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The Wadden Sea Quality Status Report - Synthesis Report 2010

Citation Information: Wim J. Wolff, Jan P. Bakker, Karsten Laursen, Karsten Reise, 2010. Wadden Sea Ecosystem No. 29. Common Wadden Sea Secretariat, Wilhelmshaven, Germany

Abstract: Along the North Sea shore, the largest coherent tidal flat area of the temperate world has evolved. Sediment supply from the sea has sufficiently balanced a slow sea-level rise in the last 8,000 years to maintain a coastal configuration of a seaward sandy barrier, extensive tidal flats and episodically flooded marshes. The Wadden Sea is unique in that it consists of vast (4,700 km2) bare sand and mud flats, emerging twice daily at low tide. Oceanic waters dominate river influence, and dynamic sandy shoals and dune islands provide a partial shelter against waves and winds of a rough sea. In the course of a year, the Wadden Sea is visited by an unparalleled 10-12 million birds for foraging and resting on their East Atlantic flyway. Food provision in the form of tidal flat fauna is 10-20 times higher than in adjacent deeper waters. When the tide is in, the flats serve as a rich nursery for shrimp and fish. The Wadden Sea constitutes a gigantic biological filter between land and sea. This filter is primarily composed (1) of extensive beds of molluscan suspension feeders which filter the local tidal volume about twice a month, (2) of sediment kept permeable by bioturbating lugworms, and (3) of marsh vegetation which functions as a filter during episodic storm surges when waters are loaded with re-suspended fine particles. An impressive number of about 10,000 species of plants, fungi and animals thrive in the Wadden Sea. After a long phase of overexploitation, protection measures have triggered spectacular recoveries in breeding birds and seals. Large-scale land claims have ceased and the Wadden Sea is today highly rated for its serene beauty. Global warming with an accelerating sea-level rise, however, may threaten the sandy barrier and the extent of the tidal flats.

Towards Marine Ecosystem-based Management in the Wider Caribbean

Citation Information: 15,6 x 23,4 cm, 428 pages, paperback, 2011, English

ISBN: 978 90 8964 242 4

Authors: Lucia Fanning, Robin Mahon, Patrick McConney

Description: An approach that encompasses the human and natural dimensions of ecosystems is one that the Wider Caribbean Region knows it must adopt and implement, in order to ensure the sustainable use of the region’s shared marine resources. This volume contributes towards that vision, bringing together the collective knowledge and experience of scholars and practitioners within the Wider Caribbean to begin the process of assembling a road map towards marine ecosystem based management (EBM) for the region. It also serves a broader purpose of providing stakeholders and policy actors in each of the world's sixty-four Large Marine Ecosystems, with a comparative example of the challenges and information needs required to implement principled ocean governance generally and marine EBM in particular, at multiple levels. Additionally, the volume serves to supplement the training of graduate level students in the marine sciences by enhancing interdisciplinary understanding of challenges in implementing marine EBM.

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Strategic Advice on Designing and Implementing Coastal and Marine Spatial Plans

Citation Information: 5/2/2011; Report to the NOAA Science Advisory Board From the Ecosystem Science and Management Working Group

Executive Summary: Marine spatial planning is developing rapidly in many regions and countries in response to increases in ocean uses and user conflicts, growing environmental degradation and loss of ecosystem services, and awareness of the shortcomings of single-sector management. Marine spatial planning attempts to reduce spatial use conflicts and environmental stressors by comprehensively planning for multiple uses and objectives in an ecosystem- and place-based manner (Beck et al. 2009, CEQ 2010).

In July 2010 President Obama issued an executive order adopting the recommendations of the U.S. Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force; Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) is a priority objective (CEQ 2010). In response to the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force’s final recommendations, NOAA has created a CMSP program. The NOAA CSMP program will develop regional and national workshops, establish nine regional planning bodies to facilitate regional plans, and develop a strategic action plan.

To advise NOAA in the development of CMSP, a working group of NOAAs Science Advisory Board formed a CMSP-focused subcommittee to review and assess a representative set of 17 MSP examples from around the world (including plans and national frameworks). Our aim was to offer findings and recommendations from these efforts to assist NOAA (and the NOC) in the development of CMSP regionally and nationally. We developed a survey for these planning efforts and evaluated them based on published literature, interviews with plan leaders, and experiences from our direct involvement in planning efforts. We also examined the broader body of published works on MSP in the evaluation of evidence, findings and recommendations. Our review, findings and recommendations are focused on seven key categories central to the development of CMSP: (i) objectives, (ii) scope, (iii) authority, (iv) participants, (v) data, (vi) decision support and (vii) measures. Across these categories, we identified 23 recommendations for NOAAs consideration.

Science-to-Action Guidebook

Citation Information: Karrer L, Beldia II P, Dennison B, Dominici A, Dutra G, English C, Gunawan T, Hastings J, Katz L, Kelty R, McField M, Nunez E, Obura D, Ortiz F, Quesada M, Sivo L, and Stone G (2011) Science-to-Action Guidebook. Science and Knowledge Division, Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Description: The Science-to-Action Guidebook includes two "guides" in one publication. One guide is intended for scientists, and the other for decision-makers. The downloadable PDF version begins with the decision-maker's guide. To read the scientist's guide, go to the last page of the PDF and then read backwards page by page. The two documents culminate in a summary centerfold.

Recognizing the importance of informed decisions and the differences between the scientific and decision-making processes, this guidebook provides practical tips on how to best bring these worlds together. In doing so, this guidebook emphasizes the roles of facilitating, synthesizing, translating, and communicating science to inform conservation action. The guidebook consists of two sections called "A Decision-maker's Guide to Using Science" and "A Scientist's Guide to Influencing Decision-making". It is geared toward the perspective of scientists and decision-makers working in tropical developing nations and focusing on marine resource management issues. However, the concepts are applicable to a broad range of scientists and decision-makers worldwide.

Decision Guide: Selecting Decision Support Tools for Marine Spatial Planning

Citation Information: Center for Ocean Solutions. 2011. Decision Guide: Selecting Decision Support Tools for Marine Spatial Planning. The Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University, California.

Description: In this Decision Guide, the term marine spatial planning is used, but emphasis is placed on the systematic and spatial nature of these approaches rather than the name itself. The systematic component provides a framework for more comprehensive, flexible, well-governed, and science-based planning processes, while the spatial component adds a place-based focus to planning processes. The goals of these approaches are to promote efficient use of marine space and resources, while reducing use-use and use-ecosystem conflicts. To achieve these goals, resource planners and managers (hereafter referred to as practitioners) need spatially-explicit tools that can help (1) incorporate data from ecological, economic, and social systems; (2) transparently assess management alternatives and trade-offs; (3) involve stakeholders; and (4) evaluate progress towards management objectives. This Decision Guide, produced by the Center for Ocean Solutions (COS) and Pacific Marine Analysis & Research Association (PacMARA), is intended to assist practitioners in selecting appropriate decision support tools that can help them conduct marine spatial planning in their own jurisdictions.

View the accompanying webinar at: /webinars/2011/decision-guide-selecting-decision-support-tools-marine-spatial-planning

Study on the Economic Effects of Maritime Spatial Planning - Case Studies

Citation Information: April 2010; Policy Research Corporation; Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, MARE.E.1 Maritime Policy Baltic and North Sea, European Commission, B-1049 Brussels

Description: Case studies associated with the report, "Study on the Economic Effects of Maritime Spatial Planning - Final Report"

Study on the Economic Effects of Maritime Spatial Planning - Final Report

Citation Information: April 2010; Policy Research Corporation; Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, MARE.E.1 Maritime Policy Baltic and North Sea, European Commission, B-1049 Brussels

ISBN: 978-92-79-19791-8

DOI: 10.2771/85535

Description: Maritime Spatial Planning (hereafter MSP) is a tool for improved decision-making, providing a framework for arbitrating between competing human activities and managing their impact on the marine environment. Authorities and other stakeholders expect that MSP will bring substantial benefits to maritime economies and the marine environment in Europe.

In this regard, the question is what kind of benefits will result from MSP and how large will these benefits be. This study aims to provide greater insight into MSP’s economic effects, i.e. the effects of MSP for the maritime economy and stakeholders directly related to the maritime economy. Factors such as employment and environmental effects are not included in this study.

Unlike cost benefit analyses, the report is mostly limited to a qualitative assessment of the benefits associated with MSP, although it also includes a methodology which has been applied to provide an indication of the quantitative effects of MSP. These quantitative effects need to be interpreted with great care; they provide insights on a macro-economic level, but are based on assumptions and require additional studies on a case-by-case basis in order to be able to draw more accurate conclusions.

Catchment Management and Coral Reef Conservation: a practical guide for coastal resource managers to reduce damage from catchment areas based on best practice case studies

Citation Information: 2011; Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre Townsville, Australia, 120 P.

Authors: Wilkinson, C. and J. Brodie 

Abstract: This book aims to help people manage coral reefs and other coastal ecosystems; especially to solve problems that flow from nearby catchment (watershed) areas. Such catchment areas may be adjacent to the coral reef, or include areas a long way away and outside the jurisdiction and control of the coastal manager. This book introduces ways to reduce some of that damage through cooperation with people and industries upstream, based on the experiences of many coastal managers around the world. A catchment area is defined as all the land that channels rainwater and groundwater into a river or stream, that then delivers water to coastal areas, in this case areas that contain coral reefs. The term catchment is often interchangeable with watershed, which is particularly used in the USA and nearby countries. However, watershed is also used to describe the boundary line between two catchment areas i.e. a line drawn across the tops of hills or mountains. In the distant past, many coral reefs developed downstream of catchment areas and were able to cope with low levels of sediment and nutrient flows, but recent increases in human populations and  development near the coast are delivering large increases in sediment and nutrient pollution that is damaging coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds. Catchments deliver the following things to the coast:

Examples of Ecosystem-Based Management in National Marine Sanctuaries: Moving from Theory to Practice

Citation Information: May 2010; U.S. Department of Commerce; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; National Ocean Service; Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management; Office of National Marine Sanctuaries

Editors: James Lindholm and Robert Pavia

Authors: Leslie Abramson; Catherine Benson; Kimo Carvalho; Chelsea Combest-Friedman; Jen Dupont; Katherine Emery; Erik Franklin; Heather Havens; Jennifer Johnson; Jeremy Kerr; Emily Klein; Ashley Knight; Jamie Mooney; Alesia Read; Sarah Teck

Description: In the fall of 2008, graduate students from eight universities-California State University Monterey Bay, University of California Santa Barbara, University of Connecticut, University of Hawai'i, University of Michigan, University of New Hampshire, University of South Florida, University of Washington-participated in a "Distributed Graduate Seminar" (DGS) at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) at the University of California Santa Barbara. The goal of the semester-long seminar was to examine the role of the Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS) in implementing ecosystem-based management (EBM) at the sites that make up the National Marine Sanctuary system. Each university collaborated with one or more Sanctuaries to conduct a case study based on a core set of questions regarding EBM.

The products of these case studies encompassed a wide-range of topics, including detailed summaries of existing management strategies and original quantitative analyses and tools for implementing EBM within sanctuary boundaries. The Sanctuary Program's important role as a facilitator of management action was an emergent property of the case studies. They also found that facilitating management actions and engagement of partners is effectively used by sanctuaries and more common than regulatory actions. In April 2009, NCEAS hosted a "Synthesis Working Group" that brought together representative graduate students and faculty from seven of the eight universities and ONMS staff to examine their case studies and share findings and establish commonalities amongst all Sanctuaries. The following is a synthesis produced at the April meeting of the Seminar case study materials.

Payments for Ecosystem Services: Getting Started in Coastal and Marine Ecosystems - A Primer

Date: February 2010

Abstract: Healthy and robust marine ecosystems provide the underpinnings for profitable industries and support coastal communities throughout the world. In addition, oceans play crucial roles in regulating the atmosphere and modulating weather, storing carbon, cycling nutrients, and providing other ecosystem services. Coastal areas provide essential resources, buffer land from storms, and provide living space for almost half of the global population. Yet today many of these ecosystems and the services they provide are under threat.

This primer is designed to provide you with a solid understanding of what payments for ecosystem services (PES) are and how PES deals work in the marine environment. Specifically, it describes:

  • the opportunities and risks of PES schemes, to enable accurate feasibility assessments for applying these new market-based mechanisms;
  • steps to developing PES projects;
  • considerations of PES for poverty reduction; and
  • resources for additional reference and reading.

It is intended for an audience interested in exploring the potential of PES — either as prospective PES sellers themselves or as staff of organizations that work directly with coastal communities or coastal and marine resource owners who may be interested in PES.

The Little Biodiversity Finance Book - 3rd Edition (2012)

Citation Information: Parker, C., Cranford, M., Oakes, N., Leggett, M. ed., 2012. The Little Biodiversity Finance Book, Global Canopy Programme; Oxford.

Description: The aim of the Little Biodiversity Finance Book is to help key stakeholders including governments, NGOs, the private sector, indigenous peoples and local communities to compare existing and future options for biodiversity finance in a clear and consistent way. To do so, this publication introduces an overarching framework that organises financial mechanisms under three main headings: revenue generation, delivery and institutional arrangements. These modules can be thought of as independent building blocks that can be arranged in a ‘mix and match’ approach, choosing the most suitable options from each module to create a more effective, efficient, and equitable financial system.

Getting Closer to EBM: Evaluation of the Packard Foundation EBM Initiative - Executive Summary

Citation Information: ARCeconomics, Inc.; April 2009

Description: At the end of 2003, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation’s board launched a strategy for the Science subprogram, with a long term goal “to create, and ensure the use of, the knowledge, tools, and skills needed to manage coastal-marine systems sustainably” (Gold, Rhemus and Leape, 2003).

The Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) Initiative for Sustainable Coastal and Marine Systems was the primary vehicle for this strategy, and its 5-year objectives included creating a scientifically credible knowledge framework for EBM; developing tools to allow scientists to do the analyses and assessments that underpin EBM; and promoting significant conservation advances in California, the Gulf of California, and the Western Pacific. Through the spring of 2008, the EBM Initiative made 85 grants totaling over $24 million.
The rationales behind the initiative were the demonstrated shortcomings of existing approaches for coastal marine conservation and the strengthening call for a new management approach articulated by two prominent national studies, the Pew Oceans Commission and the U.S. Ocean Commission (Pew, 2003; U.S. Commission, 2004). The Pew report concluded that “To govern the oceans for the long-term public good, we need to manage with the entire ecosystem in mind“(Pew 2003, p. 26).

Getting Closer to EBM: Evaluation of the Packard Foundation EBM Initiative - Technical Report

Date: January 2009

Executive Summary: In 2003, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation launched the Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Based Management (EBM) initiative. Through the spring of 2008, the EBM initiative made 85 grants totaling over $24 million. The rationales behind the initiative were the demonstrated shortcomings of existing approaches for coastal marine conservation and the strengthening call for a new management approach, articulated by two prominent national studies, the Pew Oceans Commission and the U.S. Ocean Commission (Pew, 2003; U.S. Commission, 2004). The Pew report concluded that “To govern the oceans for the long-term public good, we need to manage with the entire ecosystem in mind. “ (Pew 2003, p. 26) This thinking was reflected in the design of the EBM Initiative directed towards establishing “…new management approach that focuses on entire ecosystems, including the people and communities that live there”. (Gold, Rehmus and Leape, 2003).

Synthesis Report for the Ecosystem-Based Management Initiative for Sustainable Coastal and Marine Systems

Authors: Elizabeth A. Chornesky, Ph.D., Consultant; Beach Codevilla, Spitfire Strategies; Kristin Sherwood, Packard Foundation Program Officer

Description: In 2004, the Packard Foundation launched the Ecosystem-Based Management Initiative for Sustainable Coastal and Marine Systems. The goal was to provide managers with information about effective ecosystem-based management (EBM) and to ensure managers use these EBM strategies to maintain their coastal marine systems in sustainable ways.

We aimed to achieve this goal in four ways:

  • Knowledge: Fill critical information gaps and strengthen the science underlying EBM by building knowledge about the ecological, social, and economic processes affecting EBM.
  • Tools: Develop and disseminate tools that would help stakeholders and decision makers use existing scientific information to make choices about EBM.
  • Regional focus: Invest in site-based efforts to pilot EBM in the Western Pacific, the Gulf of California, and the central California Coast.
  • Communications and community building: Foster the growth of an EBM community to jump start learning, innovation, and collaboration.

From 2004-2009, the Foundation gave grants of more than $32 million to 66 organizations. These grants were designed to test the promise of the EBM approach and to help lay the scientific foundation for widespread EBM adoption.

The EBM Initiative’s grantees contributed to an increased recognition of the need for an ecosystem-based approach to marine management by deepening the field’s scientific knowledge, delivering tools to apply in practice, and spearheading approaches for establishing EBM on the ground. The Foundation is proud of our grantees’ progress.

The conclusion of the EBM Initiative in 2009 provided an opportunity to step back and consider what was accomplished and learned. The Foundation commissioned “Evaluating the Initiative”, which found that Initiative grantees made significant strides. This work has led to a growing appreciation of incremental success, experimentation with new approaches, and learning across sites—as well as a recognition that progress takes time.

In order to move to the next phase, there must be focused efforts to make the institutional and policy changes that are necessary to support an EBM framework—such efforts requires new people and organizations to advocate for and nurture change.

Good coastal management practices in the Pacific: Experiences from the field

Citation Information: Govan, H. 2011. Apia, Samoa: SPREP. 42 p.

Description: The International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI), in collaboration with the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), with support from the French Government , released during the 22nd SPREP Meeting, held in September 2011 in Apia (Samoa), a “Good coastal management practices in the Pacific : experiences from the field”. This work resulted from a recommendation adopted during the last ICRI General Meeting.

This report presents a series of 17 case studies of coastal management initiatives from a wide a range of countries and territories throughout the Pacific region. Case studies illustrate examples of local, provincial, national and regional scales of actions. The initiatives and lessons described in case studies are:

  • locally and culturally appropriate,
  • suitable to national institutional structure and capacity,
  • supported by evidence or considered to have a high likelihood of success,
  • cost effective and potentially sustainable or promoting sustainability,
  • potentially applicable elsewhere

Marine Management Organisation: Coastal typologies: detailed method and outputs

Citation Information: Marine Management Orgaisation, July 2011; Roger Tym & Partners, 7 Soho Square, London W1D 3QB

Description: This report has been written by Oxford Consultants for Social Inclusion (OCSI) with Roger Tym & Partners on behalf of the Marine Management Organisation (MMO).

It provides detailed background into the typologies developed for the two reports entitled “Maximising the socio-economic benefits of marine planning for English coastal communities” and “The Eastern marine area: maximising the socio-economic benefits of marine planning” report. Maps showing the typologies around the English coast and for the East Marine Plan area have been provided with the above reports.

Marine Management Organisation: The East marine plan area: maximising the socio-economic benefits of marine planning

Citation Information: Marine Management Orgaisation, July 2011; Roger Tym & Partners, 7 Soho Square, London W1D 3QB

Description:

  1. This report has been written by Roger Tym & Partners with Oxford Consultants for Social Inclusion on behalf of the Marine Management Organisation (MMO).
  2. Future marine plans are expected to deliver the vision set out in the UK Marine Policy Statement (MPS) of “clean, healthy, safe, productive and biologically diverse oceans and seas”. The MPS requires this vision to be delivered sustainably – meaning that economic considerations need to be integrated with social considerations as well as implications for the marine environment. Marine planning is therefore required to have positive terrestrial as well as marine impacts, and deliver “a strong, healthy and just society” with marine development which is “benefiting society as whole, [and] contributing to resilient and cohesive communities”.1 Further, the MPS states that marine planning should contribute to sustainable economic growth “both in regeneration areas and areas that already benefit from strong local economies” through integrating with terrestrial planning and engagement with coastal communities.
  3. The report aims to help marine planning deliver this latter objective of maximising the socio-economic benefits of marine planning in the East marine area. It is a sister document to the national report entitled Maximising the socio-economic impacts of marine planning for English coastal communities (provided under separate cover).
  4. We have not provided a summary, because aggregating the diverse views expressed to us might be misleading.
  5. The “considerations” in this document have been produced following interviews with Local Authority (LA) officers within the East Plan area. The consultant team has edited and selected the points made, but have attempted to retain the particular perspectives of the interviewees. The report forms one part of the evidence base for marine planning. The MMO will consider the information in this document during the marine planning process and use it, where appropriate, to discuss opportunities with stakeholders. This study will be used alongside other evidence to consider the social, economic and environmental implications of marine planning in the East Inshore and East Offshore marine plan areas.

Marine Management Organisation: Maximising the socio-economic benefits of marine planning for English coastal communities

Citation Information: Marine Management Orgaisation, July 2011; Roger Tym & Partners, 7 Soho Square, London W1D 3QB

Executive Summary:

  1. This report seeks to help the Marine Management Organisation (MMO) maximise the socio-economic benefits of the marine planning process. It was written by a team from Roger Tym & Partners and Oxford Consultants for Social Inclusion (OCSI).
  2. This report aims to help marine planners meet that challenge set by the Marine Policy Statement (MPS). The MPS requires marine planners to plan in such a way that “benefits society as a whole,” and contributes to resilient and cohesive communities “both in regeneration areas and areas that already benefit from strong local economies”.
  3. We begin by examining the socio-economic processes at work in coastal communities. We set out a framework for thinking about these processes. This is important, because we need a way of picking out how different socio-economic processes relate to each other, and which processes are the most important.
  4. A number of different approaches could be adopted here, but we emphasise the role of economic competitiveness as the primary explanation of subsequent socio-economic success. We use HM Treasury work to structure this approach. The Treasury work explains that economies can grow either by increasing labour resources in an economy, increasing capital in use, or by using labour and capital inputs more efficiently. The Treasury work has isolated “productivity drivers” which raise economic growth. These are skills, innovation, competition, enterprise, and investment.

Summary of the Thirteenth Meeting of the United Nations Open-Ended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea

Citation Information: Earth Negotiations Bulletin; Volume 25 Number 88 - Monday, 4 June 2012

Description: The thirteenth meeting of the UN Open-ended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea (Consultative Process or ICP-13) took place from 29 May - 1 June 2012, at UN Headquarters in New York. The meeting brought together representatives from governments, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations and academic institutions to examine this year’s topic—marine renewable energies (MREs).

Delegates convened in plenary sessions throughout the week to discuss: views on MREs; inter-agency cooperation and coordination; the process for the selection of topics and panelists so as to facilitate the work of the UN General Assembly; issues that could benefit from attention in future work of the General Assembly on oceans and the law of the sea; and the outcome of the meeting. In addition, three discussion panels were held to consider: MREs: types, uses and role in sustainable development; ongoing or planned MREs projects and work at the global and regional levels; and opportunities and challenges in the development of MREs, including for cooperation and coordination.

The Co-Chairs, Amb. Don MacKay (New Zealand) and Amb. Milan Jaya Meetarbhan (Mauritius), distributed a Co-Chairs’ summary of discussions on Friday morning. After all the paragraphs of the report had been discussed and delegates had received an update on the voluntary trust fund and on the activities occurring to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), Co-Chair MacKay gaveled the meeting at 12:32 pm.

Embedding maritime spatial planning in national legal frameworks

Citation Information: Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning; Volume 14, Issue 1, p. 7-27, 2012; Special Issue: Marine Spatial Planning: A New Frontier?

DOI: 10.1080/1523908X.2012.662381

Author: Petra Drankier

Abstract: Maritime spatial planning (MSP) is increasingly being introduced as a tool to improve decision-making for those maritime areas where competing human activities occur and to manage the effects on the marine environment. According to the European Commission's Roadmap for Maritime Spatial Planning: Achieving Common Principles in the EU of November 2008, for MSP to be effective, it should be established by setting up a legally binding framework. Recently, several European Union (EU) Member States have developed systems to establish a firm national legal basis to engage in MSP in all maritime waters within their national jurisdiction. However, their starting points are different; whereas, the Netherlands and Germany extended their existing territorial spatial planning framework seaward, the UK developed an entire new planning system specific for its maritime waters. This article aims to explore how the EU Member States mentioned above have embedded their maritime spatial planning activities in their national legal system and to what extent they are bound by global and EU-legislation when engaging in MSP. Special attention is paid to issues of cross-sectoral coordination and cross-border consultation with neighbouring States.

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