Literature Library

Currently indexing 7274 titles

Nature Contact and Human Health: A Research Agenda

Frumkin H, Bratman GN, Breslow SJo, Cochran B, Jr PHKahn, Lawler JJ, Levin PS, Tandon PS, Varanasi U, Wolf KL, et al. Nature Contact and Human Health: A Research Agenda. Environmental Health Perspectives [Internet]. 2017 ;125(7). Available from: http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP1663
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Background

At a time of increasing disconnectedness from nature, scientific interest in the potential health benefits of nature contact has grown. Research in recent decades has yielded substantial evidence, but large gaps remain in our understanding.

Objectives

We propose a research agenda on nature contact and health, identifying principal domains of research and key questions that, if answered, would provide the basis for evidence-based public health interventions.

Discussion

We identify research questions in seven domains: a) mechanistic biomedical studies; b) exposure science; c) epidemiology of health benefits; d) diversity and equity considerations; e) technological nature; f) economic and policy studies; and g) implementation science.

Conclusions

Nature contact may offer a range of human health benefits. Although much evidence is already available, much remains unknown. A robust research effort, guided by a focus on key unanswered questions, has the potential to yield high-impact, consequential public health insights. 

Multi-objective spatial tools to inform maritime spatial planning in the Adriatic Sea

Depellegrin D, Menegon S, Farella G, Ghezzo M, Gissi E, Sarretta A, Venier C, Barbanti A. Multi-objective spatial tools to inform maritime spatial planning in the Adriatic Sea. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2017 ;609:1627 - 1639. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004896971731985X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

This research presents a set of multi-objective spatial tools for sea planning and environmental management in the Adriatic Sea Basin. The tools address four objectives: 1) assessment of cumulative impacts from anthropogenic sea uses on environmental components of marine areas; 2) analysis of sea use conflicts; 3) 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of nutrient dispersion (nitrogen and phosphorus) from riverine sources in the Adriatic Sea Basin and 4) marine ecosystem services capacity assessment from seabed habitats based on an ES matrix approach. Geospatial modelling results were illustrated, analysed and compared on country level and for three biogeographic subdivisions, Northern-Central-Southern Adriatic Sea. The paper discusses model results for their spatial implications, relevance for sea planning, limitations and concludes with an outlook towards the need for more integrated, multi-functional tools development for sea planning.

Acoustic environments matter: Synergistic benefits to humans and ecological communities

Francis CD, Newman P, B. Taff D, White C, Monz CA, Levenhagen M, Petrelli AR, Abbott LC, Newton J, Burson S, et al. Acoustic environments matter: Synergistic benefits to humans and ecological communities. Journal of Environmental Management [Internet]. 2017 ;203:245 - 254. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479717307193
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Protected areas are critical locations worldwide for biodiversity preservation and offer important opportunities for increasingly urbanized humans to experience nature. However, biodiversity preservation and visitor access are often at odds and creative solutions are needed to safeguard protected area natural resources in the face of high visitor use. Managing human impacts to natural soundscapes could serve as a powerful tool for resolving these conflicting objectives. Here, we review emerging research that demonstrates that the acoustic environment is critical to wildlife and that sounds shape the quality of nature-based experiences for humans. Human-made noise is known to affect animal behavior, distributions and reproductive success, and the organization of ecological communities. Additionally, new research suggests that interactions with nature, including natural sounds, confer benefits to human welfare termed psychological ecosystem services. In areas influenced by noise, elevated human-made noise not only limits the variety and abundance of organisms accessible to outdoor recreationists, but also impairs their capacity to perceive the wildlife that remains. Thus soundscape changes can degrade, and potentially limit the benefits derived from experiences with nature via indirect and direct mechanisms. We discuss the effects of noise on wildlife and visitors through the concept of listening area and demonstrate how the perceptual worlds of both birds and humans are reduced by noise. Finally, we discuss how management of soundscapes in protected areas may be an innovative solution to safeguarding both and recommend several key questions and research directions to stimulate new research.

Spatial and temporal variability of sea-level rise hotspots over the eastern United States

Valle-Levinson A, Dutton A, Martin JB. Spatial and temporal variability of sea-level rise hotspots over the eastern United States. Geophysical Research Letters [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017GL073926/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Regional sea-level rise (SLR) acceleration during the past few decades north of Cape Hatteras has commonly been attributed to weakening Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, although this causal link remains debated. In contrast to this pattern, we demonstrate that SLR decelerated north of Cape Hatteras and accelerated south of the Cape to >20 mm/yr, > 3 times the global mean values from 2011-2015. Tide gauge records reveal comparable short-lived, rapid SLR accelerations (hot spots) that have occurred repeatedly over ~1500-km stretches of the coastline during the past 95 years, with variable latitudinal position. Our analysis indicates that the cumulative (time-integrated) effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation determine the latitudinal position of these SLR hot spots, while a cumulative El Niño index is associated with their timing. The superposition of these two ocean-atmospheric processes accounts for 87% of the variance in the spatiotemporal pattern of sub-decadal sea-level oscillations.

Restoring and Protecting the world's large marine ecosystems: An engine for job creation and sustainable economic development

Hudson A. Restoring and Protecting the world's large marine ecosystems: An engine for job creation and sustainable economic development. Environmental Development [Internet]. 2017 ;22:150 - 155. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211464516302299
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Journal Article

Some of the most significant threats to the sustainability of the world's 66 Large Marine Ecosystems (LME) – invasive species, coastal hypoxia, overfishing, marine debris and ocean acidification – are due to a combination of market and/or policy failures which cause these environmental externalities. A concerted global effort to remove these barriers would not only lead to dramatic improvements in ocean health and preservation of trillions of dollars in ocean-related goods and services and hundreds of millions of existing jobs, but also catalyze transformation across a range of ocean using and affecting sectors that would create millions of new, and in many cases, well paying, jobs for people across both the developed and developing world.

Long-Lasting Impacts of Beach Renourishment on nearshore Urban Coral Reefs: a Glimpse of Future Impacts of Shoreline Erosion, Climate Change and Sea Level Rise

Hernández-Delgado EA, Rosado-Matías BJ. Long-Lasting Impacts of Beach Renourishment on nearshore Urban Coral Reefs: a Glimpse of Future Impacts of Shoreline Erosion, Climate Change and Sea Level Rise. Annals of Marine Biology and Research [Internet]. 2017 ;4(1). Available from: https://www.jscimedcentral.com/MarineBiology/marinebiology-4-1021.pdf
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Urban shoreline erosion mitigation through beach renourishment has often been dismissed as environmentally insignificant. Given predicted impacts of sea level rise (SLR) and increased shoreline erosion, such activities might become a common practice in the future. But its long-term impacts on adjacent coral reefs have remained poorly documented. Benthic community trajectories were addressed during a period of twelve years across a spatial gradient of sediment burial impacts by beach renourishment on a high-energy urban coral reef at La Marginal Beach, Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Impacts associated to beach renourishment, followed by long-term, slowly-evolving impacts associated to sediment bedload, increased turbidity, increased Arecibo River streamflow, urban polluted runoff discharges, high particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration, and coral mortality following massive coral bleaching in 2005 were addressed through long-term monitoring. There was an initial catastrophic loss in coral species richness, diversity index and percent living coral cover, and a rapid regime shift favoring dominance by macroalgae and other non-reef building taxa. Long-term chronic impacts arrested high impact sites to an early successional stage, and drove moderate and low impact sites to a similar stage of very low species diversity, colony abundance and reef growth. Such chronic changes in community trajectories represent a glimpse into potential future impacts of shoreline erosion, sediment bedload, increasing turbidity and coastal water quality decline associated to SLR. The combination of chronic coral reef decline resulting from beach renourishment, coastal pollution, turbidity, and sediment bedload may have critical long-term ecological implications for urban coral reef resilience, functions and benefits.

Microplastics in fisheries and aquaculture

Lusher A, Hollman P, Mendoza-Hill J. Microplastics in fisheries and aquaculture. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2017 p. 179 pp. Available from: http://www.fao.org/documents/card/en/c/59bfa1fc-0875-4216-bd33-55b6003cfad8/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

This technical paper will contribute to take stock of the scientific knowledge available on microplastics in fisheries and aquaculture. It will provide information on the most likely pathways in terms of sources, transport and distribution in both marine food chains and seafood value chains and will provide a framework to assess the risks that may (or not) affect commercial fish stocks and consumers, as well as review current practices and limitations of microplastic sampling techniques.

Barrier Assessment: Mechanisms to support the recycling/reuse of fishing gear & the prevention of gear becoming lost/abandoned at sea

Anon. Barrier Assessment: Mechanisms to support the recycling/reuse of fishing gear & the prevention of gear becoming lost/abandoned at sea. Trondheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology; 2016. Available from: http://www.circularocean.eu/circularnews/new-research-barrier-assessment-relating-loss-fishing-nets-sea-recycling-reuse-nets-rope/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

This report assesses the problem of marine litter in a number of ways. First, the current state of marine litter data is discussed in the Nordic region. Next, the current legislation against marine litter and associated gaps is assessed. Finally, a barrier assessment is performed on three different topics: EOL life treatment alternatives for fishing gear, strategies for supporting recycling/reuse and strategies for preventing fishing gear from being lost/abandoned at sea.

Marine reserves solve an important bycatch problem in fisheries

Hastings A, Gaines SD, Costello C. Marine reserves solve an important bycatch problem in fisheries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2017 :201705169. Available from: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/08/08/1705169114
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $10.00
Type: Journal Article

Management of the diverse fisheries of the world has had mixed success. While managing single species in data-rich environments has been largely effective, perhaps the greatest challenge facing fishery managers is how to deal with mixed stocks of fish with a range of life histories that reside in the same location. Because many fishing gears are nonselective, and the costs of making gear selective can be high, a particular problem is bycatch of weak stocks. This problem is most severe when the weak stock is long-lived and has low fecundity and thus requires a very long recovery time once overfished. We investigate the role that marine reserves might play in solving this challenging and ubiquitous problem in ecosystem-based management. Evidence for marine reserves’ potential to manage fisheries in an ecosystem context has been mixed, so we develop a heuristic strategic mathematical model to obtain general conclusions about the merits of managing multispecies fisheries by using reserves relative to managing them with nonspatial approaches. We show that for many fisheries, yields of strong stocks can be increased, and persistence of weak stocks can be ensured, by using marine reserves rather than by using traditional nonspatial approaches alone. Thus, reserves have a distinct advantage as a management tool in many of the most critical multispecies settings. We also show how the West Coast groundfish fishery of the United States meets these conditions, suggesting that management by reserves may be a superior option in that case.

The role of social license in conservation

Kendal D, Ford RM. The role of social license in conservation. Conservation Biology [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cobi.12994/full
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

“Threatened species programs need a social license to justify public funding” (Zander et al. 2014). Or do they? There is growing acceptance within conservation science that community support for and engagement in ecosystem management programs is likely to lead to better conservation outcomes (Marvier & Wong 2012). However, the language used to characterize relations between conservation and the community is important, and use of the term social license may not always be a useful way to describe this relationship. Since the mid-1990s, the term social licensehas been widely used in the mining sector to describe implicit acceptance and approval of a mining operation by the community in which it operates (Lacey & Lamont 2014). Other industries such as forestry, aquaculture, and agriculture have begun using the term in a similar way (Edwards & Trafford 2016; Ford & Williams 2016; Moffat et al. 2016). Now social license is beginning to appear in conservation discourse (e.g., Garnett et al., 2015; Oakes et al., 2015). At the same time, the use of social license in other sectors has been criticized (e.g., Owen & Kemp, 2013) because it frames relationships with communities as more singular, binary, and tangible than is feasible or desirable (Parsons & Moffat 2014). The use of social license in conservation needs critical evaluation, particularly given the broad contextual differences between conservation and industries such as mining.

Quantifying marine mammal hotspots in British Columbia, Canada

Harvey GKA, Nelson TA, Fox CH, Paquet PC. Quantifying marine mammal hotspots in British Columbia, Canada. Ecosphere [Internet]. 2017 ;8(7):e01884. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ecs2.1884/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Global biodiversity is undergoing rapid decline due to direct and indirect anthropogenic impacts to species and ecosystems. Marine species, in particular, are experiencing accelerated population declines leading to many species being considered at risk by regional, national, and international standards. As one conservation approach, decisions made using spatially explicit information on marine wildlife populations have the potential to facilitate recovery and contribute to national and international commitments toward conservation targets. Delineating areas of intense use by species at risk can inform future marine spatial planning and conservation efforts, including the identification of marine protected areas. Methods for detecting hotspots (e.g., areas with high density and/or abundance) enable categorical mapping of the most intensely used areas. Yet, many of the current methods for delineating hotspots, such as the top 5% threshold, are subjective and fail to account for spatial patterns. Our goal was to map spatially continuous distributions of marine mammal densities and employ quantitative statistical methods to extract hotspot locations on the northern coast of British Columbia. We integrated systematically surveyed species information with environmental variables using generalized additive models to predict marine mammal distribution and density. Hotspots were identified from the density surfaces using two approaches: aspatial top 5% method and spatially local Gi* statistic using three neighborhood definitions. Heterogeneous density patterns were observed for all species, and high-density regions were generally clustered in areas exhibiting oceanographic characteristics that may promote concentrated food resources. Combining species density surfaces and extracting hotspot locations identified regions important to multiple species and present candidate locations for future conservation efforts. Contributions from this research provide robust statistical methods to objectively map hotspot locations and generate GIS data products for informing coastal conservation decisions.

Restricted regions of enhanced growth of Antarctic krill in the circumpolar Southern Ocean

Murphy EJ, Thorpe SE, Tarling GA, Watkins JL, Fielding S, Underwood P. Restricted regions of enhanced growth of Antarctic krill in the circumpolar Southern Ocean. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2017 ;7(1). Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-07205-9
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Food webs in high-latitude oceans are dominated by relatively few species. Future ocean and sea-ice changes affecting the distribution of such species will impact the structure and functioning of whole ecosystems. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key species in Southern Ocean food webs, but there is little understanding of the factors influencing its success throughout much of the ocean. The capacity of a habitat to maintain growth will be crucial and here we use an empirical relationship of growth rate to assess seasonal spatial variability. Over much of the ocean, potential for growth is limited, with three restricted oceanic regions where seasonal conditions permit high growth rates, and only a few areas around the Scotia Sea and Antarctic Peninsula suitable for growth of the largest krill (>60 mm). Our study demonstrates that projections of impacts of future change need to account for spatial and seasonal variability of key ecological processes within ocean ecosystems.

Why Conferences Matter—An Illustration from the International Marine Conservation Congress

Oester S, Cigliano JA, Hind-Ozan EJ, E. Parsons CMichael. Why Conferences Matter—An Illustration from the International Marine Conservation Congress. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2017 ;4. Available from: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2017.00257/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

A major activity in the life of an academic is the professional conference. It is common knowledge that this is a place to present your research, but what about other benefits of attending a conference? Online surveys were distributed to delegates of the 3rd and 4th International Marine Conservation Congresses (IMCCs), with respondents' (n = 100) feedback including that the congresses provided useful new information that will aid: (1) their research (58%); (2) in-the-field conservation (29%); (3) conservation communication (46%); and (4) conservation and management policy making (45%). They also reported gaining new techniques (56%), skills (64%), and novel ideas (70%) to further their research/careers. Nearly all (91%) gained new contacts that improved their research, in-the-field conservation, science communication, and/or conservation policy making. Two thirds (64%) gained ideas, contacts, and/or lessons could lead to publications. Over a third (39%) gained new ideas, contacts and/or lessons that led to grant proposals, and 36% gained contacts that led to funding. A conference is not just an avenue for a scientist to present their research to the wider community, but it can be an important venue for brainstorming, networking and making vital connections that can lead to new initiatives, papers and funding, in a way that virtual, online meetings cannot. This is why conferences matter.

Effects of Changing Weather, Oceanographic Conditions, and Land Uses on Spatio-Temporal Variation of Sedimentation Dynamics along Near-Shore Coral Reefs

Otaño-Cruz A, Montañez-Acuña AA, Torres-López V, Hernández-Figueroa EM, Hernández-Delgado EA. Effects of Changing Weather, Oceanographic Conditions, and Land Uses on Spatio-Temporal Variation of Sedimentation Dynamics along Near-Shore Coral Reefs. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2017 ;4. Available from: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2017.00249/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Sedimentation is a critical threat to coral reefs worldwide. Major land use alteration at steep, highly erodible semi-arid islands accelerates the potential of soil erosion, runoff, and sedimentation stress to nearshore coral reefs during extreme rainfall events. The goal of this study was to assess spatio-temporal variation of sedimentation dynamics across nearshore coral reefs as a function of land use patterns, weather and oceanographic dynamics, to identify marine ecosystem conservation strategies. Sediment was collected at a distance gradient from shore at Bahia Tamarindo (BTA) and Punta Soldado (PSO) coral reefs at Culebra Island, Puerto Rico. Sediment texture and composition were analyzed by dry sieving and loss-on-ignition techniques, and were contrasted with environmental variables for the research period (February 2014 to April 2015). Rainfall and oceanographic data were analyzed to address their potential role on affecting sediment distribution with BEST BIO-ENV, RELATE correlation, and linear regression analysis. A significant difference in sedimentation rate was observed by time and distance from shore (PERMANOVA, p < 0.0100), mostly attributed to higher sediment exposure at reef zones closer to shore due to strong relationships with coastal runoff. Sedimentation rate positively correlated with strong rainfall events (Rho = 0.301, p = 0.0400) associated with storms and rainfall intensity exceeding 15 mm/h. At BTA, sediment deposited were mostly composed of sand, suggesting a potential influence of resuspension produced by waves and swells. In contrast, PSO sediments were mostly composed of silt-clay and terrigenous material, mainly attributed to a deforestation event that occurred at adjacent steep sub-watershed during the study period. Spatial and temporal variation of sedimentation pulses and terrigenous sediment input implies that coral reefs exposure to sediment stress is determined by local land use patterns, weather, and oceanographic dynamics. Comprehensive understanding of sediment dynamics and coastal ecosystem interconnectivity is fundamental to implement integrated and adaptive management strategies aimed to promote sustainable development at watershed and island wide-scale to fully mitigate terrigenous sediment impact to marine ecosystems. Furthermore, decision-making processes and policy needs to address sedimentation stress in the context of future climate to reduce land-based threats and strengthen coral reef resilience.

Protected areas offer refuge from invasive species spreading under climate change

Gallardo B, Aldridge DC, González-Moreno P, Pergl J, Pizarro M, Pyšek P, Thuiller W, Yesson C, Vilà M. Protected areas offer refuge from invasive species spreading under climate change. Global Change Biology [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13798/full
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

Protected areas (PAs) are intended to provide native biodiversity and habitats with a refuge against the impacts of global change, particularly acting as natural filters against biological invasions. In practice, however, it is unknown how effective PAs will be in shielding native species from invasions under projected climate change. Here, we investigate the current and future potential distributions of 100 of the most invasive terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species in Europe. We use this information to evaluate the combined threat posed by climate change and invasions to existing PAs and the most susceptible species they shelter. We found that only a quarter of Europe's marine and terrestrial areas protected over the last 100 years have been colonized by any of the invaders investigated, despite offering climatically suitable conditions for invasion. In addition, hotspots of invasive species and the most susceptible native species to their establishment do not match at large continental scales. Furthermore, the predicted richness of invaders is 11%–18% significantly lower inside PAs than outside them. Invasive species are rare in long-established national parks and nature reserves, which are actively protected and often located in remote and pristine regions with very low human density. In contrast, the richness of invasive species is high in the more recently designated Natura 2000 sites, which are subject to high human accessibility. This situation may change in the future, since our models anticipate important shifts in species ranges toward the north and east of Europe at unprecedented rates of 14–55 km/decade, depending on taxonomic group and scenario. This may seriously compromise the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. This study is the first comprehensive assessment of the resistance that PAs provide against biological invasions and climate change on a continental scale and illustrates their strategic value in safeguarding native biodiversity.

Quality of tourist beaches of northern Chile: A first approach for ecosystem-based management

González SA, Holtmann-Ahumada G. Quality of tourist beaches of northern Chile: A first approach for ecosystem-based management. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;137:154 - 164. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569116304653
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Tourism focused on the “3Ss” (sun, sand and sea) has increased sharply in recent decades, which has subsequently led to the modification of natural areas of sandy beaches with the implementation of relevant infrastructure to meet the requirements and demands of beach users. Although the development of infrastructure and tourist services has increased for the beaches in northern Chile associated with coastal urban centers, these beaches have not implemented strategies to evaluate and help guide sustainable use. We used different indices to describe the seven state tourist beaches of the Región de Coquimbo. For most of the beaches, based on the Conservation Index (CI) and the Recreation Index (IR), a priority use of an "intensely recreational" character was recommended because of the low potential for conservation. Similarly, most of the beaches showed high levels of urbanization (IU). According to the Beach Quality Index (BQI), the quality of the beaches was assessed at an intermediate level. The application of these indices identified shortcomings in the levels of tourism infrastructure and security offered to users. The function of beaches to protect against natural events was extremely poor, likely because of changes to the beach dune ridges. The incorporation of assessment tools that integrate different indicators to help organize information, prioritize actions, and facilitate decision-making in the sustainable management of tourist beaches is strongly recommended for northern Chile.

The Role of Mid-Atlantic Ocean Data Portal in Supporting Ocean Planning

Lathrop RG, Odell J, MacDonald T, Vilacoba K, Bognar J, Trimble J, Bruce C, Crichton G, Seminara D, Herb J, et al. The Role of Mid-Atlantic Ocean Data Portal in Supporting Ocean Planning. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2017 ;4. Available from: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2017.00256/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO) was established in 2009 to enhance the vitality of the region's ocean ecosystem and economy. One of MARCO's first action items was the development of the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Data Portal to serve as an on-line platform to engage stakeholders across the region with the objective of improving their understanding of how ocean resources and places are being used, managed, and conserved. A key component is the Marine Planner, an interactive map-based visualization and decision support tool. These types of on-line tools are becoming increasingly popular means of putting essential data and state-of-the-art visualization technology into the hands of the agencies, industry, community leaders, and stakeholders engaged in ocean planning. However, to be effective, the underlying geospatial data has to be seen as objective, comprehensive, up-to-date and regionally consistent. To meet this challenge, the portal utilizes a distributed network of web map services from credible and authoritative sources. Website analytics and feedback received during the review and comment period of the 2016 release of the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Action Plan confirm that the Data Portal is viewed as integral to this ocean planning process by the MidAtlantic Regional Planning Body and key stakeholders. While not all stakeholders may agree with specific planning decisions, there is broad based agreement on the need for better data and making access to that data widely available.

Adaptation strategies to climate change in marine systems

Miller DD, Ota Y, U. Sumaila R, Cisneros-Montemayor AM, Cheung WWL. Adaptation strategies to climate change in marine systems. Global Change Biology [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13829/full
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

The world's oceans are highly impacted by climate change and other human pressures, with significant implications for marine ecosystems and the livelihoods that they support. Adaptation for both natural and human systems is increasingly important as a coping strategy due to the rate and scale of ongoing and potential future change. Here, we conduct a review of literature concerning specific case studies of adaptation in marine systems, and discuss associated characteristics and influencing factors, including drivers, strategy, timeline, costs, and limitations. We found ample evidence in the literature that shows that marine species are adapting to climate change through shifting distributions and timing of biological events, while evidence for adaptation through evolutionary processes is limited. For human systems, existing studies focus on frameworks and principles of adaptation planning, but examples of implemented adaptation actions and evaluation of outcomes are scarce. These findings highlight potentially useful strategies given specific social-ecological contexts, as well as key barriers and specific information gaps requiring further research and actions.

Use of ecosystems in coastal erosion management

C. Gracia A, Rangel-Buitrago N, Oakley JA, Williams A. Use of ecosystems in coastal erosion management. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117301588
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

With a global increase in coastal development, together with increasing storminess and continuing sea level rise, coastal erosion has become a serious problem along a significant percentage of coastlines of many countries. Coastal erosion and shoreline management plans are often implemented on an action-reaction and post-disaster basis, resulting in installation of hard engineering structures, such as, groins, seawalls, revetments, gabions and breakwaters. These hard stabilization structures usually alter the natural environment of the coast, producing negative impacts. They do little to work with nature, and sustainability is a currently a critical issue. Under present and future environmental conditions, the world requires smarter coastal protection strategies that are adaptable, sustainable, multi-functional and economically viable to help solve immediate and predicted coastal erosion problems. An ecosystem-based approach based on the creation and restoration of coastal ecosystems, such as wetlands (e.g. mangroves), biogenic reef structures (e.g. corals, oysters, and mussels), seagrass beds and dune vegetation can offer optimal natural alternatives to help solve coastal erosion. Coastal ecosystems have some capacity for self-repair and recovery, and can provide significant advantages over traditional hard engineering approaches against coastal erosion. Also, they play a vital role in reducing the susceptibility of coastal communities to hazards through their multiple roles in processes, including sediment capture, system roughness and thus attenuation of wave energy. This paper seeks to undertake a general review of adaptation and protection measures against coastal erosion issues, based on incorporation of ecology and ecosystem services into coastal erosion management strategies.

Emergence of a global science–business initiative for ocean stewardship

Österblom H, Jouffray J-B, Folke C, Rockström J. Emergence of a global science–business initiative for ocean stewardship. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2017 :201704453. Available from: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/08/04/1704453114
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The ocean represents a fundamental source of micronutrients and protein for a growing world population. Seafood is a highly traded and sought after commodity on international markets, and is critically dependent on healthy marine ecosystems. A global trend of wild stocks being overfished and in decline, as well as multiple sustainability challenges associated with a rapid growth of aquaculture, represent key concerns in relation to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Existing efforts aimed to improve the sustainability of seafood production have generated important progress, primarily at the local and national levels, but have yet to effectively address the global challenges associated with the ocean. This study highlights the importance of transnational corporations in enabling transformative change, and thereby contributes to advancing the limited understanding of large-scale private actors within the sustainability science literature. We describe how we engaged with large seafood producers to coproduce a global science–business initiative for ocean stewardship. We suggest that this initiative is improving the prospects for transformative change by providing novel links between science and business, between wild-capture fisheries and aquaculture, and across geographical space. We argue that scientists can play an important role in facilitating change by connecting knowledge to action among global actors, while recognizing risks associated with such engagement. The methods developed through this case study contribute to identifying key competences in sustainability science and hold promises for other sectors as well.

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