reefs Initiative (HRI), in collaboration with the World Resources Institute (WRI) and local partners, developed and implemented this first-ever multinational Eco-Audit of the Mesoamerican Reef Countries.

Evaluation criteria are comprehensive and inclusive.

Twenty-two standardized management indicators were developed across seven themes, such as fisheries management and coastal zone management. The Eco-Audit draws on input from a variety of NGOs, governmental agencies, and the private sector, and includes transparently verified and publicly available results. In September and October 2011, HRI and WRI convened four national workshops, whose purpose was for participants to collectively rank each indicator and to compile documents to verify the rankings.

Analysis is objective, science-based, and validated.

Ocean Uses in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary: Fact Sheet

Citation Information: NOAA National Marine Protected Areas Center

Date: January 2012

Description: This brochure applies human use data to place-based management through a proof of concept analysis of California Ocean Uses Atlas data within the context of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). This analysis was performed by NOAA’s National Marine Protected Areas Center (MPA Center) with input from MBNMS staff. More information can be found at and

The California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: Participatory GIS informing marine spatial planning on the west coast

Citation Information: NOAA National Marine Protected Areas Center; Marine Conservation Biology Institute

Date: March 2010

Description: The California Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative public-private partnership between NOAA’s Marine Protected Areas Center and the Marine Conservation Biology Institute. Funded by grants from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the Resources Legacy Fund Foundation, and the MPA Center, the Atlas project fills a critical information gap in ocean management by mapping, for the first time, the full range of significant human uses of the ocean in state and federal waters of the coast of California. By tapping the knowledge of local ocean experts, this project both improves the information base for decision-making and provides an opportunity for broader engagement in building decision making databases and tools.

Marine Data News - Issue 16

Citation Information: Marine Environmental Data and Information Network; Issue 16

Date: April 2010

Table of Contents:

  • The NMR’s Record of England’s Underwater Heritage
  • Implementing Information Systems for Coasts and Oceans
  • New High Resolution Batymetry Model of the English Channel
  • HUMBOLDT: providing tools to harmonise geographic data
  • An Update on MEDIN Standards

Marine Data News - Issue 17

Citation Information: Marine Environmental Data and Information Network; Issue 17

Date: June 2010

Table of Contents:

  • MEDIN Partner's Meeting 1st Sept 2010
  • MEDIN Data Discovery Portal goes LIVE
  • The National Marine Biological Analytical Quality Control (NMBAQC)
  • World’s Largest Oceanography Library Goes Digital

Marine Data News - Issue 21

Citation Information: Marine Environmental Data and Information Network; Issue 21

Date: December 2011

Table of Contents:

  • Online Publishing of Environmental Monitoring Data Made Easy
  • News from the MEDIN Data Archive Centres (DACs)
  • World Ocean Council Launches "Smart Ocean/Smart Industries" Programme On Ocean and Climate Observations

Marine Data News - Issue 20

Citation Information: Marine Environmental Data and Information Network; Issue 20

Date: July 2011

Table of Contents:

  • The Heritage Value of Modern Shipwrecks
  • MEDIN Open Meeting: Engaging with MEDIN in its operational phase
  • Metadata Maestro now available for download!
  • Announcement of opportunity to develop a MEDIN Data Guidelines for geophysical seabed surveys


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