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Poverty and the use of destructive fishing gear near east African marine protected areas

Citation Information: Environmental Conservation / Volume 36 / Issue 04 / December 2009, pp 321-326

Author: J. E. Cinner

Abstract: Poverty may be an important influence on the exploitation of marine resources in tropical developing countries. A number of studies have hypothesized that destructive fishing gears, which can degrade habitat, capture high proportions of juvenile fish and ultimately lead to reduced yields, are primarily used by the poorer segments of society. However, few studies have empirically tested this relationship. This paper examines relationships between the use of destructive seine nets and thirteen socioeconomic conditions in communities adjacent to three peri-urban marine protected areas in east Africa. Fishers using destructive gears were younger, less likely to have capital invested in the fishery, had lower fortnightly expenditures and were poorer in two multivariate indices of material style of life. Based on the two multivariate material style of life indices, a binary logistic regression model classified whether fishers used destructive gears with almost 70% accuracy. These findings are broadly consistent with the literature on poverty traps, which are situations in which the poor are unable to mobilize the resources required to overcome low-income situations and consequently engage in behaviour that may reinforce their own poverty. Managers aiming to reduce destructive gear use may need to partner with civil society and donors to help break poverty traps.

How much of the seabed is impacted by mobile fishing gear? Absolute estimates from Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) point data

Citation Information: Gerritsen, H. D., Minto, C., and Lordan, C. How much of the seabed is impacted by mobile fishing gear? Absolute estimates from Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) point data. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi.10.1093/icesjms/fst017.

Abstract: Demersal trawling impacts extensively on the seabed, and the extent and frequency of this impact can be assessed using Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data (positional data of fishing vessels). Existing approaches interpolate fishing tracks from consecutive VMS locations (track interpolation) and/or aggregate VMS point data in a spatial grid (point summation). Track interpolation can be quite inaccurate with the current 2-hour time interval between VMS records, leading to biased estimates. Point summation approaches currently only produce relative estimates of impact and are highly sensitive to the grid size chosen. We propose an approach that provides absolute estimates of trawling impact from point data and is not sensitive to an arbitrary choice of grid-cell size. The method involves applying a nested grid and estimating the swept area (area covered by fishing gear) for each VMS point. We show that the ratio of the swept area to the surface area of a cell can be related to the proportion of the seabed that was impacted by the gear a given number of times. We validate the accuracy of this swept-area ratio approach using known vessel tracks and apply the method to international VMS data in the Celtic Sea.

Indicator-based status assessment of commercial fish species in the North Sea according to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD)

Citation Information: Probst, W. N., Kloppmann, M., and Kraus, G. Indicator-based status assessment of commercial fish species in the North Sea according to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). – ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi.10.1093/icesjms/fst010.

Abstract: The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is structured into eleven descriptors of good environmental status (GES). For each descriptor the current status of the marine environment should be assessed against its GES using ecosystem criteria and indicators. Within Descriptor 3 (D3) the MSFD addresses the status of exploited fish stocks according to three criteria (exploitation rate, stock size and size structure). This study performed an MSFD-compliant assessment of exploited fish stocks in the North Sea by aggregating data from analytical stock assessments and scientific research surveys to calculate indicator metrics for each criterion within each stock time-series. A stock achieved GES, when each indicator for each criterion had a good status. Of 43 assessed fish stock suggested by the EU Data Collection Framework, 63% (27) achieved GES. Though the MSFD explicitly demands that all exploited fish stocks achieve GES, this demand may be challenged by reality, because the status of exploited stocks depends not only on fishing impacts, but also on environmental conditions and ecological interactions. Therefore an alternative approach based on binomial distributions is presented to define limits for GES at the descriptor level. The implications and pitfalls of the applied assessment methods are discussed.

Characterizing coastal foodwebs with qualitative links to bridge the gap between the theory and the practice of ecosystem-based management

Citation Information: Carey, M. P., Levin, P. S., Townsend, H., Minello, T. J., Sutton, G. R., Francis, T., Harvey, C. J., Toft, J. E., Arkema, K. K., Burke, J. L., Kim, C-K., Guerry, A., Plummer, M., Spiridonov, G., and Ruckelshaus, M. Characterizing coastal foodwebs with qualitative links to bridge the gap between the theory and the practice of ecosystem-based management. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fst012.

Abstract: Tools that integrate the complexity of natural systems are needed to facilitate ecosystem-based management (EBM). Loop analysis is an underutilized qualitative tool for EBM that uses information on foodweb links (e.g. predator–prey interactions) and the resulting pathways (cycles) through the foodweb to predict responses to press perturbations. We explore the utility of loop analysis related to management actions: increasing crab abundance and reducing eutrophication in coastal foodwebs. We found that crab-related management actions propagated through the foodweb, with positive and negative impacts. Several negatively impacted species support important fisheries; their declines illustrate the challenge of developing multispecies plans. In our analysis, the management actions decreasing eutrophication reduced most functional groups. However, these predictions were unreliable, suggesting indiscernible bottom-up effects in the foodwebs. Simultaneously managing for crab increases and reducing eutrophication created mostly decreasing abundances in other functional groups and reduced the predictability of the responses. The response to each management action suggests trade-offs between goals, and the qualitatively unreliable predictions could result from variation in the strength of species interactions or indicate knowledge gaps. EBM can benefit from both the explicit articulation of trade-offs and the identification of gaps in our understanding of these systems.

Long-term effectiveness of a multi-use marine protected area on reef fish assemblages and fisheries landings

Citation Information: Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 117, 15 March 2013, Pages 276–283

Authors: Alexis N. Rife, Octavio Aburto-Oropeza, Philip A. Hastings, Brad Erisman, Ford Ballantyne, Jeffrey Wielgus, Enric Sala, Leah Gerber

Abstract: The Loreto Bay National Park (LBNP) is a large, multi-use marine protected area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, where several types of small-scale commercial and recreational fishing are allowed, but where less than 1% of the park is totally protected from fishing. The LBNP was created in 1996; its management plan was completed in 2000, but it was not effectively implemented and enforced until 2003. Between 1998 and 2010, we monitored reef fish populations annually at several reefs inside and outside the LBNP to measure the effects of the park on fish assemblages. We also evaluated reported fisheries landings within the LBNP for the same time series. Our results show that reef fish biomass increased significantly after protection at a small no-take site at LBNP relative to the rest of the park. However, the multi-use part of LBNP where fishing is allowed (99% of its surface) has had no measurable effect on reef fish biomass relative to open access sites outside the park boundaries. Reported fisheries landings have decreased within the park while increasing in nearby unprotected areas. Although the current partial protection management regime has not allowed for reef fish populations to recover despite 15 years as a “protected area,” we conclude that LBNP's regulations and management have maintained the conditions of the ecosystem that existed when the park was established. These results suggest that community livelihoods have been sustained, but a re-evaluation of the multi-use management strategy, particularly the creation of larger no-take zones and better enforcement, is needed to improve the reef fish populations in the park in order to ensure sustainable fisheries far into the future. These recommendations can be applied to all multi-use MPAs in Mexico where ecosystem recovery is not occurring despite maintenance of fish stocks.

An Integrated Biogeographic Assessment of Reef Fish Populations and Fisheries in Dry Tortugas: Effects of No-Take Reserves

Citation Information: Jeffrey, C.F.G., V.R. Leeworthy, M.E. Monaco, G. Piniak, M. Fonseca (eds.). 2012. An Integrated Biogeographic Assessment of Reef Fish Populations and Fisheries in Dry Tortugas: Effects of No-take Reserves. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 111. Prepared by the NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment Biogeography Branch. Silver Spring, MD. 147 pp.

Description: The Tortugas Integrated Biogeographic Assessment presents a unique analysis of demographic changes in living resource populations, as well as societal and socioeconomic benefits that resulted from Tortugas Ecological Reserves during the first five years after their implementation. Prepared by NOAA’s National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment Biogeography Branch, this assessment is one of a series of such projects designed to provide managers with critical information on the distribution of marine resources under their jurisdiction.

Over the past decade, NCCOS has applied an integrated biogeographic assessment approach to inform the management of marine resources within both coral reefs and National Marine Sanctuaries since 1998. To date, nine Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS) sites and most of the coral reef ecosystems in U.S. states and territories have had some level of biogeographic characterization or mapping completed through this partnership. Nearly two dozen scientists, researchers and managers contributed to this biogeographic assessment. Partners include: NCCOS, ONMS, National Marine Fisheries Service, University of Miami and University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

The results of this ecological characterization are available online.

Dynamics of Coral Reef Benthic Assemblages of the Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil: Inferences on Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers

Citation Information: Francini-Filho RB, Coni EOC, Meirelles PM, Amado-Filho GM, Thompson FL, et al. (2013) Dynamics of Coral Reef Benthic Assemblages of the Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil: Inferences on Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers. PLoS ONE 8(1): e54260. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054260

Abstract: The Abrolhos Bank (eastern Brazil) encompasses the largest and richest coral reefs of the South Atlantic. Coral reef benthic assemblages of the region were monitored from 2003 to 2008. Two habitats (pinnacles' tops and walls) were sampled per site with 3–10 sites sampled within different reef areas. Different methodologies were applied in two distinct sampling periods: 2003–2005 and 2006–2008. Spatial coverage and taxonomic resolution were lower in the former than in the latter period. Benthic assemblages differed markedly in the smallest spatial scale, with greater differences recorded between habitats. Management regimes and biomass of fish functional groups (roving and territorial herbivores) had minor influences on benthic assemblages. These results suggest that local environmental factors such as light, depth and substrate inclination exert a stronger influence on the structure of benthic assemblages than protection from fishing. Reef walls of unprotected coastal reefs showed highest coral cover values, with a major contribution of Montastraea cavernosa (a sediment resistant species that may benefit from low light levels). An overall negative relationship between fleshy macroalgae and slow-growing reef-building organisms (i.e. scleractinians and crustose calcareous algae) was recorded, suggesting competition between these organisms. The opposite trend (i.e. positive relationships) was recorded for turf algae and the two reef-building organisms, suggesting beneficial interactions and/or co-occurrence mediated by unexplored factors. Turf algae cover increased across the region between 2006 and 2008, while scleractinian cover showed no change. The need of a continued and standardized monitoring program, aimed at understanding drivers of change in community patterns, as well as to subsidize sound adaptive conservation and management measures, is highlighted.

Assessing Dispersal Patterns of Fish Propagules from an Effective Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

Citation Information: Di Franco A, Coppini G, Pujolar JM, De Leo GA, Gatto M, et al. (2012) Assessing Dispersal Patterns of Fish Propagules from an Effective Mediterranean Marine Protected Area. PLoS ONE 7(12): e52108. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052108

Abstract: Successfully enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely demonstrated to allow, within their boundaries, the recovery of exploited species and beyond their boundaries, the spillover of juvenile and adult fish. Little evidence is available about the so-called ‘recruitment subsidy’, the augmented production of propagules (i.e. eggs and larvae) due to the increased abundance of large-sized spawners hosted within effective MPAs. Once emitted, propagules can be locally retained and/or exported elsewhere. Patterns of propagule retention and/or export from MPAs have been little investigated, especially in the Mediterranean. This study investigated the potential for propagule production and retention/export from a Mediterranean MPA (Torre Guaceto, SW Adriatic Sea) using the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus, as a model species. A multidisciplinary approach was used combining 1) spatial distribution patterns of individuals (post-settlers and adults) assessed through visual census within Torre Guaceto MPA and in northern and southern unprotected areas, 2) Lagrangian simulations of dispersal based on an oceanographic model of the region and data on early life-history traits of the species (spawning date, pelagic larval duration) and 3) a preliminary genetic study using microsatellite loci. Results show that the MPA hosts higher densities of larger-sized spawners than outside areas, potentially guaranteeing higher propagule production. Model simulations and field observation suggest that larval retention within and long-distance dispersal across MPA boundaries allow the replenishment of the MPA and of exploited populations up to 100 km down-current (southward) from the MPA. This pattern partially agrees with the high genetic homogeneity found in the entire study area (no differences in genetic composition and diversity indices), suggesting a high gene flow. By contributing to a better understanding of propagule dispersal patterns, these findings provide crucial information for the design of MPAs and MPA networks effective to replenish fish stocks and enhance fisheries in unprotected areas.

The coupling of St. John, US Virgin Islands marine protected areas based on reef fish habitat affinities and movements across management boundaries

Citation Information: Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, 7-11 July 2008 Session number 22

Authors: M.E. Monaco, A. Friedlander, S.D. Hile1, S.J. Pittman, R.H. Boulon

Abstract: NOAA’s Biogeography Branch, National Park Service (NPS), US Geological Survey, and the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) are using acoustic telemetry to quantify spatial patterns and habitat affinities of reef fishes. The objective of the study is to define the movements of reef fishes among habitats within and between the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICRNM), the Virgin Islands National Park (VIIS), and Territorial waters. In order to better understand species’ habitat utilization patterns among management regimes, we deployed an array of hydroacoustic receivers and acoustically tagged reef fishes. A total of 150 fishes, representing 18 species and 10 families were acoustically tagged along the south shore of St. John. Thirty six receivers were deployed in shallow nearshore bays and across the shelf to depths of approximately 30m. Example results include the movement of lane snappers and blue striped grunts that demonstrated diel movement from reef habitats during daytime hours to offshore seagrass beds at night. The array comprised of both nearshore and cross shelf location of receivers provides information on fine to broad scale fish movement patterns across habitats and among management units to examine the strength of ecological connectivity between management areas and habitats.

Questions and Answers on the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy

Citation Information: Reference: MEMO/13/72, published 6 February 2013.


The overall objective of the Commission's proposals for a modern and simpler Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is to make fishing sustainable - environmentally, economically and socially. The new policy will bring fish stocks back to sustainable levels by ending overfishing and setting fishing opportunities based on scientific advice. It will provide EU citizens with a stable, secure and healthy food supply for the long term; it seeks to bring new prosperity to the fishing sector, end dependence on subsidies and create new opportunities for jobs and growth in coastal areas.

Why is a new policy necessary?

Europe’s fisheries policy is in urgent need of reform. Vessels are catching more fish than can be safely reproduced, thus exhausting individual fish stocks and threatening the marine ecosystem. The fishing industry is experiencing smaller catches and facing an uncertain future.

Against this background, the Commission has proposed in 2011 an ambitious reform of the policy. This reform is about putting in place the conditions for a better future for fish and fisheries alike, as well as the marine environment that supports them. The reform will contribute to the Europe 2020 Strategy and the policy will be developed as part of the broader maritime economy to ensure more coherent policies for the EU's seas and coastal areas by working towards robust economic performance of the industry, inclusive growth and enhanced cohesion in coastal regions.

Four barriers to the global understanding of biodiversity conservation: wealth, language, geographical location and security

Citation Information: Proc. R. Soc. B 7 April 2013 vol. 280 no. 1756 20122649

Authors: Tatsuya Amano and William J. Sutherland

Abstract: Global biodiversity conservation is seriously challenged by gaps and heterogeneity in the geographical coverage of existing information. Nevertheless, the key barriers to the collection and compilation of biodiversity information at a global scale have yet to be identified. We show that wealth, language, geographical location and security each play an important role in explaining spatial variations in data availability in four different types of biodiversity databases. The number of records per square kilometre is high in countries with high per capita gross domestic product (GDP), high proportion of English speakers and high security levels, and those located close to the country hosting the database; but these are not necessarily countries with high biodiversity. These factors are considered to affect data availability by impeding either the activities of scientific research or active international communications. Our results demonstrate that efforts to solve environmental problems at a global scale will gain significantly by focusing scientific education, communication, research and collaboration in low-GDP countries with fewer English speakers and located far from Western countries that host the global databases; countries that have experienced conflict may also benefit. Findings of this study may be broadly applicable to other fields that require the compilation of scientific knowledge at a global level.

‘Participatory interdisciplinarity’: Towards the integration of disciplinary diversity with stakeholder engagement for new models of knowledge production

Citation Information: Science and Public Policy (2013) 40 (1): 51-61. doi: 10.1093/scipol/scs120

Authors: Liz O’Brien, Mariella Marzano and Rehema M. White

Abstract: Calls for new models of knowledge production demand more interdisciplinary research in order to: develop holistic solutions, increased stakeholder participation, to consider a plurality of perspectives, and to support a more deliberative democracy approach. However, knowledge production debates have rarely explored the synergies offered through combinations of different research attributes. We develop the concept of ‘participatory interdisciplinarity’ to explore the engagement of a wide range of stakeholders by groups of researchers from different disciplines. This paper examines the benefits and challenges of: interdisciplinarity, stakeholder participation, the integration of interdisciplinarity and participation. We conclude that participatory interdisciplinary approaches can quickly improve understanding and communication amongst both researchers and stakeholders involved in management, with less evidence of immediate instrumental benefits. We outline how ‘participatory interdisciplinarity’ can assist in breaking down barriers between traditional knowledge roles (researcher/stakeholder) and knowledge forms (academic/local) and in activating more integrated environmental management.

Generic framework for meso-scale assessment of climate change hazards in coastal environments

Citation Information: Journal of Coastal Conservation; October 2012, 10.1007/s11852-012-0218-z​DOI:

Author: Lars Rosendahl Appelquist

Abstract: This paper presents a generic framework for assessing inherent climate change hazards in coastal environments through a combined coastal classification and hazard evaluation system. The framework is developed to be used at scales relevant for regional and national planning and aims to cover all coastal environments worldwide through a specially designed coastal classification system containing 113 generic coastal types. The framework provides information on the degree to which key climate change hazards are inherent in a particular coastal environment, and covers the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding. The system includes a total of 565 individual hazard evaluations, each graduated into four different hazard levels based on a scientific literature review. The framework uses a simple assessment methodology with limited data and computing requirements, allowing for application in developing country settings. It is presented as a graphical tool—the Coastal Hazard Wheel—to ease its application for planning purposes.

A scaling approach to project regional sea level rise and its uncertainties

Citation Information: Perrette, M., Landerer, F., Riva, R., Frieler, K., and Meinshausen, M.: A scaling approach to project regional sea level rise and its uncertainties, Earth Syst. Dynam., 4, 11-29, doi:10.5194/esd-4-11-2013, 2013.

Abstract: Climate change causes global mean sea level to rise due to thermal expansion of seawater and loss of land ice from mountain glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets. Locally, sea level can strongly deviate from the global mean rise due to changes in wind and ocean currents. In addition, gravitational adjustments redistribute seawater away from shrinking ice masses. However, the land ice contribution to sea level rise (SLR) remains very challenging to model, and comprehensive regional sea level projections, which include appropriate gravitational adjustments, are still a nascent field (Katsman et al., 2011; Slangen et al., 2011). Here, we present an alternative approach to derive regional sea level changes for a range of emission and land ice melt scenarios, combining probabilistic forecasts of a simple climate model (MAGICC6) with the new CMIP5 general circulation models.

The contribution from ice sheets varies considerably depending on the assumptions for the ice sheet projections, and thus represents sizeable uncertainties for future sea level rise. However, several consistent and robust patterns emerge from our analysis: at low latitudes, especially in the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific, sea level will likely rise more than the global mean (mostly by 10–20%). Around the northeastern Atlantic and the northeastern Pacific coasts, sea level will rise less than the global average or, in some rare cases, even fall. In the northwestern Atlantic, along the American coast, a strong dynamic sea level rise is counteracted by gravitational depression due to Greenland ice melt; whether sea level will be above- or below-average will depend on the relative contribution of these two factors. Our regional sea level projections and the diagnosed uncertainties provide an improved basis for coastal impact analysis and infrastructure planning for adaptation to climate change.

Marine Spatial Planning: A Guide to Concepts and Methodological Steps

Citation Information: MarViva and UNEP (2013). Marine Spatial Planning: A guide to Concepts and Methodological Steps

Authors: Jorge Arturo Jiménez

Description: This guide about Marine Spatial Planning has been prepared by the MarViva Foundation, at the request of UNEP, based on the training event "Capacity Building and Exchange of Experiences on Marine Spatial Planning" developed within the "Inter-regional Workshop on Broad-scale Marine Spatial Planning and Trans-boundary Marine Mammal Management" that took place from 21 to 24 May 2012, in Panama City.

The guide has been enriched with valuable input from the experts and organizations that participated in the workshop and others who have shared their knowledge and lessons learned. The intention is that this document will be used as a methodological reference on marine spatial planning, focusing on the challenges faced by experts and policy makers in the region and recognizing the differences that exist among North America, the Caribbean, Northeast and Southeast Pacific. It also intends to remain a living document and as progress is made, it will incorporate new learning and experiences from countries and regional and sub regional organizations working on marine spatial planning.

Marine Reserves and Marine Protected Areas: A Case Study in Oregon and a Proposed National Model for Design and Implementation

Citation Information: Capstone Project from Oregon State University; December 2012

Author: Alex Perry

Description: In this report, I examine the process of establishing marine reserves and marine protected areas both from a national and a state perspective. In order to do so, I have investigated the implementation process currently underway in Oregon. Specifically, I have chosen to perform a case study of the process at Redfish Rocks Marine Reserve and Marine Protected Area.

Effective practice in marine spatial planning: A participatory evaluation of experience in Southern England

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 39, May 2013, Pages 341–348

Authors: Stephen Fletcher, Emma McKinley, Kenneth C. Buchan, Ness Smith, Karen McHugh

Abstract: Marine spatial planning (MSP) is a new component of the marine governance framework in England. Two MSP pilot studies undertaken on the south of England are evaluated in this paper to obtain key reflections from participants and process organisers. The evaluation was conducted through two phases of personal interviews. Three key reflections emerged related to effective practice in MSP. First was that MSP should be inclusive, which is delivered through adequate participatory opportunities, clear leadership, exploiting trusted pre-existing communication channels, and supporting participants to develop their marine planning capacity. Second, was that the MSP evidence base should maximise the quality and extent of evidence available and offer clarity over data gaps and uncertainty. Third, that adequate resources are critical to successful MSP, particularly to ensure that stakeholder groups should allocate sufficient staff time to fully engage in MSP and that MSP process organisers should allocate sufficient resources to fully support stakeholders throughout the MSP process.

Selecting ecological indicators to compare maintenance costs related to the compensation of damaged ecosystem services

Citation Information: Ecological Indicators, Volume 29, June 2013, Pages 255–269

Authors: Anne-Charlotte Vaissière, Harold Levrel, Christian Hily, Damien Le Guyader

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to compare different maintenance costs of ecosystem service arising from a hypothetical case of environmental damage in order to help to understand how the different ecosystem services are considered in decision making processes. Compensatory measures are aimed precisely at maintaining the level of supply of ecosystem services. According to the literature, compensatory measures like restoration are usually applied to specific ecosystem services. We used the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) categories of ecosystem service. For each MEA category, several ecological indicators are selected, and the cost of the compensatory measures required to fulfill the goal of no net loss is assessed using the Habitat Equivalency Analysis (HEA). The results of this analysis highlight differences between compensatory measures and their associated costs depending on the category of ecosystem services targeted. Maintenance costs are high for regulating services, low for provisioning services, and more difficult to determine for cultural services (high or low depending on the indicator selected). We discuss the implications of this result, noting that it is more rational for project developers to focus their attention on provisioning services if the legal regulation of compensation is lax or if indicators relative to cultural and regulating services are not precise enough.

Wave energy resources along the Hawaiian Island chain

Citation Information: Renewable Energy, Volume 55, July 2013, Pages 305–321

Authors: Justin E. Stopa, Jean-François Filipot, Ning Li, Kwok Fai Cheung, Yi-Leng Chen, Luis Vega

Abstract: Hawaii's access to the ocean and remoteness from fuel supplies has sparked an interest in ocean waves as a potential resource to meet the increasing demand for sustainable energy. The wave resources include swells from distant storms and year-round seas generated by trade winds passing through the islands. This study produces 10 years of hindcast data from a system of mesoscale atmospheric and spectral wave models to quantify the wind and wave climate as well as nearshore wave energy resources in Hawaii. A global WAVEWATCH III (WW3) model forced by surface winds from the Final Global Tropospheric Analysis (FNL) reproduces the swell and seas from the far field and a nested Hawaii WW3 model with high-resolution winds from the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model capture the local wave processes. The Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) model nested inside Hawaii WW3 provides data in coastal waters, where wave energy converters are being considered for deployment. The computed wave heights show good agreement with data from satellites and buoys. Bi-monthly median and percentile plots show persistent trade winds throughout the year with strong seasonal variation of the wave climate. The nearshore data shows modulation of the wave energy along the coastline due to the undulating volcanic island bathymetry and demonstrates its importance in selecting suitable sites for wave energy converters.

From a traditionally open access fishery to modern restrictions: Portuguese anglers' perceptions about newly implemented recreational fishing regulations

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 40, July 2013, Pages 53–63

Authors: P. Veiga, C. Pita, L. Leite, J. Ribeiro, R.B. Ditton, J.M.S. Gonçalves, K. Erzini

Abstract: Saltwater recreational fishing (SRF) in Portugal was for a long time an open-access activity, without restrictions of any kind. Restrictions to control the recreational harvest were first implemented in 2006 and were highly criticized by the angler community, for being highly restrictive and lacking scientific support. The present study aimed to obtain socio-economic data on the recreational shore anglers and gauge their perceptions about recreational fishing regulations and the newly implemented restrictions in Portugal. Roving creel surveys were conducted along the south and south-west coasts of Portugal, during pre and post regulation periods (2006–2007). A total of 1298 valid face-to-face interviews were conducted. Logit models were fitted to identify which characteristics influence anglers' perceptions about recreational fishing regulations. The majority of the interviewed anglers was aware and agreed with the existence of recreational fishing regulations. However, most were against the recreational fishing regulations currently in place. The logit models estimates revealed that Portuguese anglers with a higher level of formal education and income are more likely to agree with the existence of recreational fishing regulations. In contrast, anglers who perceive that more limitations and a better enforcement of commercial fishing would improve fishing in the area are less likely to agree with the existence of SRF regulations. The findings from this study will contribute to inform decision-makers about anglers' potential behaviour towards the new and future regulations. Although the existence of fishing regulations is a good starting point for effective management, the lack of acceptance and detailed knowledge of the regulations in place by fishers may result in lack of compliance, and ultimately hinder the success of recreational fishing regulations in Portugal.


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