Literature Library

Currently indexing 7018 titles

Enhancing fish Underwater Visual Census to move forward assessment of fish assemblages: An application in three Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas

Prato G, Thiriet P, Di Franco A, Francour P. Enhancing fish Underwater Visual Census to move forward assessment of fish assemblages: An application in three Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2017 ;12(6):e0178511. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0178511
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Monitoring fish assemblages is needed to assess whether Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are meeting their conservation and fisheries management goals, as it allows one to track the progress of recovery of exploited species and associated communities. Underwater Visual Census techniques (UVC) are used to monitor fish assemblages in MPAs. UVCs should be adapted to fish abundance, body-size and behaviour, which can strongly affect fish detectability. In Mediterranean subtidal habitats, however, UVC strip transects of one surface area (25x5 m2) are commonly used to survey the whole fish assemblage, from large shy fish to small crypto-benthic fish. Most high trophic level predators (HTLPs) are large shy fish which rarely swim close to divers and, consequently, their abundance may be under-estimated with commonly used transects. Here, we propose an improvement to traditional transect surveys to better account for differences in behaviour among and within species. First, we compared the effectiveness of combining two transect surface areas (large: 35x20 m2; medium: 25x5 m2) in quantifying large, shy fish within and outside Mediterranean MPAs. We identified species-specific body-size thresholds defining a smaller and a larger size class better sampled by medium and large transects respectively. Combining large and medium transects provided more accurate biomass and species richness estimates for large, shy species than using medium transects alone. We thus combined the new approach with two other transect surface areas commonly used to survey crypto-benthic (10x1 m2) and necto-benthic (25x5 m2) species in order to assess how effectively MPAs protection the whole fish assemblage. We verified that MPAs offer significant protection for HTLPs, their response in terms of biomass and density increase in MPAs was always higher in magnitude than other functional groups. Inside MPAs, the contribution of HTLP reached >25% of total fish biomass, against < 2% outside MPAs. Surveys with multiple transect surface areas allow for a more realistic assessment of the structure of the whole fish assemblage and better assessment of potential recovery of HTLPs within reserves of HTLP.

Application of environmental DNA to detect an endangered marine skate species in the wild

Weltz K, Lyle JM, Ovenden J, Morgan JAT, Moreno DA, Semmens JM. Application of environmental DNA to detect an endangered marine skate species in the wild. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2017 ;12(6):e0178124. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0178124
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Environmental DNA (eDNA) techniques have only recently been applied in the marine environment to detect the presence of marine species. Species-specific primers and probes were designed to detect the eDNA of the endangered Maugean skate (Zearaja maugeana) from as little as 1 L of water collected at depth (10–15 m) in Macquarie Harbour (MH), Tasmania. The identity of the eDNA was confirmed as Zmaugeana by sequencing the qPCR products and aligning these with the target sequence for a 100% match. This result has validated the use of this eDNA technique for detecting a rare species, Zmaugeana, in the wild. Being able to investigate the presence, and possibly the abundance, of Zmaugeana in MH and Bathurst harbour (BH), would be addressing a conservation imperative for the endangered Zmaugeana. For future application of this technique in the field, the rate of decay was determined for Zmaugeana eDNA under ambient dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (55% saturation) and lower DO (20% saturation) levels, revealing that the eDNA can be detected for 4 and 16 hours respectively, after which eDNA concentration drops below the detection threshold of the assay. With the rate of decay being influenced by starting eDNA concentrations, it is recommended that samples be filtered as soon as possible after collection to minimize further loss of eDNA prior to and during sample processing.

Shift in tuna catches due to ocean warming

Monllor-Hurtado A, Pennino MGrazia, Sanchez-Lizaso J?Luis. Shift in tuna catches due to ocean warming. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2017 ;12(6):e0178196. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0178196
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Ocean warming is already affecting global fisheries with an increasing dominance of catches of warmer water species at higher latitudes and lower catches of tropical and subtropical species in the tropics. Tuna distributions are highly conditioned by sea temperature, for this reason and their worldwide distribution, their populations may be a good indicator of the effect of climate change on global fisheries. This study shows the shift of tuna catches in subtropical latitudes on a global scale. From 1965 to 2011, the percentage of tropical tuna in longliner catches exhibited a significantly increasing trend in a study area that included subtropical regions of the Atlantic and western Pacific Oceans and partially the Indian Ocean. This may indicate a movement of tropical tuna populations toward the poles in response to ocean warming. Such an increase in the proportion of tropical tuna in the catches does not seem to be due to a shift of the target species, since the trends in Atlantic and Indian Oceans of tropical tuna catches are decreasing. Our results indicate that as populations shift towards higher latitudes the catches of these tropical species did not increase. Thus, at least in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, tropical tuna catches have reduced in tropical areas.

Management and conservation at the International Whaling Commission: A dichotomy sandwiched within a shifting baseline

B. Vernazzani G, Burkhardt-Holm P, Cabrera E, I??guez M, Luna F, Parsons ECM, Ritter F, Rodr?guez-Fonseca J, Sironi M, Stachowitsch M. Management and conservation at the International Whaling Commission: A dichotomy sandwiched within a shifting baseline. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2017 ;83:164 - 171. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17302464
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The International Whaling Commission's (IWC) Scientific Committee provides important advice to the IWC on a large variety of cetacean species, sub-species and populations and the issues affecting them. Cetaceans are facing increasing, non-whaling-related threats, and the Scientific Committee (SC), in accordance with the Commission's requests, has strengthened its conservation-oriented research work. A selection of the reports of the Scientific Committee from between 1986 and 2012 was assessed for its: (i) fundamental research; (ii) management; (iii) conservation; and (iv) administrative content, and to identify potential trends over time. Recommendations and their urgency were also examined, as implied from the language used by the SC in its reports. The analysis showed that the work of the Scientific Committee has increasingly been oriented towards conservation issues over the period reviewed, but at the same time this conservation work has received little funding. Increased support for conservation-related research projects is warranted to promote the long-term survival of cetaceans. Based on this review of the content and focus of the Committee reports, the analysis suggested that its issued advice be made clearer, whenever possible, and governments are urged to give due consideration to this science-based advice particularly when urgent conservation actions are needed. In addition, more consistent funding of the IWC's conservation-related research should be pursued to improve international conservation outputs regarding cetacean populations.

Angling into the Future: Ten Commandments for Recreational Fisheries Science, Management, and Stewardship in a Good Anthropocene

Elmer LK, Kelly LA, Rivest S, S. Steell C, Twardek WM, Danylchuk AJ, Arlinghaus R, Bennett JR, Cooke SJ. Angling into the Future: Ten Commandments for Recreational Fisheries Science, Management, and Stewardship in a Good Anthropocene. Environmental Management [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00267-017-0895-3
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

A new geological epoch, the “Anthropocene”, has been defined as the period in which humans have had substantial geological and ecological influence on the planet. A positive future for this epoch can be referred to as the “good Anthropocene” and would involve effective management strategies and changes in human behavior that promote the sustainability and restoration of ecosystems. Recreational fisheries hold significant social, cultural, and economic value and can generate many benefits when managed sustainably and thus be an integral part of a “good Anthropocene”. Here, we list ten commandments to facilitate persistence and long-term sustainability of recreational fisheries in the “good Anthropocene”. This list includes fostering aquatic stewardship, promoting education, using appropriate capture gear, adopting evidence-based management approaches, promoting the concept of resilience, obtaining and using effort data in management, embracing the ecosystem approach, engaging in multilevel collaboration, enhancing accessibility, and embracing optimism. When used singly, or simultaneously, these ten commandments will contribute to the harmonization of sustainable fish populations and angling practices, to create recreational fisheries’ “bright spots”.

Challenges and opportunities in monitoring the impacts of tidal-stream energy devices on marine vertebrates

Fox CJ, Benjamins S, Masden EA, Miller R. Challenges and opportunities in monitoring the impacts of tidal-stream energy devices on marine vertebrates. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032117309395
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $37.95
Type: Journal Article

Marine tidal-stream renewable energy devices (MREDs) are beginning to move from demonstration to early commercial deployment. However, the ecological impacts which may result when large arrays of these devices are deployed are unknown. This uncertainty is placing a considerable burden on developers who must collect biological data through baseline and post-deployment monitoring programs under the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Regulators and other stakeholders are often particularly concerned about impacts on marine vertebrates (fish, seabirds and mammals) because many of these receptors are of high conservation and public concern. Unfortunately monitoring for most marine vertebrates is challenging and expensive, especially in the energetic waters where tidal-stream MREDs will be deployed. Surveys for marine vertebrates often have low statistical power and so are likely to fail to detect all but substantial changes in abundance. Furthermore, many marine vertebrate species have large geographical ranges so that even if local changes in abundance are detected, they cannot usually be related to the wider populations. Much of the monitoring currently being undertaken at tidal-stream MRED development sites is thus leading to a ‘data-rich but information-poor’ (DRIP) situation. Such an approach adds to development costs whilst contributing little to wider ecosystem-based understanding. In the present article we discuss the issues surrounding the impacts of tidal-stream MREDs on marine vertebrates and address the questions regulators, developers and other stakeholders need to consider when agreeing monitoring programs for these receptors.

Using industry ROV videos to assess fish associations with subsea pipelines

McLean DL, Partridge JC, Bond T, Birt MJ, Bornt KR, Langlois TJ. Using industry ROV videos to assess fish associations with subsea pipelines. Continental Shelf Research [Internet]. 2017 ;141:76 - 97. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278434316306483
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Remote Operated Vehicles are routinely used to undertake inspection and maintenance activities of underwater pipelines in north-west Australia. In doing so, many terabytes of geo-referenced underwater video are collected at depths, and on a scale usually unobtainable for ecological research. We assessed fish diversity and abundance from existing ROV videos collected along 2–3 km sections of two pipelines in north-west Australia, one at 60–80 m water depth and the other at 120–130 m. A total of 5962 individual fish from 92 species and 42 families were observed. Both pipelines were characterised by a high abundance of commercially important fishes including: snappers (Lutjanidae) and groupers (Epinephelidae). The presence of thousands of unidentifiable larval fish, in addition to juveniles, sub-adults and adults suggests that the pipelines may be enhancing, rather than simply attracting, fish stocks. The prevalence and high complexity of sponges on the shallower pipeline and of deepwater corals on the deeper pipeline had a strong positive correlation with the fish abundance. These habitats likely offer a significant food source and refuge for fish, but also for invertebrates upon which fish feed. A greater diversity on the shallower pipeline, and a higher abundance of fishes on both pipelines, were associated with unsupported pipeline sections (spans) and many species appeared to be utilising pipeline spans as refuges. This study is a first look at the potential value of subsea pipelines for fishes on the north-west shelf. While the results suggest that these sections of pipeline appear to offer significant habitat that supports diverse and important commercially fished species, further work, including off-pipeline surveys on the natural seafloor, are required to determine conclusively the ecological value of pipelines and thereby inform discussions regarding the ecological implications of pipeline decommissioning.

Plastic ingestion in oceanic-stage loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) off the North Atlantic subtropical gyre

Pham CK, Rodr?guez Y, Dauphin A, Carri?o R, Frias J?oPGL, Vandeperre F, Otero V, Santos MR, Martins HR, Bolten AB, et al. Plastic ingestion in oceanic-stage loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) off the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X17304885
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Juvenile oceanic-stage sea turtles are particularly vulnerable to the increasing quantity of plastic coming into the oceans. In this study, we analysed the gastrointestinal tracts of 24 juvenile oceanic-stage loggerheads (Caretta caretta) collected off the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, in the Azores region, a key feeding ground for juvenile loggerheads. Twenty individuals were found to have ingested marine debris (83%), composed exclusively of plastic items (primarily polyethylene and polypropylene) identified by μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Large microplastics (1–5 mm) represented 25% of the total number of debris and were found in 58% of the individuals sampled. Average number of items was 15.83 ± 6.09 (± SE) per individual, corresponding to a mean dry mass of 1.07 ± 0.41 g. The results of this study demonstrate that plastic pollution acts as another stressor for this critical life stage of loggerhead turtles in the North Atlantic.

Addressing the Issue of Microplastics in the Wake of the Microbead-Free Waters Act? A New Standard Can Facilitate Improved Policy

McDevitt JP, Criddle CS, Morse M, Hale RC, Bott CB, Rochman CM. Addressing the Issue of Microplastics in the Wake of the Microbead-Free Waters Act? A New Standard Can Facilitate Improved Policy. Environmental Science & Technology [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acs.est.6b05812
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The United States Microbead-Free Waters Act was signed into law in December 2015. It is a bipartisan agreement that will eliminate one preventable source of microplastic pollution in the United States. Still, the bill is criticized for being too limited in scope, and also for discouraging the development of biodegradable alternatives that ultimately are needed to solve the bigger issue of plastics in the environment. Due to a lack of an acknowledged, appropriate standard for environmentally safe microplastics, the bill banned all plastic microbeads in selected cosmetic products. Here, we review the history of the legislation and how it relates to the issue of microplastic pollution in general, and we suggest a framework for a standard (which we call “Ecocyclable”) that includes relative requirements related to toxicity, bioaccumulation, and degradation/assimilation into the natural carbon cycle. We suggest that such a standard will facilitate future regulation and legislation to reduce pollution while also encouraging innovation of sustainable technologies.

Guide for Planners and Managers to Design Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks in a Changing Climate

Anon. Guide for Planners and Managers to Design Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks in a Changing Climate. Montreal, Canada: Commission for Environmental Cooperation; 2012 p. 42 pp. Available from: http://www3.cec.org/islandora/en/item/10856-guide-planners-and-managers-design-resilient-marine-protected-area-networks-in
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Climate change, along with pollution and overfishing, is one of the great challenges facing North America’s shared oceans today. Through the project Engaging Communities to Conserve Marine Biodiversity through NAMPAN (North American Marine Protected Areas Network) the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) gathered scientific information on the impact of climate change on marine protected area (MPA) networks to improve the design and management process for healthier, more resilient oceans.

Scientific Guidelines for Designing Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks in a Changing Climate

Brock RJ, Kenchington E, Martinez-Arroyo A eds. Scientific Guidelines for Designing Resilient Marine Protected Area Networks in a Changing Climate. Montreal, Canada: Commission for Environmental Cooperation; 2012 p. 95 pp. Available from: http://www3.cec.org/islandora/en/item/10820-scientific-guidelines-designing-resilient-marine-protected-area-networks-in-changing
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Climate change, along with pollution and overfishing, is one of the great challenges facing North America’s shared oceans today. Through the project Engaging Communities to Conserve Marine Biodiversity through NAMPAN (North American Marine Protected Areas Network) the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) gathered scientific information on the impact of climate change on marine protected area (MPA) networks to improve the design and management process for healthier, more resilient oceans.

Predicting the population-level impact of mitigating harbor porpoise bycatch with pingers and time-area fishing closures

van Beest FM, Kindt-Larsen L, Bastardie F, Bartolino V, Nabe-Nielsen J. Predicting the population-level impact of mitigating harbor porpoise bycatch with pingers and time-area fishing closures. Ecosphere [Internet]. 2017 ;8(4):e01785. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ecs2.1785/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Unintentional mortality of higher trophic-level species in commercial fisheries (bycatch) represents a major conservation concern as it may influence the long-term persistence of populations. An increasingly common strategy to mitigate bycatch of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), a small and protected marine top predator, involves the use of pingers (acoustic alarms that emit underwater noise) and time-area fishing closures. Although these mitigation measures can reduce harbor porpoise bycatch in gillnet fisheries considerably, inference about the long-term population-level consequences is currently lacking. We developed a spatially explicit individual-based simulation model (IBM) with the aim to evaluate the effectiveness of these two bycatch mitigation measures. We quantified both the direct positive effects (i.e., reduced bycatch) and any indirect negative effects (i.e., reduced foraging efficiency) on the population size using the inner Danish waters as a biological system. The model incorporated empirical data on gillnet fishing effort and noise avoidance behavior by free-ranging harbor porpoises exposed to randomized high-frequency (20- to 160-kHz) pinger signals. The IBM simulations revealed a synergistic relationship between the implementation of time-area fishing closures and pinger deployment. Time-area fishing closures reduced bycatch rates substantially but not completely. In contrast, widespread pinger deployment resulted in total mitigation of bycatch but frequent and recurrent noise avoidance behavior in high-quality foraging habitat negatively affected individual survival and the total population size. When both bycatch mitigation measures were implemented simultaneously, the negative impact of pinger noise-induced sub-lethal behavioral effects on the population was largely eliminated with a positive effect on the population size that was larger than when the mitigation measures were used independently. Our study highlights that conservationists and policy makers need to consider and balance both the direct and indirect effects of harbor porpoise bycatch mitigation measures before enforcing their widespread implementation. Individual-based simulation models, such as the one presented here, offer an efficient and dynamic framework to evaluate the impact of human activities on the long-term survival of marine populations and can serve as a basis to design adaptive management strategies that satisfy both ecological and socioeconomic demands on marine ecosystems.

Modeling the role and impact of alien species and fisheries on the Israeli marine continental shelf ecosystem

Corrales X, Ofir E, Coll M, Goren M, Edelist D, Heymans JJ, Gal G. Modeling the role and impact of alien species and fisheries on the Israeli marine continental shelf ecosystem. Journal of Marine Systems [Internet]. 2017 ;170:88 - 102. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924796316302329
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

The ecosystems of the Israeli Mediterranean coast have undergone significant changes in recent decades mainly due to species invasions and fishing. In order to characterize the structure and functioning of the marine continental shelf of the Israeli Mediterranean coast and assess temporal changes, we developed a food web model representing two time periods: 1990–1994 and 2008–2012.

The 1990–1994 and 2008–2012 food web models were composed of 39 and 41 functional groups, respectively. Functional groups ranged from primary producers to top predators, and included six and eight alien functional groups, respectively, encompassing several crustacean and fish species. Input data included local surveys and fishery statistics, published data on stomach content analyses, and the application of empirical equations to estimate consumption and production rates.

Results of the competitive interactions between alien and native species and changes in trophic flows between food web components highlight the increasing impact of alien species over time. Fishing had noticeable impacts in both time periods and played an important role in the ecosystem. Despite different productivity rates and other environmental differences, the Israeli marine ecosystem shared common structural and functional traits with other Mediterranean marine ecosystems. This is the first attempt to study the ecosystem of the Levant region using mass-balance models and to integrate such a large amount of alien species into food web analyses.

Privatization, financialization and ocean grabbing in New Brunswick herring fisheries and salmon aquaculture

Knott C, Neis B. Privatization, financialization and ocean grabbing in New Brunswick herring fisheries and salmon aquaculture. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2017 ;80:10 - 18. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X1630690X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The growing literature on individual transferable quotas (ITQs) and on intensive salmon aquaculture and its negative impacts on the environment and other users of related marine space has been little connected to the developing literature on financialization and to the literature on ocean grabbing within fisheries. This paper seeks to address this gap through a case study of the recent history of herring fisheries and intensive aquaculture in New Brunswick, Canada, exploring how specific neoliberal processes – including privatization and marketization (in herring fleet ITQs and aquaculture lease systems), (re)regulation, financialization and globalization – have interacted to support the reshaping of regional fisheries from mixed small-scale, family-based, petty commodity fisheries towards vertically-integrated, corporate, financialized fisheries characterized by ocean grabbing.

Analyzing the decoupling relationship between marine economic growth and marine pollution in China

Chen J, Wang Y, Song M, Zhao R. Analyzing the decoupling relationship between marine economic growth and marine pollution in China. Ocean Engineering [Internet]. 2017 ;137:1 - 12. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002980181730149X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

This study analyzes the “quantity” and “speed” decoupling relationship between marine pollution and economic growth in China from 2002 to 2013. The results show that, when the red-tide disaster areas by coastal region is used as marine pollution indicator, an inverted N-shaped relationship is observed between pollution and growth. However, this curve fluctuates slightly, and its shape is more similar to monotonic decreasing. There are three states of “speed” decoupling between each marine pollution and economic growth indicator. The decoupling state between pollution and the economy changes rapidly, the deterioration of marine pollution being rather frequent. In some years, the pressure on the marine environment aggravated dramatically. Having combined both analyses, the study determines that marine economic growth and pollution in China have not been entirely decoupled in recent years, and that environmental pressure on marine economic growth remains obvious.

Transport of microplastics by two collembolan species

Maa? S, Daphi D, Lehmann A, Rillig MC. Transport of microplastics by two collembolan species. Environmental Pollution [Internet]. 2017 ;225:456 - 459. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749116322862
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Plastics, despite their great benefits, have become a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, with microplastic particles having come into focus most recently. Microplastic effects have been intensely studied in aquatic, especially marine systems; however, there is lack of studies focusing on effects on soil and its biota. A basic question is if and how surface-deposited microplastic particles are transported into the soil. We here wished to test if soil microarthropods, using Collembola, can transport these particles over distances of centimeters within days in a highly controlled experimental set-up. We conducted a fully factorial experiment with two collembolan species of differing body size, Folsomia candida and Proisotoma minuta, in combination with urea-formaldehyde particles of two different particle sizes. We observed significant differences between the species concerning the distance the particles were transported. F. candida was able to transport larger particles further and faster than P. minuta. Using video, we observed F. candida interacting with urea-formaldehyde particles and polyethylene terephthalate fibers, showing translocation of both material types. Our data clearly show that microplastic particles can be moved and distributed by soil microarthropods. Although we did not observe feeding, it is possible that microarthropods contribute to the accumulation of microplastics in the soil food web.

Coastal Livelihood Diversification as a Pathway Out of Poverty and Vulnerability: Experiences from Tanzania

Torell E, McNally C, Crawford B, Majubwa G. Coastal Livelihood Diversification as a Pathway Out of Poverty and Vulnerability: Experiences from Tanzania. Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;45(3):199 - 218. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08920753.2017.1303718?journalCode=ucmg20
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $50.00
Type: Journal Article

Livelihood diversification can increase the number of activities generating income and is often adopted as a means to reduce vulnerability to risk and provide a pathway out of poverty. Previous empirical studies, however, have found that this diversification carries no guarantee of success. This study examines the impacts of investments in conservation-based enterprises and micro-credit interventions implemented in coastal Tanzania. Project beneficiaries (n = 178) and non-beneficiaries (n = 117) from seventeen communities surrounding Saadani National Park and the Menai Bay Conservation area were surveyed in 2013, to gather quantitative and qualitative data on a suite of parameters including the number of livelihood activities, total annual income, and engagement in extractive activities. We found that the beneficiaries reported an average of 2.15 livelihoods, which was significantly higher than the 1.44 average reported by the non-beneficiaries. The beneficiaries also had significantly higher mean annual incomes than the non-beneficiaries as the former reported an annual mean income of US $2,076 while the latter reported US $646. The research found a complex relationship between occupational diversity and people's interactions with the environment and it is clear that livelihood diversification is not a blanket solution to reducing pressure on coastal resources. Another important finding from the research is that there are distinct differences between types of livelihood interventions and it is crucial to be clear about the goal of a livelihoods intervention. If the goal is diversifying livelihoods and strengthening resilience, then livelihoods that provide a small and steady income for many entrepreneurs may be enough. However, if the goal is to bring people out of a poverty trap, then it makes more sense to invest in livelihoods that bring in a higher income, even if that means reaching fewer beneficiaries.

Freedom, part-time pirates, and poo police: Regulating the heterotopic space of the recreational boat

Grant-Smith D, Mayes R. Freedom, part-time pirates, and poo police: Regulating the heterotopic space of the recreational boat. Environment and Planning A [Internet]. 2017 ;49(6):1379 - 1395. Available from: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0308518X17697976
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $36.00
Type: Journal Article

At all levels of governance from international convention to local policy, the regulation of pollution from boats and ships has been steeped in conflict and subject to resistance. Recreational boaters, in particular, are often highly resistant to attempts to regulate their boating activity, particularly on environmental grounds. Such ongoing resistance poses a significant policy compliance challenge. This paper seeks to shed light on this complex, ongoing and broader field of opposition to environmental management by way of a case study analysis of resistance to on-board sewage regulations on the part of recreational boaters in Queensland, Australia. This resistance on the part of ‘everyday’ citizens is examined through the lens of heterotopia. In consequence, the paper can contribute to understandings more broadly of problems beleaguering environmental policy while also attending to the deeply implicated social roles of recreational boating spaces; namely as heterotopias of compensation and/or illusion. It also highlights how these heterotopic positionings are intensified by the scatological orientation of the policy under study.

New Directions for Understanding the Spatial Resilience of Social-Ecological Systems

Cumming GS, Morrison TH, Hughes TP. New Directions for Understanding the Spatial Resilience of Social-Ecological Systems. Ecosystems [Internet]. 2017 ;20(4):649 - 664. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10021-016-0089-5
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

The concept of spatial resilience has brought a new focus on the influence of multi-scale processes on the dynamics of ecosystems. Initial ideas about spatial resilience focused on coral reefs and emphasized escalating anthropogenic disturbances across the broader seascape. This perspective resonated with a new awareness of global drivers of change, such as growth in international trade and shifts in climate, and the need to respond by scaling up governance and management. We review recent trends and emerging ideas in spatial resilience, using coral reefs and dependent communities as exemplars of multi-scale social–ecological systems. Despite recent advances, management and governance of ecosystems remain spatially fragmented and constrained to small scales. Temporally, many interventions still miss or ignore warning signals and struggle to cope with history, politics, long-term cumulative pressures, feedbacks, and sudden surprises. Significant recent progress has been made in understanding the relevance of spatial and temporal scale, heterogeneity, networks, the importance of place, and multi-scale governance. Emerging themes include better integration of ecology and conservation with social and economic science, and incorporating temporal dynamics in spatial analyses. A better understanding of the multi-scale spatial and temporal processes that drive the resilience of linked social-ecosystems will help address the widespread mismatch between the scales of ongoing ecological change and effective long-term governance of land- and seascapes.

Role of Perturbing Ocean Initial Condition in Simulated Regional Sea Level Change

Hu A, Meehl G, Stammer D, Han W, Strand W. Role of Perturbing Ocean Initial Condition in Simulated Regional Sea Level Change. Water [Internet]. 2017 ;9(6):401. Available from: http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/9/6/401/htm
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Multiple lines of observational evidence indicate that the global climate has been getting warmer since the early 20th century. This warmer climate has led to a global mean sea level rise of about 18 cm during the 20th century, and over 6 cm for the first 15 years of the 21st century. Regionally the sea level rise is not uniform due in large part to internal climate variability. To better serve the community, the uncertainties of predicting/projecting regional sea level changes associated with internal climate variability need to be quantified. Previous research on this topic has used single-model large ensembles with perturbed atmospheric initial conditions (ICs). Here we compare uncertainties associated with perturbing ICs in just the atmosphere and just the ocean using a state-of-the-art coupled climate model. We find that by perturbing the oceanic ICs, the uncertainties in regional sea level changes increase compared to those with perturbed atmospheric ICs. Thus, in order for us to better assess the full spectrum of the impacts of such internal climate variability on regional and global sea level rise, approaches that involve perturbing both atmospheric and oceanic initial conditions are necessary.

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