Literature Library

Currently indexing 8248 titles

Integrated survey methods to estimate harvest by marine recreational fishers in New Zealand

Holdsworth JC, Hartill BW, Heinemann A, Wynne-Jones J. Integrated survey methods to estimate harvest by marine recreational fishers in New Zealand. Fisheries Research [Internet]. 2018 ;204:424 - 432. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783618300924
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Marine recreational fishing is a popular pastime in a growing number of countries. Obtaining reliable harvests estimates is important to produce more accurate stock assessments and more certain management decisions, however, accurate measurement of marine recreational harvest is challenging.

Previous national fisher diary surveys undertaken in New Zealand during the 1990s gave inconstant estimates of marine recreational harvests. Landline telephone listings and interviews were used to estimate the proportion of New Zealand residents who had fished during the previous 12 months and to recruit diarists. Slight changes in survey method produced variable and at times implausible results.

After three years of planning and pre-testing a large-scale project was undertaken to develop a robust off-site harvest survey method and corroborate the results using with two concurrent on-site survey methods. For the off-site survey, the method was based on a national population proportionate sample of dwellings to recruit a panel of 7000 fishers and 3000 non-fishers using a face-to-face household survey. Panellists were contacted regularly by SMS and telephone for a year with a 94% completion rate. Computer assisted telephone interviews collected details of all species of fish harvested by fishing method. The second was a regional aerial-access survey that collected peak period vessel counts from the air to scale up boat-based harvest from concurrent all-day creel surveys on 45 days. Harvest estimates were generated for the most commonly encountered species, snapper, kahawai, trevally, tarakihi and red gurnard. The third and smallest survey was a combined access point survey in a sub-region using fixed and bus route creel surveys covering all significant access points on different set of random stratified days to the areal access survey. The main objective was to estimate the boat-based harvest by specialist fishers targeting scallop and rock lobster. The three concurrent surveys were designed to generate harvest estimates by fishing platform (boat or land based) at overlapping spatial scales. Harvest, in numbers of fish, were estimated independently for recreational fishers using boats. However, the on-site surveys relied on the proportion of harvest from land-based platforms provided by the off-site survey to derive total regional harvest estimates for all methods. The off-site panel survey relied on average weight data for each fish stock provided by the on-site surveys to convert harvest numbers to weight for management purposes. Choosing a sample frame and survey method that is reliable and repeatable into the future is critical to providing comparable estimates and the ability to monitor trends over time.

Harvest estimates for the most common species in Fisheries Management Area 1, snapper and kahawai, were very similar. The estimates for snapper ranged from 3754 t (cv 0.06) to 3981 t (cv 0.08) and for kahawai 983 t (cv 0.32) to 942 t (cv 0.08). There were greater differences in estimates between surveys for secondary species. Each survey had independent error structures and this multi-method approach has provided valuable insight into likely sources of bias. High quality recreational harvest estimates are important to support management changes in high profile fisheries.

Building effective fishery ecosystem plans

Levin PS, Essington TE, Marshall KN, Koehn LE, Anderson LG, Bundy A, Carothers C, Coleman F, Gerber LR, Grabowski JH, et al. Building effective fishery ecosystem plans. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2018 ;92:48 - 57. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17306954
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

U.S. fisheries management has made tremendous strides under the current management framework, which centers on single stocks rather than ecosystems. However, conventional management focuses on one fishing sector at a time, considers a narrow range of issues, and is separated into individual fishery management plans often leaving little opportunity to consider overarching management goals across fisheries. Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management (EBFM) provides mechanisms to address these but has not been widely adopted. Here, we review and analyze the development of Fisheries Ecosystem Plans (FEPs) as a means to implement EBFM. In doing so, we provide a blueprint for next-generation FEPS that have the potential to translate EBFM to action. We highlight FEPs as a structured planning process that uses adaptive management to operationalize EBFM. This “FEP Loop” process starts by identifying the key factors that shape a fishery system and considering them simultaneously, as a coherent whole. It then helps managers and stakeholders delineate their overarching goals for the system and refine them into specific, realistic projects. And it charts a course forward with a set of management actions that work in concert to achieve the highest-priority objectives. We conclude that EBFM is feasible today using existing science tools, policy instruments, and management structures. Not only that, nearly all of the steps in the proposed “FEP Loop” process are presently being carried out by U.S. fishery managers. The process of reviewing regional experiences in developing and applying the FEP loop will lead to adaptations and improvements of the process we propose.

Considering the importance of metaphors for marine conservation

Neilson A. Considering the importance of metaphors for marine conservation. Marine Policy [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18301556
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

This paper seeks to highlight the importance of metaphors for marine conservation and policy. It argues that the manner in which the oceans are perceived, often as an alien landscape, can limit the way language is utilised in marine conservation efforts. This limitation can produce unhelpful environmental metaphors that, instead of acting as catalysts for action, produce negative and reactionary responses. It illustrates this point through the example of what has become known as the ‘Great Pacific Garbage Patch.’ It postulates that if there is a disconnect between the many complex environmental issues facing the world's oceans and the way they are perceived, then more focus should be placed on developing pre-determined culturally embedded metaphors, which can conjure relatable imagery, but that are also rooted in scientific evidence. It recommends that, in an extension to existing public perception research (PPR) on how different communities value the ocean environment, there is room for shared metaphors of the oceanic environment to be developed that can help raise awareness within a particular cultural setting.

Progress in designing and delivering effective fishing industry-science data collection in the UK

Mangi SC, Kupschus S, Mackinson S, Rodmell D, Lee A, Bourke E, Rossiter T, Masters J, Hetherington S, Catchpole T, et al. Progress in designing and delivering effective fishing industry-science data collection in the UK. Fish and Fisheries [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/faf.12279
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

This study was undertaken to address the increasing need for a strategic approach to industry–science data collections in the face of reducing resources and growing need for evidence in fisheries management. The aim was to evaluate progress in the development of plans and procedures that can be employed to collect, record and use fishing industry knowledge and data in the evidence base for managing fisheries. This was achieved by reviewing industry‐led data initiatives already undertaken or ongoing within the United Kingdom to document how these projects have/are incorporating fishing industry data into the process of management decision‐making; canvassing stakeholder opinion on data gaps and whether these could be filled by data gathered by commercial fishing vessels; establishing what issues might prevent or stimulate commercial fishing vessels in collecting data when they have the opportunity; and describing guidance on a step‐by‐step process for gathering scientific information such that fishers are empowered to collect the right data, at the right times and in the right format for their fishery. Given recent advances in the collection, interpretation and application of fisheries‐dependent data, we compare progress made in the UK to other areas of the world. We conclude that there is considerable evidence of a paradigm shift from the conventional practice of scientists asking fishers to provide data for scientific analyses towards full engagement of key stakeholders in data collection.

Multi-Disciplinary Lessons Learned from Low-Tech Coral Farming and Reef Rehabilitation: I. Best Management Practices

Hernández-Delgado EA, Mercado-Molina AE, Suleimán-Ramos SE. Multi-Disciplinary Lessons Learned from Low-Tech Coral Farming and Reef Rehabilitation: I. Best Management Practices. In: Beltran CDuque, Camacho ETello InTech; 2018. Available from: https://oct.to/ZSo
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book Chapter

Low-tech coral farming and reef rehabilitation have become important community-based coral reef management tools. At least in the wider Caribbean region, these strategies have been successfully implemented to recover depleted populations of staghorn (Acropora cervicornis) and elkhorn coral (A. palmata). They have also been used with relative success to recover depleted fish assemblages. Indirectly, coral reef rehabilitation has also resulted in enhanced benthic spatial heterogeneity, in providing multiple new microhabitats for fish and invertebrate species; have contributed to the recovery of coastal resilience, increasing the protection of shorelines against erosion; and have fostered an increased interest of the tourism sector as an enhanced attraction for visitors and recreationists. Nevertheless, there is still a need to implement best management practices to improve the success of these strategies. In this chapter, lessons learned from the Community-Based Coral Aquaculture and Reef Rehabilitation Program in Culebra Island, Puerto Rico, are shared from a multi-disciplinary standpoint. Learning from past experiences is a critical process to improve science. In a time of significant projected climate change impacts and sea level rise, improving the scale of coral farming and reef rehabilitation has become a critical tool for coral reef conservation. But multiple roadblocks must still be overcome.

Coral Reef Resilience Index for Novel Ecosystems: A Spatial Planning Tool for Managers and Decision Makers - A Case Study from Puerto Rico

Hernández-Delgado EA, Barba-Herrera S, Torres-Valcárcel A, González-Ramos CM, Medina-Muniz JL, Montañez-Acuña AA, Otaño-Cruz A, Rosado-Matías BJ, Cabrera-Beauchamp G. Coral Reef Resilience Index for Novel Ecosystems: A Spatial Planning Tool for Managers and Decision Makers - A Case Study from Puerto Rico. In: Beltran CDuque, Camacho ETello InTech; 2018. Available from: https://oct.to/ZS4
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Book Chapter

Timely information is critical for coral reef managers and decision-makers to implement sustainable management measures. A Coral Reef Resilience Index (CRRI) was developed with a GIS-coupled decision-making tool applicable for Caribbean coral reef ecosystems. The CRRI is based on a five-point scale parameterized from the quantitative characterization of benthic assemblages. Separate subindices such as the Coral Index, the Threatened Species Index, and the Algal Index also provide specific information regarding targeted benthic components. This case study was based on assessments conducted in 2014 on 11 reef sites located across 3 geographic zones and 3 depth zones along the southwestern shelf of the island of Puerto Rico, Caribbean Sea. There was a significant spatial and bathymetric gradient (p < 0.05) in the distribution of CRRI values indicating higher degradation of inshore reefs. Mean global CRRI ranged from 2.78 to 3.17 across the shelf, ranking them as “fair.” The Coral Index ranged from 2.60 to 3.76, ranking reefs from “poor” to “good,” showing a general cross-shelf trend of improving conditions with increasing distance from pollution sources. Turbidity and ammonia were significantly correlated to CRRI scores. Multiple recommendations are provided based on coral reef conditions according to observed CRRI rankings.

A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world’s largest seagrass carbon stocks

Arias-Ortiz A, Serrano O, Masqué P, Lavery PS, Mueller U, Kendrick GA, Rozaimi M, Esteban A, Fourqurean JW, Marbà N, et al. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world’s largest seagrass carbon stocks. Nature Climate Change [Internet]. 2018 ;8(4):338 - 344. Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-018-0096-y
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $20.00
Type: Journal Article

Seagrass ecosystems contain globally significant organic carbon (C) stocks. However, climate change and increasing frequency of extreme events threaten their preservation. Shark Bay, Western Australia, has the largest C stock reported for a seagrass ecosystem, containing up to 1.3% of the total C stored within the top metre of seagrass sediments worldwide. On the basis of field studies and satellite imagery, we estimate that 36% of Shark Bay’s seagrass meadows were damaged following a marine heatwave in 2010/2011. Assuming that 10 to 50% of the seagrass sediment C stock was exposed to oxic conditions after disturbance, between 2 and 9 Tg CO2 could have been released to the atmosphere during the following three years, increasing emissions from land-use change in Australia by 4–21% per annum. With heatwaves predicted to increase with further climate warming, conservation of seagrass ecosystems is essential to avoid adverse feedbacks on the climate system.

Understanding and managing fish populations: keeping the toolbox fit for purpose

Paris JR, Sherman KD, Bell E, Boulenger C, Delord C, El-Mahdi MBM, Fairfield EA, Griffiths AM, C. Roberts G, Hedger RD, et al. Understanding and managing fish populations: keeping the toolbox fit for purpose Winfield IJ, Craig JF. Journal of Fish Biology [Internet]. 2018 ;92(3):727 - 751. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jfb.13549
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

Wild fish populations are currently experiencing unprecedented pressures, which are projected to intensify in the coming decades. Developing a thorough understanding of the influences of both biotic and abiotic factors on fish populations is a salient issue in contemporary fish conservation and management. During the 50th Anniversary Symposium of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles at the University of Exeter, UK, in July 2017, scientists from diverse research backgrounds gathered to discuss key topics under the broad umbrella of 'Understanding Fish Populations'. Below, the output of one such discussion group is detailed, focusing on tools used to investigate natural fish populations. Five main groups of approaches were identified: tagging and telemetry; molecular tools; survey tools; statistical and modelling tools; tissue analyses. The appraisal covered current challenges and potential solutions for each of these topics. In addition, three key themes were identified as applicable across all tool-based applications. These included data management, public engagement, and fisheries policy and governance. The continued innovation of tools and capacity to integrate interdisciplinary approaches into the future assessment and management of fish populations is highlighted as an important focus for the next 50 years of fisheries research.

The effect of global climate change on the future distribution of economically important macroalgae (seaweeds) in the northwest Atlantic

Khan AH, Levac E, Van Guelphen L, Pohle G, Chmura GL. The effect of global climate change on the future distribution of economically important macroalgae (seaweeds) in the northwest Atlantic Schindler DE. FACETS [Internet]. 2018 ;3(1):275 - 286. Available from: http://www.facetsjournal.com/doi/full/10.1139/facets-2017-0091
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

An increase in greenhouse gas emissions has led to a rise in average global air and ocean temperatures. Increased sea surface temperatures can cause changes in species’ distributions, particularly those species close to their thermal tolerance limits. We use a bioclimate envelope approach to assess potential shifts in the range of marine macroalgae harvested in North American waters: rockweed (Fucus vesiculosus Linnaeus, 1753), serrated wrack (Fucus serratusLinnaeus, 1753), knotted wrack (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis, 1863), carrageen moss (Chondrus crispus Stackhouse, 1797), and three kelp species (Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V. Lamouroux, 1813; Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus) C.E. Lane, C. Mayes, Druehl et G.W. Saunders, 2006; and Saccharina longicruris (Bachelot de la Pylaie) Kuntze, 1891). We determined species’ thermal limits from the current sea surface temperatures associated with their geographical distributions. Future distributions were based on sea surface temperatures projected for the year ∼2100 by four atmosphere-ocean general circulation models and earth system models for regional concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. Future distributions based on RCP 8.5 indicate that the presence of all but rockweed (F. vesiculosus) is likely to be threatened by warming waters in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and along the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia. Range retractions of macroalgae will have significant ecological and economic effects including impacts on commercial fisheries and harvest rates and losses of floral and faunal biodiversity and production, and should be considered in the designation of marine protected areas.

A cetacean monitoring system that integrates citizen science and satellite imagery

Vukelic M, Mancini F, Vukelic D, Carere C. A cetacean monitoring system that integrates citizen science and satellite imagery. Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche e Naturali [Internet]. 2018 ;29(1):53 - 59. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12210-017-0657-4
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Various methods have been adopted for monitoring marine megafauna and cetaceans in particular. Most of them rely on direct observation and have strong limitations: they are expensive and time-consuming; they allow monitoring only at small spatial and temporal scales; they require specialised technical staff. Satellite imagery to detect and count marine mammals from the space has become feasible. In the last years, the spectral, spatial and temporal accuracy of very high resolution satellites have improved, allowing to conduct censuses and to produce valid population estimates for some species. With the appearance of Web 2.0, ubiquitous computing and the related technological advancements, the different networks enable the general public to contribute, disseminate and exchange information. The use of data collected by citizen science projects is now ubiquitous, but still presents some challenges that need to be addressed. A major issue is that data collected by the public must be validated. We present a model for real-time monitoring of cetaceans by combining the citizen science and satellite image processing with the main link defined as location–time.

Fishes in a changing world: learning from the past to promote sustainability of fish populations

Gordon TAC, Harding HR, Clever FK, Davidson IK, Davison W, Montgomery DW, Weatherhead RC, Windsor FM, Armstrong JD, Bardonnet A, et al. Fishes in a changing world: learning from the past to promote sustainability of fish populations Winfield IJ, Craig JF. Journal of Fish Biology [Internet]. 2018 ;92(3):804 - 827. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jfb.13546
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Populations of fishes provide valuable services for billions of people, but face diverse and interacting threats that jeopardize their sustainability. Human population growth and intensifying resource use for food, water, energy and goods are compromising fish populations through a variety of mechanisms, including overfishing, habitat degradation and declines in water quality. The important challenges raised by these issues have been recognized and have led to considerable advances over past decades in managing and mitigating threats to fishes worldwide. In this review, we identify the major threats faced by fish populations alongside recent advances that are helping to address these issues. There are very significant efforts worldwide directed towards ensuring a sustainable future for the world's fishes and fisheries and those who rely on them. Although considerable challenges remain, by drawing attention to successful mitigation of threats to fish and fisheries we hope to provide the encouragement and direction that will allow these challenges to be overcome in the future.

Predicting the economic impacts of the 2017 West Coast salmon troll ocean fishery closure

Richerson K, Leonard J, Holland DS. Predicting the economic impacts of the 2017 West Coast salmon troll ocean fishery closure. Marine Policy [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17306668
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The ocean salmon fishery on the US West Coast has faced periodic closures of varying extents in order to protect vulnerable runs. These closures can have serious consequences for fishers and fishing communities, and have necessitated the release of millions of dollars of federal disaster aid. The 2017 ocean Chinook troll fishery (the major salmon ocean fishery) is closed between southern Oregon and northern California to protect the Klamath River fall Chinook, which is forecast to return in low numbers. A model of vessel fishingchoices was used in combination with an established input-output model to estimate the potential economic impact of this closure on fishers and fishing communities. The analysis predicts that this closure of the ocean fishery will result in a loss of $5.8–$8.9 million in income, $12.8–$19.6 million in sales, and 200–330 jobs. These estimates are only a partial estimate of the economic impacts of the 2017 salmon regulations, as they do not fully account for the effects of the limited season outside of the closed ocean area or the effects on other salmon fisheries (e.g. the gillnet and recreational fisheries). The impacts are not distributed evenly in space, with the largest relative losses occurring in the Coos Bay, Brookings, and Eureka regions. This information may be useful as policymakers consider mitigating economic losses in the fishery and associated communities. Early estimates of economic impacts of fishery closures may also enable quicker determination of the need and extent of disaster assistance and a more timely response.

Adapting to change: Prioritising management for the future of the Marine Scalefish Fishery

Nursey-Bray M, Magnusson A, Bicknell N, Magnusson M, Morison J, Sullivan A. Adapting to change: Prioritising management for the future of the Marine Scalefish Fishery. Marine Policy [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17308771
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Marine scalefish fisheries face multiple challenges including management and sustainability pressures. These are going to be amplified by climate change. This paper reports on a project that used the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and semi-structured interviews to assess how marine scalefish fishers in South Australia, prioritise management objectives with a view to incorporating those views into structural industry reform to build the fishery's capacity to adapt in the face of these challenges. The project found that fishers, despite differences in geographical scale, fishing practice and species harvested, prioritised governance objectives most highly, and that economic and environmental objectives were prioritised as key and equally important; one could not exist without the other. Fishers prioritised social objectives the least as they expect these to follow from the economic and environmental objectives. Fishers also felt stocks had declined and that reform was urgently needed. Most fishers agreed that reform should include a reduction in licences. All fishers felt that recreational fishing was under-regulated and compromised commercial fishing opportunities. The project revealed that the capacity of fishers to adapt within the current operating environment is limited and that they will need government and other support to implement reform. For policy makers, this highlights that reform is culturally palatable but that it must include incentives and compensation for fishers to leave or stay in the industry.

Marine functional zoning: A practical approach for integrated coastal management (ICM) in Xiamen

Fang Q, Ma D, Zhang L, Zhu S. Marine functional zoning: A practical approach for integrated coastal management (ICM) in Xiamen. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117308761
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Xiamen has marked its integrated coastal management (ICM) practice as PEMSEA's demonstration site since the 1990s. However, the role of Marine Functional Zoning (MFZ) in ICM has not yet been fully explored even though the planning process has been highlighted in some literature on Xiamen ICM mode. To showcase the contribution of MFZ as a practical approach for Xiamen ICM, the five dimensions of integration in ICM is applied as an analysis framework. Firstly, through compiling of the historical data and documents of the sea uses and marine environments, and socioeconomic status as well, the key drivers of initiating MFZ in the 1990s is summarized as increasing but incompatible and even conflicting sea uses, degrading marine environments due to negative effects of intensified human activities, and the lack of coordinating mechanism which has worsened the use-use and use-environment conflicts. Secondly, the technical guidelines and adaptive evolvement of Xiamen MFZ is introduced, and the achievements of Xiamen MFZ is explored. Based on the above analysis, the relationships of MFZ and ICM is looked into the dimensions of legislation, coordinating mechanism, scientific and technical support, integrated law enforcement and public participation; and how MFZ contributes to ICM in integration of dimensions of intergovernmental, inter-sectoral, land and sea, science and management, and multiple disciplinary is analyzed in-depth. It is concluded that MFZ has been a working approach in Xiamen to realize ICM from a conceptual call to a good practice on the ground, even challenges remain.

Carbon burial and storage in tropical salt marshes under the influence of sea level rise

Ruiz-Fernández AC, Carnero-Bravo V, Sanchez-Cabeza JA, Pérez-Bernal LH, Amaya-Monterrosa OA, Bojórquez-Sánchez S, López-Mendoza PG, Cardoso-Mohedano JG, Dunbar RB, Mucciarone DA, et al. Carbon burial and storage in tropical salt marshes under the influence of sea level rise. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2018 ;630:1628 - 1640. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969718306466?via%3Dihub
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Coastal vegetated habitats can be important sinks of organic carbon (Corg) and mitigate global warming by sequestering significant quantities of atmospheric CO2 and storing sedimentary Corg for long periods, although their Corg burial and storage capacity may be affected by on-going sea level rise and human intervention. Geochemical data from published 210Pb-dated sediment cores, collected from low-energy microtidal coastal wetlands in El Salvador (Jiquilisco Bay) and in Mexico (Salada Lagoon; Estero de Urias Lagoon; Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve) were revisited to assess temporal changes (within the last 100 years) of Corg concentrations, storage and burial rates in tropical salt marshes under the influence of sea level rise and contrasting anthropization degree. Grain size distribution was used to identify hydrodynamic changes, and δ13C to distinguish terrigenous sediments from those accumulated under the influence of marine transgression. Although the accretion rate ranges in all sediment records were comparable, Corg concentrations (0.2–30%), stocks (30–465 Mg ha−1, by extrapolation to 1 m depth), and burial rates (3–378 g m−2 year−1) varied widely within and among the study areas. However, in most sites sea level rise decreased Corg concentrations and stocks in sediments, but increased Corgburial rates. Lower Corg concentrations were attributed to the input of reworked marine particles, which contribute with a lower amount of Corg than terrigenous sediments; whereas higher Corg burial rates were driven by higher mass accumulation rates, influenced by increased flooding and human interventions in the surroundings. Corg accumulation and long-term preservation in tropical salt marshes can be as high as in mangrove or temperate salt marsh areas and, besides the reduction of Corg stocks by ongoing sea level rise, the disturbance of the long-term buried Corg inventories might cause high CO2 releases, for which they must be protected as a part of climate change mitigation efforts.

Evaluating the potential for transboundary management of marine biodiversity in the Western Indian Ocean

Levin N, Beger M, Maina J, McClanahan T, Kark S. Evaluating the potential for transboundary management of marine biodiversity in the Western Indian Ocean. Australasian Journal of Environmental Management [Internet]. In Press ;25(1):62 - 85. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14486563.2017.1417167?journalCode=tjem20
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $50.00
Type: Journal Article

The economic and socio-political interactions between countries can have major impacts on transboundary conservation decisions and outcomes. Here, we examined for 14 Western Indian Ocean (WIO) continental and island nations the extent of their marine coral reef species, fisheries and marine protected areas (MPAs), in the context of their geopolitical and socio-economic connections. We also examined the role of external countries and organisations in collaboration within the region. We found large variation between the different countries in their protected area size, and management, which result from different interests in establishing the MPAs, ranging from fisheries management, biodiversity conservation to asserting sovereignty claims. Seventy-four per cent of the 154 MPAs in the region belong to island nations; however, the largest MPAs in the WIO were established by European powers, and include Mayotte and Glorioso Islands (France) and Chagos (UK). While the majority of MPAs are managed by individual countries, between-country collaboration within and outside the region is key if the aim is to achieve effective conservation of ecosystems and species across the island and mainland nations in the region. This may be advanced by creating transboundary MPAs and by regional conservation investment by external powers that benefit from the region’s resources.

Committed sea-level rise under the Paris Agreement and the legacy of delayed mitigation action

Mengel M, Nauels A, Rogelj J, Schleussner C-F. Committed sea-level rise under the Paris Agreement and the legacy of delayed mitigation action. Nature Communications [Internet]. 2018 ;9(1). Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-02985-8
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Sea-level rise is a major consequence of climate change that will continue long after emissions of greenhouse gases have stopped. The 2015 Paris Agreement aims at reducing climate-related risks by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to net zero and limiting global-mean temperature increase. Here we quantify the effect of these constraints on global sea-level rise until 2300, including Antarctic ice-sheet instabilities. We estimate median sea-level rise between 0.7 and 1.2 m, if net-zero greenhouse gas emissions are sustained until 2300, varying with the pathway of emissions during this century. Temperature stabilization below 2 °C is insufficient to hold median sea-level rise until 2300 below 1.5 m. We find that each 5-year delay in near-term peaking of CO2 emissions increases median year 2300 sea-level rise estimates by ca. 0.2 m, and extreme sea-level rise estimates at the 95th percentile by up to 1 m. Our results underline the importance of near-term mitigation action for limiting long-term sea-level rise risks.

Sustained climate warming drives declining marine biological productivity

J. Moore K, Fu W, Primeau F, Britten GL, Lindsay K, Long M, Doney SC, Mahowald N, Hoffman F, Randerson JT. Sustained climate warming drives declining marine biological productivity. Science [Internet]. 2018 ;359(6380):1139 - 1143. Available from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/359/6380/1139
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $30.00
Type: Journal Article

Climate change projections to the year 2100 may miss physical-biogeochemical feedbacks that emerge later from the cumulative effects of climate warming. In a coupled climate simulation to the year 2300, the westerly winds strengthen and shift poleward, surface waters warm, and sea ice disappears, leading to intense nutrient trapping in the Southern Ocean. The trapping drives a global-scale nutrient redistribution, with net transfer to the deep ocean. Ensuing surface nutrient reductions north of 30°S drive steady declines in primary production and carbon export (decreases of 24 and 41%, respectively, by 2300). Potential fishery yields, constrained by lower–trophic-level productivity, decrease by more than 20% globally and by nearly 60% in the North Atlantic. Continued high levels of greenhouse gas emissions could suppress marine biological productivity for a millennium.

Social impacts of marine protected areas in South Africa on coastal fishing communities

Sowman M, Sunde J. Social impacts of marine protected areas in South Africa on coastal fishing communities. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2018 ;157:168 - 179. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117304015
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

In South Africa, marine protected areas (MPAs) continue to be a favoured tool for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management. Efforts to expand the network of MPAs are contested largely due to historical injustices associated with MPA establishment and the ongoing social impacts linked with their current management and governance. This paper presents findings of recent research on the social dimensions of MPAs in five MPAs in South Africa. Drawing on information gathered from 70 oral histories, over 250 key informant interviews and 28 focus groups, the paper examines key social impacts respondents attribute to MPAs and their establishment and ongoing management. Significant negative impacts reported include the weakening of local governance rights and processes, in particular the lack of effective mechanisms for local community participation in decision-making. The loss of tenure rights and access to resources amongst already marginalised communities has contributed to food insecurity, less exchange of food and less household income. The MPAs investigated have impacted on culture, way of life and sense of place. Yet, despite government commitments to several international policy instruments relevant to MPAs and national laws legislating redress, social issues associated with MPAs have been largely overlooked. Findings from this research demonstrate that the failure to address historical impacts, as well as social hardships and inequities still being experienced, undermine the legitimacy of MPAs and frustrate the achievement of objectives and plans to increase the marine space under protection. Ways of working towards more effective, legitimate and sustainable MPAs in South Africa are suggested.

Against all odds? Implementing a policy for ecosystem-based management of the Barents Sea

Sander G. Against all odds? Implementing a policy for ecosystem-based management of the Barents Sea. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2018 ;157:111 - 123. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117308608
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No
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No
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US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Ecosystem-based management (EBM) should lead to policy that effectively addresses major negative impacts on the ecosystem in order to solve the problems identified. So far, there is little empirical knowledge about what is conducive to the formulation and implementation of such policies. The article suggests that implementation theory is an appropriate theoretical platform for acquiring such knowledge. General implementation theory is a starting point that gradually can be specified for implementation of EBM through carefully selected case studies. The article describes the theory and demonstrates its applicability by analysing the implementation of the measures in the Barents Sea Management Plan. Despite a policy design that violated several traditional recommendations for successful implementation, most measures in the plan were actually put into practice. The explanation lies in the Norwegian political-administrative system, the mobilization of knowledge, the collaboration created by involving a group of ministries and the authoritative handling of conflicts by the cabinet. All these explanations refer to processes occurring during the formulation of the policy, thus illustrating the need for a broader focus than the implementation process itself when studying policy implementation. The political leadership of the Norwegian government was decisive, demonstrating that EBM can be effectively implemented in a top-down fashion.

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