Literature Library

Currently indexing 9210 titles

State jurisdiction to investigate and try fisheries crime at sea

Vrancken P. State jurisdiction to investigate and try fisheries crime at sea. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18309527
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

This article examines the various requirements for the exercise by a State of its enforcement jurisdiction to investigate instances of fisheries crime and its adjudicative jurisdiction to try fisheries crime cases. In the process, the jurisdictional bases available are identified, the extent of the powers available are determined and concrete examples provided. It concludes that the international law rules governing State jurisdiction over fisheries crime at sea do not place any insurmountable obstacle to the criminalisation, investigation and adjudication of acts of transnational organised fisheries crime. What is needed is a more positive attitude towards the complexities of State ocean jurisdiction and the existing scope of the States’ duties towards the marine environment, and the marine living resources more specifically.

Sustainability: A flawed concept for fisheries management?

Stafford R, Deming JW. Sustainability: A flawed concept for fisheries management?. Elem Sci Anth [Internet]. 2019 ;7. Available from: https://www.elementascience.org/articles/10.1525/elementa.346/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The concept of sustainable fishing is well ingrained in marine conservation and marine governance. However, I argue that the concept is deeply flawed; ecologically, socially and economically. Sustainability is strongly related, both historically and currently, to maximum long-term economic exploitation of a system. Counter-intuitively, in fisheries, achieving this economic exploitation often relies on government subsidies. While many fish populations are not sustainably fished biologically, even ‘sustainably harvesting’ fish results in major ecological changes to marine systems. These changes create unknown damage to ecosystem processes, including carbon capture potential of the ocean. The spatial scale of commercial fishing processes can also lead to social and food security issues in local, coastal communities that rely on fish for dietary needs. A radical alternative proposal is provided to the current situation. Ultimately, offshore fishing should be stopped completely and fish catches should rely instead on inshore fisheries. While such an approach may require a change in thinking and human behaviour regarding fish, I demonstrate that there are many benefits of this approach, including ecological, social and to local coastal economies, and few negatives, although management measures and coastal marine protected areas to protect vulnerable species and habitats would still be required. As such, the approach suggested is much more akin to a holistic definition of sustainability or ‘prevention of ecological harm’, rather than the maximum long-term exploitation of an ecosystem which is an underlying assumption of much fisheries and conservation research. While the suggestions in the study would benefit from further ecological, social and economic modelling, any movement towards restricting offshore catches should provide some degree of the benefits detailed.

An interactive atlas for marine biodiversity conservation in the Coral Triangle

Asaad I, Lundquist CJ, Erdmann MV, Costello MJ. An interactive atlas for marine biodiversity conservation in the Coral Triangle. Earth System Science Data [Internet]. 2019 ;11(1):163 - 174. Available from: https://www.earth-syst-sci-data.net/11/163/2019/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

An online atlas of the Coral Triangle region of the Indo-Pacific biogeographic realm was developed. This online atlas consists of the three interlinked parts: (1) Biodiversity Features; (2) Areas of Importance for Biodiversity Conservation; (3) recommended priorities for Marine Protected Area (MPA) Network Expansion (http://www.marine.auckland.ac.nz/CTMAPS). The first map, Biodiversity Features, provides comprehensive data on the region's marine protected areas and biodiversity features, threats, and environmental characteristics. The second provides spatial information on areas of high biodiversity conservation values, while the third map shows priority areas for expanding the current Coral Triangle MPA network. This atlas provides the most comprehensive biodiversity datasets that have been assembled for the region. The datasets were retrieved and generated systematically from various open-access sources. To engage a wider audience and to raise participation in biodiversity conservation, the maps were designed as an interactive and online atlas. This atlas presents representative information to promote a better understanding of the key marine and coastal biodiversity characteristics of the region and enables the application of marine biodiversity informatics to support marine ecosystem-based management in the Coral Triangle region.

How to Sustain Fisheries: Expert Knowledge from 34 Nations

Nilsson JA, Fulton EA, Johnson CR, Haward M. How to Sustain Fisheries: Expert Knowledge from 34 Nations. Water [Internet]. 2019 ;11(2):213. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/11/2/213
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Ensuring productive and sustainable fisheries involves understanding the complex interactions between biology, environment, politics, management and governance. Fisheries are faced with a range of challenges, and without robust and careful management in place, levels of anthropogenic disturbance on ecosystems and fisheries are likely to have a continuous negative impact on biodiversity and fish stocks worldwide. Fisheries management agencies, therefore, need to be both efficient and effective in working towards long-term sustainable ecosystems and fisheries, while also being resilient to political and socioeconomic pressures. Marine governance, i.e., the processes of developing and implementing decisions over fisheries, often has to account for socioeconomic issues (such as unemployment and business developments) when they attract political attention and resources. This paper addresses the challenges of (1) identifying the main issues in attempting to ensure the sustainability of fisheries, and (2) how to bridge the gap between scientific knowledge and governance of marine systems. Utilising data gained from a survey of marine experts from 34 nations, we found that the main challenges perceived by fisheries experts were overfishing, habitat destruction, climate change and a lack of political will. Measures suggested to address these challenges did not demand any radical change, but included extant approaches, including ecosystem-based fisheries management with particular attention to closures, gear restrictions, use of individual transferable quotas (ITQs) and improved compliance, monitoring and control.

Preparing for the future: integrating spatial ecology into ecosystem-based management

Lowerre-Barbieri SK, Catalán IA, Opdal AFrugård, Jørgensen C. Preparing for the future: integrating spatial ecology into ecosystem-based management. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/advance-article/doi/10.1093/icesjms/fsy209/5299619
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine resource management is shifting from optimizing single species yield to redefining sustainable fisheries within the context of managing ocean use and ecosystem health. In this introductory article to the theme set, “Plugging spatial ecology into ecosystem-based management (EBM)” we conduct an informal horizon scan with leaders in EBM research to identify three rapidly evolving areas that will be game changers in integrating spatial ecology into EBM. These are: (1) new data streams from fishers, genomics, and technological advances in remote sensing and bio-logging; (2) increased analytical power through “Big Data” and artificial intelligence; and (3) better integration of social dimensions into management. We address each of these areas by first imagining capacity in 20 years from now, and then highlighting emerging efforts to get us there, drawing on articles in this theme set, other scientific literature, and presentations/discussions from the symposium on “Linkages between spatial ecology and sustainable fisheries” held at the ICES Annual Science Conference in September 2017.

Coastal adaptation laws and the social justice of policies to address sea level rise: An Indonesian insight

Nurhidayah L, McIlgorm A. Coastal adaptation laws and the social justice of policies to address sea level rise: An Indonesian insight. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2019 ;171:11 - 18. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569118301340
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Climate change and sea level rise (SLR) poses serious risks to coastal communities around the world requiring nations to apply adaptation laws and policies. Climate change will exacerbate the existing threats to vulnerable communities, such as the poor, and threaten the food security of populations in coastal areas through the effects of flooding due to coastal inundation. Indonesia is an Archipelagic State of over 17,000 islands and is vulnerable to climate change impacts in its coastal areas and especially in its highly populated low lying delta areas, such as Jakarta and Semarang, where vulnerability to sea level rise is evident. The adequacy of the legal adaptation framework in Indonesia to respond to this climate vulnerability is assessed and it is found to have limited consideration of the community burden arising from these climate and SLR uncertainties. A more inclusive social justice approach could assist government to respond to the impacts from these issues and to their implications for vulnerable groups. The nation can improve adaptive legal measures to address climate change impacts and increase the involvement of local people in climate change adaptation decision making. Funding is required to assist policy makers to further incorporate adaptation into decision making, and this could improve social justice outcomes for vulnerable Indonesian coastal communities.

Area-Independent Effects of Water-Retaining Features on Intertidal Biodiversity on Eco-Engineered Seawalls in the Tropics

Loke LHL, Heery EC, Lai S, Bouma TJ, Todd PA. Area-Independent Effects of Water-Retaining Features on Intertidal Biodiversity on Eco-Engineered Seawalls in the Tropics. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00016/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Over the last decade there has been a global effort to eco-engineer urban artificial shorelines with the aim of increasing their biodiversity and extending their conservation value. One of the most common and viable eco-engineering approaches on seawalls is to use enhancement features that increase habitat structural complexity, including concrete tiles molded with complex designs and precast “flowerpots” that create artificial rock pools. Increases in species diversity in pits and pools due to microhabitat conditions (water retention, shade, protection from waves, and/or biotic refugia) are often reported, but these results can be confounded by differences in the surface area sampled. In this study, we fabricated three tile types (n = 10): covered tile (grooved tile with a cover to retain water), uncovered tile (same grooved tile but without a cover) and granite control. We tested the effects of these tile types on species richness (S), total individual abundance (N), and community composition. All tiles were installed at 0.5 m above chart datum along seawalls surrounding two island sites (Pulau Hantu and Kusu Island) south of Singapore mainland. The colonizing assemblages were sampled after 8 months. Consistent with previous studies, mean S was significantly greater on covered tiles compared to the uncovered and granite tiles. While it is implied in much of the eco-engineering literature that this pattern results from greater niche availability allotted by microhabitat conditions, we further investigated whether there was an underlying species-individual relationship to determine whether increases in S could have simply resulted from covered tiles supporting greater N (i.e., increasing the probability of detecting more species despite a constant area). The species-individual relationship was positive, suggesting that multiple mechanisms are at play, and that biodiversity enhancements may in some instances operate simply by increasing the abundance of individuals, even when microhabitat availability is unchanged. This finding underscores the importance of testing mechanisms in eco-engineering studies and highlights ongoing mechanistic uncertainties that should be addressed to inform the design of more biodiverse seawalls and urban marine environments.

The effects of mean sea level rise and strengthened winds on extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea

Hieronymus M, Dieterich C, Andersson H, Hordoir R. The effects of mean sea level rise and strengthened winds on extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea. Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters [Internet]. 2018 ;8(6):366 - 371. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095034918302083
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Mean sea level rise and climatological wind speed changes occur as part of the ongoing climate change and future projections of both variables are still highly uncertain. Here the Baltic Sea's response in extreme sea levels to perturbations in mean sea level and wind speeds is investigated in a series of simulations with a newly developed storm surge model based on the nucleus for European modeling of the ocean (NEMO)-Nordic. A simple linear model with only two tunable parameters is found to capture the changes in the return levels extremely well. The response to mean sea level rise is linear and nearly spatially uniform, meaning that a mean sea level rise of 1 m increases the return levels by a equal amount everywhere. The response to wind speed perturbations is more complicated and return levels are found to increase more where they are already high. This behaviour is alarming as it suggests that already flooding prone regions like the Gulf of Finland will be disproportionally adversely affected in a future windier climate.

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem principles: Identification of ecosystem processes, services and communication of value

Turner PJ, Thaler AD, Freitag A, Collins PColman. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem principles: Identification of ecosystem processes, services and communication of value. Marine Policy [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18302811
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Difficulties in quantifying the value of an ecosystem have prompted efforts to emphasize how human well-being depends on the physical, chemical and biological properties of an ecosystem (i.e., ecosystem structure) as well as ecosystem functioning. Incorporating ecosystem structure and function into discussions of value is important for deep-sea ecosystems because many deep-sea ecosystem services indirectly benefit humans and are more difficult to quantify. This study uses an ecosystem principles approach to illustrate a broader definition of value for deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Expert opinion, solicited using an iterative survey approach, was used to develop principles that describe hydrothermal vent processes and their links to human well-being. Survey participants established 28 principles relating to ecosystem structure (n = 12), function (n = 6), cultural services (n = 8) and provisioning services (n = 2), namely the provision of mineral deposits and genetic resources. Principles relating to cultural services emphasized the inspirational value of hydrothermal vents for the arts and ocean education, as well as their importance as a frontier in scientific research. The prevalence of principles relating to ecosystem structure and function (n = 18) highlights the need to understand subsequent links to ecosystem services. For example, principles relating to regulating services were not established by the expert group but links between ecosystem function and regulating services can be made. The ecosystem principles presented here emphasize a more holistic concept of value that will be important to consider as regulations are developed for the exploitation of minerals associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

Using remote sensing to quantify fishing effort and predict shorebird conflicts in an intertidal fishery

Clarke LJ, Hill RA, Ford A, Herbert RJH, Esteves LS, Stillman RA. Using remote sensing to quantify fishing effort and predict shorebird conflicts in an intertidal fishery. Ecological Informatics [Internet]. 2019 ;50:136 - 148. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S157495411830270X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Accurate estimates of fishing effort are necessary in order to assess interactions with the wider ecosystem and for defining and implementing appropriate management. In intertidal and inshore fisheries in which vessel monitoring systems (VMS) or logbook programmes may not be implemented, quantifying the distribution and intensity of fishing can be difficult. The most obvious effects of bottom-contact fishing are often physical changes to the habitat, such as scarring of the sediment following dredging or trawling. We explored the potential of applying remote sensing techniques to aerial imagery collected by an unmanned aerial vehicle, or drone, in an area of intertidal mud flat (0.52 km2) in Poole Harbour, UK, where shellfish dredging is widely carried out and conflicts between commercial fishing interests and the conservation of internationally important shorebird populations are a concern. Image classification and image texture analysis were performed on imagery collected during the open dredge season in November 2015, in order to calculate measures of fishing intensity across three areas of the harbour subject to different management measures. We found a significant correlation between results of the image texture analysis and official sightings records collected during the dredging season, indicating that this method most accurately quantified dredging disturbance. The relationship between shorebird densities and food intake rates and the results of this analysis method were then investigated to assess the potential for using remotely sensed measures of fishing effort to assess responses of overwintering shorebird populations to intertidal shellfish dredging. Our work highlights the application of such methods, providing a low-cost tool for quantifying fishing effort and predicting wildlife conflicts.

Circumscribing communities: Marine conservation and territorialization in southeastern Tanzania

Raycraft J. Circumscribing communities: Marine conservation and territorialization in southeastern Tanzania. Geoforum [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016718518303658
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $19.95
Type: Journal Article

The Mnazi Bay-Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park (MBREMP), a multiple-use marine protected area in southeastern Tanzania, is publicly framed as a project that benefits coastal villagers and marine biodiversity. In reality, villagers are politically excluded from park governance, though geographically included inside of park boundaries. While the stated aim of the park is to protect the ecological integrity of the marine environment, I argue that the MBREMP constitutes a contested and inconsistent process of territorialization characterized by boundary-making, zoning, and regulating resource-use inside of a geographically-defined area. Through the Marine Parks and Reserves Unit, the park extends the reach of the state apparatus to a rural locality that would otherwise be situated on its geographic and political periphery. However, disconnects exist between territorialization on paper and in practice due to the on-the-ground politics of conservation. Practical management constraints, political complexities related to state-private partnerships, and bottom-up resistance create barriers to territorialization. Nonetheless, park management practices constrain local livelihoods and negatively impact villagers’ everyday lives. The reclassification of Village Land as Reserve Land undermines customary rights to resources and renders customary occupancy rights ever more precarious. Citing their lived experiences of subjugation, some villagers perceive the park as a political instrument for securing state resource control. Rather than a ‘fortress’ model of conservation that physically displaces villagers, I maintain that circumscription of coastal communities creates new social and political terrains of territoriality.

Potential interaction between plastic litter and green turtle Chelonia mydas during nesting in an extremely polluted beach

Gündoğdu S, Yeşilyurt İNur, Erbaş C. Potential interaction between plastic litter and green turtle Chelonia mydas during nesting in an extremely polluted beach. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2019 ;140:138 - 145. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X19300426
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

This study examines the extent of macroplastic pollution on Samandağ beach and the potential effects on green sea turtles during nesting. For this purpose, a total of 39 different turtle tracks were studied. Mean plastic concentration was found to be 19.5 ± 1.2 pcs m−2. Among the different types of crawling, the highest concentrations of plastics were found on the tracks of turtles that did not attempt to dig nests (25.9 ± 8.4 pcs m−2). In total, 7 different types of plastics (disposable, film, fishing-related, foam, fragments, miscellaneous, and textile) were found, with film-type plastics being the most prevalent (11 pcs m−2). Samandağ beach was found to be greatly more polluted than any other beach in the Mediterranean Sea. We concluded that this pollution can cause negative effects, especially entanglement and entrapment, on green sea turtle females and hatchlings.

Generation Y and protected areas: A scoping study of research, theory, and future directions

Weiler B, Martin VY, Canosa A, Cutter-Mackenzie A. Generation Y and protected areas: A scoping study of research, theory, and future directions. Journal of Leisure Research [Internet]. 2018 ;49(3-5):277 - 297. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00222216.2018.1542285
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $43.00
Type: Journal Article

Over the past two decades, there has been anecdotal reporting of declines in young people’s engagement with natural environments. This article focuses on Generation Y, also commonly referred to as the Millennials. Through a scoping study of published research to 2017, we explore how Generation Y experiences, views, and is influenced by natural areas of high conservation value. A key finding is that the body of empirical and theoretical research that has examined Generation Y’s engagement with national parks and protected areas is very small. Four distinct topic areas emerged: “generational differences,” “outdoor recreation and well-being,” “environmental responsibility,” and “visitor trends.” Findings suggest that Generation Y may differ from other generations, including how they value well-being and their perceptions of environmental responsibility. The article explores the implications for how protected area agencies promote, create, and manage experiences.

Predicting ecosystem components in the Gulf of Mexico and their responses to climate variability with a dynamic Bayesian network model

Trifonova N, Karnauskas M, Kelble C. Predicting ecosystem components in the Gulf of Mexico and their responses to climate variability with a dynamic Bayesian network model Ng CA. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(1):e0209257. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209257
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Gulf of Mexico is an ecologically and economically important marine ecosystem that is affected by a variety of natural and anthropogenic pressures. These complex and interacting pressures, together with the dynamic environment of the Gulf, present challenges for the effective management of its resources. The recent adoption of Bayesian networks to ecology allows for the discovery and quantification of complex interactions from data after making only a few assumptions about observations of the system. In this study, we apply Bayesian network models, with different levels of structural complexity and a varying number of hidden variables to account for uncertainty when modeling ecosystem dynamics. From these models, we predict focal ecosystem components within the Gulf of Mexico. The predictive ability of the models varied with their structure. The model that performed best was parameterized through data-driven learning techniques and accounted for multiple ecosystem components’ associations and their interactions with human and natural pressures over time. Then, we altered sea surface temperature in the best performing model to explore the response of different ecosystem components to increased temperature. The magnitude and even direction of predicted responses varied by ecosystem components due to heterogeneity in driving factors and their spatial overlap. Our findings suggest that due to varying components’ sensitivity to drivers, changes in temperature will potentially lead to trade-offs in terms of population productivity. We were able to discover meaningful interactions between ecosystem components and their environment and show how sensitive these relationships are to climate perturbations, which increases our understanding of the potential future response of the system to increasing temperature. Our findings demonstrate that accounting for additional sources of variation, by incorporating multiple interactions and pressures in the model layout, has the potential for gaining deeper insights into the structure and dynamics of ecosystems.

The role of human rights in implementing socially responsible seafood

Teh LCL, Caddell R, Allison EH, Finkbeiner EM, Kittinger JN, Nakamura K, Ota Y. The role of human rights in implementing socially responsible seafood Patterson HM. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(1):e0210241. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210241
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Sustainability standards for seafood mainly address environmental performance criteria and are less concerned with the welfare of fisheries workers who produce the seafood. Yet human rights violations such as slavery and human trafficking are widespread in fisheries around the world, and underscore the need for certification bodies and other seafood supply chain actors to improve social performance, in addition to addressing environmental challenges. Calls for socially responsible seafood have referenced human rights law and policy frameworks to shape the guiding principles of socially responsible seafood and to provide the legal machinery to implement these aspirations, but practical guidance on how to achieve this is lacking. To provide clarity on this challenge, we reviewed the literature concerning human rights in the seafood supply chain, and prepared an analysis of opportunities and challenges to implement socially responsible seafood through relevant human rights, legal and policy instruments. We observe that human rights laws are generally framed in favour of addressing violations of civil and political rights, but there remains considerable scope for applying economic, social and cultural (ESC) rights in this context. Other challenges include weakly defined ESC rights infringements, a lack of straightforward mechanisms to enforce human rights entitlements, and practical difficulties such as resources to support and secure rights. On the positive side, governments can draw on international instruments to inspire national policies and legislation to eliminate illegalities from the seafood supply chain. However, for socially responsible seafood principles to translate into tangible actions, these objectives must be rooted in clear legal obligations and be supported by sufficient national capacity and political will.

Social equity shapes zone-selection: Balancing aquatic biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services delivery in the transboundary Danube River Basin

Domisch S, Kakouei K, Martínez-López J, Bagstad KJ, Magrach A, Balbi S, Villa F, Funk A, Hein T, Borgwardt F, et al. Social equity shapes zone-selection: Balancing aquatic biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services delivery in the transboundary Danube River Basin. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2019 ;656:797 - 807. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969718347041
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Freshwater biodiversity is declining, despite national and international efforts to manage and protect freshwater ecosystems. Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has been proposed as an approach that could more efficiently and adaptively balance ecological and societal needs. However, this raises the question of how social and ecological objectives can be included in an integrated management plan. Here, we present a generic model-coupling framework tailored to address this question for freshwater ecosystems, using three components: biodiversity, ecosystem services (ESS), and a spatial prioritisation that aims to balance the spatial representation of biodiversity and ESS supply and demand. We illustrate this model-coupling approach within the Danube River Basin using the spatially explicit, potential distribution of (i) 85 fish species as a surrogate for biodiversity as modelled using hierarchical Bayesian models, and (ii) four estimated ESS layers produced by the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) platform (with ESS supply defined as carbon storage and flood regulation, and demand specified as recreation and water use). These are then used for (iii) a joint spatial prioritisation of biodiversity and ESS employing Marxan with Zones, laying out the spatial representation of multiple management zones. Given the transboundary setting of the Danube River Basin, we also run comparative analyses including the country-level purchasing power parity (PPP)-adjusted gross domestic product (GDP) and each country's percent cover of the total basin area as potential cost factors, illustrating a scheme for balancing the share of establishing specific zones among countries. We demonstrate how emphasizing various biodiversity or ESS targets in an EBM model-coupling framework can be used to cost-effectively test various spatially explicit management options across a multi-national case study. We further discuss possible limitations, future developments, and requirements for effectively managing a balance between biodiversity and ESS supply and demand in freshwater ecosystems.

Preparing for the future: integrating spatial ecology into ecosystem-based management

Lowerre-Barbieri SK, Catalán IA, Opdal AFrugård, Jørgensen C. Preparing for the future: integrating spatial ecology into ecosystem-based management. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/advance-article/doi/10.1093/icesjms/fsy209/5299619
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine resource management is shifting from optimizing single species yield to redefining sustainable fisheries within the context of managing ocean use and ecosystem health. In this introductory article to the theme set, “Plugging spatial ecology into ecosystem-based management (EBM)” we conduct an informal horizon scan with leaders in EBM research to identify three rapidly evolving areas that will be game changers in integrating spatial ecology into EBM. These are: (1) new data streams from fishers, genomics, and technological advances in remote sensing and bio-logging; (2) increased analytical power through “Big Data” and artificial intelligence; and (3) better integration of social dimensions into management. We address each of these areas by first imagining capacity in 20 years from now, and then highlighting emerging efforts to get us there, drawing on articles in this theme set, other scientific literature, and presentations/discussions from the symposium on “Linkages between spatial ecology and sustainable fisheries” held at the ICES Annual Science Conference in September 2017.

Human-Nature Relations in Flux: Two Decades of Research in Coastal and Ocean Management

Glaeser B. Human-Nature Relations in Flux: Two Decades of Research in Coastal and Ocean Management. In: Elsevier; 2019. pp. 641 - 659. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012814003100037X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Book Chapter

The chapter departs from human-nature relations and interlinks changing approaches to integrated and sustainable coastal and ocean management. This paper reviews two decades of interdisciplinary research, 1996–2016. In hindsight, the review discovered an amazing change of focus, adapting to changing societal needs and scientific outlooks: from conflict resolution to governance issues, disaster management, eventually to linking social and ecological factors via typologies of coastal and marine social-ecological systems. Theoretical aspects are embedded and grounded in empirical case studies, taken from economically developed areas [high per capita gross domestic product (GDP) level] in temperate zones (Sweden and Germany) and from economically developing areas (intermediate per capita GDP level with significant incidence of poverty) in tropical zones (Indonesia). Eventually, the maturation of a field may be witnessed.

Method for the quantitative evaluation of ecosystem services in coastal regions

Okada T, Mito Y, Iseri E, Takahashi T, Sugano T, Akiyama YB, Watanabe K, Tanaya T, Sugino H, Tokunaga K, et al. Method for the quantitative evaluation of ecosystem services in coastal regions. PeerJ [Internet]. 2019 ;6:e6234. Available from: https://peerj.com/articles/6234
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Wetlands, tidal flats, seaweed beds, and coral reefs are valuable not only as habitats for many species, but also as places where people interact with the sea. Unfortunately, these areas have declined in recent years, so environmental improvement projects to conserve and restore them are being carried out across the world. In this study, we propose a method for quantifying ecosystem services, that is, useful for the proper maintenance and management of artificial tidal flats, a type of environmental improvement project. With this method, a conceptual model of the relationship between each service and related environmental factors in natural and social systems was created, and the relationships between services and environmental factors were clarified. The state of the environmental factors affecting each service was quantified, and the state of those factors was reflected in the evaluation value of the service. As a result, the method can identify which environmental factors need to be improved and if the goal is to increase the value of the targeted tidal flat. The method demonstrates an effective approach in environmental conservation for the restoration and preservation of coastal areas.

A catchment-scale perspective of plastic pollution

Windsor FM, Durance I, Horton AA, Thompson RC, Tyler CR, Ormerod SJ. A catchment-scale perspective of plastic pollution. Global Change Biology [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/gcb.14572
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Plastic pollution is distributed across the globe, but compared with marine environments, there is only rudimentary understanding of the distribution and effects of plastics in other ecosystems. Here, we review the transport and effects of plastics across terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. We focus on hydrological catchments as well-defined landscape units that provide an integrating scale at which plastic pollution can be investigated and managed. Diverse processes are responsible for the observed ubiquity of plastic pollution, but sources, fluxes and sinks in river catchments are poorly quantified. Early indications are that rivers are hotspots of plastic pollution, supporting some of the highest recorded concentrations. River systems are also likely pivotal conduits for plastic transport among the terrestrial, floodplain, riparian, benthic and transitional ecosystems with which they connect. Although ecological effects of micro- and nano-plastics plastics might arise through a variety of physical and chemical mechanisms, consensus and understanding of their nature, severity and scale is restricted. Furthermore, whilst individual-level effects are often graphically represented in public media, knowledge of the extent and severity of the impacts of plastic at population, community and ecosystem levels is limited. Given the potential social, ecological and economic consequences, we call for more comprehensive investigations of plastic pollution in ecosystems to guide effective management action and risk assessment. This is reliant on (i) expanding research to quantify sources, sinks, fluxes and fates of plastics in catchments and transitional waters both independently as a major transport routes to marine ecosystems; (ii) improving environmentally relevant dose-response relationships for different organisms and effect pathways, (iii) scaling up from studies on individual organisms to populations and ecosystems, where individual effects are shown to cause harm; and (iv) improving biomonitoring through developing ecologically relevant metrics based on contemporary plastic research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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