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The Impact of Escaped Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) on Catch Statistics in Scotland

Citation Information: Green DM, Penman DJ, Migaud H, Bron JE, Taggart JB, et al. (2012) The Impact of Escaped Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) on Catch Statistics in Scotland. PLoS ONE 7(9): e43560. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043560

Abstract: In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed) and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.). This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible.

Predator Cue and Prey Density Interactively Influence Indirect Effects on Basal Resources in Intertidal Oyster Reefs

Citation Information: Hughes AR, Rooker K, Murdock M, Kimbro DL (2012) Predator Cue and Prey Density Interactively Influence Indirect Effects on Basal Resources in Intertidal Oyster Reefs. PLoS ONE 7(9): e44839. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044839

Abstract: Predators can influence prey abundance and traits by direct consumption, as well as by non-consumptive effects of visual, olfactory, or tactile cues. The strength of these non-consumptive effects (NCEs) can be influenced by a variety of factors, including predator foraging mode, temporal variation in predator cues, and the density of competing prey. Testing the relative importance of these factors for determining NCEs is critical to our understanding of predator-prey interactions in a variety of settings. We addressed this knowledge gap by conducting two mesocosm experiments in a tri-trophic intertidal oyster reef food web. More specifically, we tested how a predatory fish (hardhead catfish, Ariopsis felis) directly influenced their prey (mud crabs, Panopeus spp.) and indirectly affected basal resources (juvenile oysters, Crassostrea virginica), as well as whether these direct and indirect effects changed across a density gradient of competing prey. Per capita crab foraging rates were inversely influenced by crab density, but they were not affected by water-borne predator cues. As a result, direct consumptive effects on prey foraging rates were stronger than non-consumptive effects. In contrast, predator cue and crab density interactively influenced indirect predator effects on oyster mortality in two experiments, with trait-mediated and density-mediated effects of similar magnitude operating to enhance oyster abundance. Consistent differences between a variable predator cue environment and other predator cue treatments (no cue and constant cue) suggests that an understanding of the natural risk environment experienced by prey is critical to testing and interpreting trait-mediated indirect interactions. Further, the prey response to the risk environment may be highly dependent on prey density, particularly in prey populations with strong intra-specific interactions.

Marine Spatial Planning: Current Status and Recommendations for Future Spending

Citation Information: Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Aquatic Resources Division; September 7, 2012

Authors: Jennifer Hennessey, Bridgit Trosin, Michal Rechner, Katrina Lassiter

Description: This document provides a status report on Washington state’s progress toward marine spatial planning in Washington’s marine waters. It identifies how the state is spending current state funds and describes funding needs for the 2013-2015 Biennium. The intent of this planning effort is to build upon the marine spatial component of existing statewide efforts and to improve the coordination among state agencies in developing and implementing marine management plans.

The Certainty of Confronting Uncertainty in the Chesapeake Bay Restoration Effort

Citation Information: Choices: 3rd Quarter 2011, 26(3)

Author: Carlton Hershner

Abstract: The Chesapeake Bay is a very large complex system that no longer has the capacity to provide all of the beneficial human services it once did. Restoring some of that capacity is a consensus goal for the millions of people who live in the watershed and impact its condition. The challenges of improving the condition of such a large ecosystem lie not only in assembling the necessary resources, but also in knowing what must be done and how best to do it. These questions are at the very limits of our current knowledge and so there is inherent uncertainty in all the answers. The amount of uncertainty varies from very little—identification of the system’s problem and the causes, to moderate—determination of the exact amounts of excess pollutant loads from all parts of the watershed, to significant—forecasting the performance of best management practices. Since the system will continue to degrade if nothing is done, inaction is not an option. Moving forward requires a willingness to act with less than perfect knowledge, constantly striving to reduce the uncertainty by learning and adapting as we go.

What follows is a brief review of some of the principal questions decision-makers currently confront in efforts to restore water quality conditions in the Chesapeake Bay. The answers to these questions vary significantly from “nearly certain” to “best available estimate.” Understanding this circumstance is central to both designing the strategy and setting expectations.

The Sound in the Silence: Discovering a Fish's Soundscape

Citation Information: Science 14 September 2012; Vol. 337 no. 6100 pp. 1290-1291

DOI: 10.1126/science.337.6100.1290

Author: Jane J. Lee

Abstract: Bioacoustics pioneer Arthur Popper is getting ready to retire, but his work on how fish perceive sound isn't fading away.

As an undergraduate more than 40 years ago, Arthur Popper took a detour on his way to a class on New York University's campus in the Bronx that set him on a course to become the godfather of fish hearing. Popper decided to visit a new pet shop, where he spied a fish without eyes. He began thinking about how it lived guided by its other senses. The encounter eventually led Popper, now a bioacoustician at the University of Maryland, College Park, to become one of the world's pioneers in understanding how fish perceive and respond to sound. “If I hadn't walked by that shop that day,” he says, “I'd have a different life.”

Contributions of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System to National and Regional Coastal Hazards and Resources Information, Tools, and Services

Citation Information: Marine Technology Society Journal, Volume 45, Number 1, January/February 2011 , pp. 29-38(10)

Authors: Ostrander, Chris E.; Seim, Harvey; Smith, Elizabeth; Studer, Ben; Luscher-Aissauoi, Audra; Fletcher, Chip

Abstract: A changing climate, coupled with increasing development and population growth within the coastal margins of the United States, presents a growing threat to coastal populations, ecosystems, and infrastructure associated with chronic and catastrophic coastal hazards and a growing reliance on coastal resources. The U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) provides a unique capability to observe the coastal and open ocean waters of the United States and provide value-added, customized data tools, products, and services to inform decision making related to coastal hazards and resources management, assessment, and risk by individuals, resource managers, policy makers, and local agencies. Increasingly, the partnership of IOOS Regional Associations with the U.S. IOOS Program Office has the capacity to provide critical observational and scientific information needed to inform coastal planning and management efforts related to some of the most pressing problems facing our coastal zone: namely, impacts of a changing climate on coastal communities and ecosystems, sea level rise, and the competing and oftentimes conflicting uses of our coastal zone that necessitate integrated Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning. Discussed herein are three examples of regional IOOS capacity to provide information related to beach safety, coastal inundation, and marine spatial planning.

Underwater Noise Pollution From Munitions Clearance and Disposal, Possible Effects on Marine Vertebrates, and Its Mitigation

Citation Information: Marine Technology Society Journal, Volume 45, Number 6, November/December 2011 , pp. 80-88(9)

Author: Koschinski, Sven

Abstract: Underwater detonations have the potential for serious injury in marine vertebrates such as fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals. The high detonation velocity creates a shock wave. The main reason for injury is the extremely short signal rise time combined with a high overpressure. A negative pressure phase generating cavitation shortly after the peak overpressure can increase organ and tissue damage. Due to surface reflection generating a reversed phase replica of the detonation, this phenomenon is very pronounced in shallow waters. Organs most seriously affected by detonations are those with gas/tissue interfaces (e.g., ears, lungs, swim bladders, air sacs, intestines). Observed injuries include disruption of cells and tissues by differential displacement, internal bleeding, embolism, and auditory damage. Furthermore, compression of the thorax by the shock wave initiates a rapid increase in blood pressure, which can cause damage in the brain and ears. In order to protect marine life, all possible attempts should be made to avoid underwater detonations. For detonations that cannot be avoided due to safety considerations, a number of mitigation measures are presented including bubble curtains, scaring devices, visual and acoustic monitoring, and seasonal and spatial planning. However, mitigation measures have varying degrees of efficiency. Low-order detonations are not a real alternative due to the release of toxic munitions constituents to the environment. For each detonation, a proper site- and munitions-specific risk assessment and mitigation strategy must be developed.

Development of a spatially resolved linked hydrodynamic and exposure model (LOTOX2) for PCBs in Lake Ontario

Citation Information: Journal of Great Lakes Research; Volume 38, Issue 3, September 2012, Pages 490–503

Authors: Jagjit Kaur, Joseph V. DePinto, Joseph F. Atkinson, Edward Verhamme, Thomas C. Young

Abstract: A linked hydrodynamic–hydrophobic organic chemical mass balance and food chain bioaccumulation model, LOTOX2, was developed to support the Lake Ontario Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) for establishing contaminant load reduction strategies. This paper describes the development of LOTOX2, including the linkage with a relatively finer-scale hydrodynamic model (the Princeton Ocean Model, POM). An important component of this development was the reconstruction of PCB loading history (1930–2005), which was used to understand historic trends and to conduct model calibration/confirmation for total PCBs (tPCBs) in the lake water, sediments, and adult lake trout using data for the last 25 years. A separate mass balance was conducted for the radioisotope cesium-137 (137Cs) in order to develop a sorbent mass balance model for the system. Following calibration and confirmation, a diagnostic application of the model showed that the lake is not yet at steady-state with current loads. It will take more than 50 years for tPCB concentration in lake trout to decrease to a steady-state value of about 0.4 ppm if year 2005 loads remain constant. If all external loads were instantaneously eliminated in 2005, it would take approximately 40 years for the adult lake trout tPCB concentration to reach 0.05 ppm (the uniform Great Lakes protocol value for unrestricted consumption) from its current level of 0.74 ppm.

Integrating Fuzzy Logic and Statistics to Improve the Reliable Delimitation of Biogeographic Regions and Transition Zones

Citation Information: Syst Biol (2012) doi: 10.1093/sysbio/sys061

Authors: Jesús Olivero, Ana L. Márquez and Raimundo Real

Abstract: This study uses the amphibian species of the Mediterranean basin to develop a consistent procedure based on fuzzy sets with which biogeographic regions and biotic transition zones can be objectively detected and reliably mapped. Biogeographical regionalizations are abstractions of the geographical organization of life on Earth that provide frameworks for cataloguing species and ecosystems, for answering basic questions in biogeography, evolutionary biology, and systematics, and for assessing priorities for conservation. On the other hand, limits between regions may form sharply defined boundaries along some parts of their borders, whereas elsewhere they may consist of broad transition zones. The fuzzy set approach provides a heuristic way to analyse the complexity of the biota within an area; significantly different regions are detected whose mutual limits are sometimes fuzzy, sometimes clearly crisp. Most of the regionalizations described in the literature for the Mediterranean biogeographical area present a certain degree of convergence when they are compared within the context of fuzzy interpretation, as many of the differences found between regionalizations are located in transition zones, according to our case study. Compared with other classification procedures based on fuzzy sets, the novelty of our method is that both fuzzy logic and statistics are used together in a synergy in order to avoid arbitrary decisions in the definition of biogeographic regions and transition zones.

Long-term region-wide declines in Caribbean corals

Citation Information: Science 15 August 2003: Vol. 301 no. 5635 pp. 958-960

DOI: 10.1126/science.1086050

Authors: Toby A. Gardner, Isabelle M. Côté, Jennifer A. Gill, Alastair Grant and Andrew R. Watkinson

Abstract: We report a massive region-wide decline of corals across the entire Caribbean basin, with the average hard coral cover on reefs being reduced by 80%, from about 50% to 10% cover, in three decades. Our meta-analysis shows that patterns of change in coral cover are variable across time periods but largely consistent across subregions, suggesting that local causes have operated with some degree of synchrony on a region-wide scale. Although the rate of coral loss has slowed in the past decade compared to the 1980s, significant declines are persisting. The ability of Caribbean coral reefs to cope with future local and global environmental change may be irretrievably compromised.

Top 10 List: 
Coral Reef Management

Recent region-wide declines in Caribbean reef fish abundance

Citation Information: Current Biology; Volume 19, Issue 7, 14 April 2009, Pages 590–595

Authors: Michelle J. Paddack, John D. Reynolds, Consuelo Aguilar, Richard S. Appeldoorn, Jim Beets, Edward W. Burkett, Paul M. Chittaro, Kristen Clarke, Rene Esteves, Ana C. Fonseca, Graham E. Forrester, Alan M. Friedlander, Jorge García-Sais, Gaspar González-Sansón, Lance K.B. Jordan, David B. McClellan, Margaret W. Miller, Philip P. Molloy, Peter J. Mumby, Ivan Nagelkerken, Michael Nemeth, Raúl Navas-Camacho, Joanna Pitt, Nicholas V.C. Polunin, Maria Catalina Reyes-Nivia, D. Ross Robertson, Alberto Rodríguez-Ramírez, Eva Salas, Struan R. Smith, Richard E. Spieler, Mark A. Steele, Ivor D. Williams, Clare L. Wormald, Andrew R. Watkinson, Isabelle M. Côté

Abstract: Profound ecological changes are occurring on coral reefs throughout the tropics [1], [2] and [3], with marked coral cover losses and concomitant algal increases, particularly in the Caribbean region [4]. Historical declines in the abundance of large Caribbean reef fishes likely reflect centuries of overexploitation [5], [6] and [7]. However, effects of drastic recent degradation of reef habitats on reef fish assemblages have yet to be established. By using meta-analysis, we analyzed time series of reef fish density obtained from 48 studies that include 318 reefs across the Caribbean and span the time period 1955–2007. Our analyses show that overall reef fish density has been declining significantly for more than a decade, at rates that are consistent across all subregions of the Caribbean basin (2.7% to 6.0% loss per year) and in three of six trophic groups. Changes in fish density over the past half-century are modest relative to concurrent changes in benthic cover on Caribbean reefs. However, the recent significant decline in overall fish abundance and its consistency across several trophic groups and among both fished and nonfished species indicate that Caribbean fishes have begun to respond negatively to habitat degradation.

Top 10 List: 
Coral Reef Management

Global gradients of coral exposure to environmental stresses and implications for local management

Citation Information: Maina J, McClanahan TR, Venus V, Ateweberhan M, Madin J (2011) Global Gradients of Coral Exposure to Environmental Stresses and Implications for Local Management. PLoS ONE 6(8): e23064. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023064



The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures.

Methodology/Principal Findings

This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums), stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication), and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude) to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean) or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia). The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean) where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress.


Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of coral stressors until long-term carbon reductions are achieved through global negotiations.

Top 10 List: 
Coral Reef Management

World Atlas of Coral Reefs

Citation Information: Spalding MD, Ravilious C, Green EP (2001) World Atlas of Coral Reefs. University of California Press, London, England

Description: Coral reefs are one of the most biologically diverse habitats in the world, host to an extraordinary variety of marine plants and animals. They are also one of the world's most fragile and endangered ecosystems. The growth of mass tourism, combined with the boom in popularity of scuba diving, has brought these spectacular ecosystems to public attention across the planet.

Coral reefs provide essential fish habitat, support endangered and threatened species, and harbor protected marine mammals and turtles. They are a significant source of food, provide income and employment through tourism and marine recreation, and offer countless other benefits to humans, including supplying compounds for pharmaceuticals. Yet coral reefs around the world are rapidly being degraded by a number of human activities, such as overfishing, coastal development, and the introduction of sewage, fertilizer, and sediment.

World Atlas of Coral Reefs provides the first detailed and definitive account of the current state of our planet's coral reefs. With its wealth of authoritative and up-to-date information, the finest maps available, and detailed descriptive texts and images by leading experts, this full-color volume will be a critical resource for anyone interested in these vital environments.

World Atlas of Coral Reefs contains eighty-four full-page newly researched and drawn color maps, together with more than two hundred color photos illustrating reefs, reef animals, and images taken from space by NASA astronauts during the 2000 and 2001 space shuttle flights. The authors provide a wealth of information on the geography, biodiversity, and human uses of coral reefs, as well as details about the threats to their existence.

Top 10 List: 
Coral Reef Management

Coral Health and Disease

Citation Information: Rosenberg E, Loya Y (eds) (2004) Coral Health and Disease. Springer-Verlag, New York

Description: This book opens with case studies of reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean, Japan, Indian Ocean and the Great Barrier Reef. A section on microbial ecology and physiology describes the symbiotic relations of corals and microbes, and the microbial role in nutrition or bleaching resistance of corals. Coral diseases are covered in the third part. The volume includes 50 color photos of corals and their environments

Top 10 List: 
Coral Reef Management

Reef Fisheries

Citation Information: Polunin NVC, Robert CM (eds) (1996) Reef Fisheries. Chapman & Hall, London

Description: Reef ecosystems extend throughout the tropics. Exploited by small-scale fishers, reefs supply food for millions of people, but, worldwide, there are growing worries about the productivity and current state of these ecosystems. Reef fish stocks display many features of fisheries elsewhere. However, habitat spatial complexity, biological diversity within and among species, ecosystem intricacy and variable means of exploitation make it hard to predict sustainable modes and levels of fishing.

Top 10 List: 
Coral Reef Management

Coral Reef Conservation

Citation Information: Cote IM, Reynolds JD (eds) (2006) Coral Reef Conservation. Cambridge University Press

Description: Coral reefs are the 'rain forests' of the ocean, containing the highest diversity of marine organisms and facing the greatest threats from humans. As shallow-water coastal habitats, they support a wide range of economically and culturally important activities, from fishing to tourism. Their accessibility makes reefs vulnerable to local threats that include over-fishing, pollution and physical damage. Reefs also face global problems, such as climate change, which may be responsible for recent widespread coral mortality and increased frequency of hurricane damage. This book summarises the current state of knowledge about the status of reefs, the problems they face, and potential solutions. The topics considered range from concerns about extinction of coral reef species to economic and social issues affecting the well-being of people who depend on reefs. The result is a multi-disciplinary perspective on problems and solutions to the coral reef crisis.

Top 10 List: 
Coral Reef Management

Coral Reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their Ecology and Conservation

Citation Information: Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean; their ecology and conservation by T. R. McClanahan, C.R.C. Sheppard & D. O. Obura (eds), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000. 525 pages.

Description: Coral reefs are among Earth's most diverse, productive, and beautiful ecosystems, but until recently, their ecology and the means to manage them have been poorly understood and documented. In response to the inadequate information base for coral reefs, this book reviews the ecological and conservation status of coral reefs of the Western Indian Ocean, bringing together presentations of the region's leading scientists and managers working on coral reefs.

Coral Reefs of the Indian Ocean: Their Ecology and Conservation starts with a general overview of the biogeography of the region and a historical account of attempts to conserve this ecosystem. It goes on to describe the state of the reefs in each of the countries with coral reefs, and it concludes with a series of management case studies.
The book also summarizes most of the existing ecological information on reefs in this region and efforts at management, making it useful for students, teachers, and investigators interested in tropical or marine ecology, conservation biology and management, and environmental sciences.

Top 10 List: 
Coral Reef Management

Food Webs and the Dynamics of Marine Reefs

Citation Information: McClanahan TR, Branch GM (eds) (2008) Food Webs and the Dynamics of Marine Reefs. Oxford University Press, New York

Description: Biologists have made significant advances in our understanding of the Earth's shallow subtidal marine ecosystems, but the findings on these disparate regions have never before been documented and gathered in a single volume. Now, in Food Webs and the Dynamics of Marine Reefs, Tim R. McClanahan and George M. Branch fill this lacuna with a comparative and comprehensive collection of nine essays written by experts on specific aquatic regions. Each essay focuses on the food webs of a respective ecosystem and the factors affecting these communities, from the intense and direct pressure of human influence on fisheries to the multi-vector contributors to climate change. The book covers nine shallow water marine ecosystems from selected areas throughout the world: four coral reef systems, three hard bottom systems, and two kelp systems. In summarizing their organization, human influence on them, and recent developments in these ecosystems, the authors contribute to our understanding of their ecological organization and management. Food Webs and the Dynamics of Marine Reefs will be a useful tool for all benthic marine investigators, providing an expert, comparative view of these aquatic regions.

Top 10 List: 
Coral Reef Management

Adapting to a Changing Environment: Confronting the consequences of climate change

Citation Information: T R McClanahan and Joshua E Cinner; New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Description: For those who depend on the bounty of the sea for their livelihoods, climate change and its consequences (warming water, coral bleaching, rising sea levels) could spell disaster. The region comprising the eastern coastline of Africa and the islands of the western Indian Ocean--home to many of the Earth's most impoverished people--is particularly vulnerable to significant climate impacts.

Focusing on coral reef fisheries in these areas, which collectively support millions of people, this book provides a tool box of options for confronting the consequences of climate change through building local-scale adaptive capacity and improving the condition of natural resources. This requires strengthening a society's flexibility, assets, learning, and social organizations, as well as restricting or limiting its resource use. These two broad concepts--building social capacity and limiting certain types of resource use--interact in complicated ways, requiring coordinated actions. The authors argue that adaptation solutions are context dependent, determined in part by local resource conditions, human adaptive capacity, and exposure to climate change impacts, but also by a people's history, culture, and aspirations.

Providing an up-to-date and original synthesis of environmental stress, natural resources, and the socioeconomics of climate change, Adapting to a Changing Environment develops a framework to provide governments, scientists, managers, and donors with critical information about local context, encouraging the implementation of nuanced actions that reflect local conditions.

Top 10 List: 
Coral Reef Management

Life and Death of Coral Reefs

Citation Information: Life and Death of Coral Reefs. Edited by Charles Birkeland. Springer, 1997. 536 pages.

Description: Coral reefs have shaped the surface of our planet far more than has any other ecosystem. They are dynamic systems, producing limestone at the rate of 400-2,000 tons per hectare per year, and influencing the chemical balance of the world's oceans. Coral reefs have been around since before the prairies or other ecosystems of flowering plants existed, yet they vanish about a million years before other groups of organisms each time there is a global mass extinction. They return after each catastrophe, however, following a long period of absence. Although coral reefs are the most productive communities in the sea, the fisheries of coral reefs are among the most vulnerable to overexploitation. Despite having the power to create the most massive structures in the world made by living creatures (including man), the thin veneer of living tissue of coral reef is particularly sensitive to natural disturbances and effects of human activities. Coral reefs are the first to go during periods of climate change, but they have always come back. This combination of attributes, creative power and fragility, resilience and sensitivity, makes management of coral-reef systems a challenge to science. Over 70% of the coral reefs in the Caribbean and Asian waters have been degraded, and perhaps a third of the 400 species of corals in Japanese waters are in danger of local extinction unless effective coastal management practices are established. This book presents what is known about factors that shift the balance between accretion and erosion, recruitment and mortality, stony corals and filamentous algae, recovery and degradation--the life and death of coral reefs. Insight into the factors controlling the direction of these processes is essential for appropriate management decisions.

Top 10 List: 
Coral Reef Management


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