Literature Library

Currently indexing 9007 titles

Comparing biodiversity valuation approaches for the sustainable management of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

De Valck J, Rolfe J. Comparing biodiversity valuation approaches for the sustainable management of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Ecosystem Services [Internet]. 2019 ;35:23 - 31. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041618302791
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is a World-known, iconic environmental asset whose complex functioning is largely ascribed to its outstanding biodiversity, ranging from genes to plants, animals and entire ecosystems. Biodiversity has been key to its resilience over the past millennia. However, the combined effects of climate change, water quality degradation and coastal development are threatening the GBR’s resilience. There is a crucial need to better understand the value of biodiversity in that region to encourage sustainable policy-making.

Different approaches have been suggested in the literature to value biodiversity. First, we review the use of a Total Economic Value framework to look into all dimensions of biodiversity values. Second, we describe an approach relying on ecosystem services. The suitability of these two approaches to value biodiversity in the GBR is assessed. Next, we review 23 finance mechanisms and discuss the possibility to use them to alleviate pressures on ecosystems and biodiversity in the GBR. We conclude by stressing the importance of biodiversity valuation in the GBR, highlight some of the remaining challenges and provide recommendations for future research avenues.

Using Systematic Conservation Planning to support Marine Spatial Planning and achieve marine protection targets in the transboundary Benguela Ecosystem

Kirkman SP, Holness S, Harris LR, Sink KJ, Lombard AT, Kainge P, Majiedt P, Nsiangango SE, Nsingi KK, Samaai T. Using Systematic Conservation Planning to support Marine Spatial Planning and achieve marine protection targets in the transboundary Benguela Ecosystem. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2019 ;168:117 - 129. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569118306720
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME) is subject to moderate to high levels of fishing, mining and numerous other human pressures, all of which are set to intensify through current socio-economic development initiatives in Angola, Namibia and South Africa. There is, however, minimal spatial protection of marine and coastal ecosystems in the region, potentially reducing the sustainability of the planned development and the likelihood of achieving Sustainable Development Goals. As a precursor to Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) processes in the three countries, and to guide establishment of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), this study aimed to: assess two headline indicators of ecosystem status, namely their potential threat status and current spatial protection levels; and to use Systematic Conservation Planning (SCP) to prioritise specific areas for protection to achieve networks of MPAs that are representative of national and regional biodiversity. Two hundred and forty eight ecosystem types in the coastal (n = 134), offshore benthic (n = 86) and pelagic (n = 28) zones of the BCLME were classified, mapped and assessed. Overall, 35% of all ecosystem types in the study domain were threatened, with more threatened coastal (37%) and offshore benthic (37%) ecosystem types compared to pelagic ecosystem types (14%), although the same pattern was not necessarily evident within each country. Nearly two thirds (59%) of the BCLME ecosystem types were not protected in MPAs, and most of those that were well (19%) or moderately protected (14%) were coastal types that are within a single extensive MPA in Namibia. Notwithstanding, there was still a sufficient area of most ecosystem types that was assessed to be in good ecological condition in all three countries and that could be prioritised for representative protection of the region's biodiversity. A portfolio of priority conservation areas was identified from Marxan selection-frequency outputs, providing a spatial vision for protected areas in the BCLME that includes coastal, inshore and offshore areas in all three countries. This first assessment of marine ecosystem threat and protection status for an entire LME demonstrates a rapid science-based approach that can inform integrated ocean management and multiple development goals. The study provides a basis for identifying Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas, potential sites for MPAs or other spatial management in the region, and demonstrates the contribution of SCP and spatial management to MSP.

Multi-scale policy diffusion and translation in Pacific Island coastal fisheries

Song AM, Cohen PJ, Hanich Q, Morrison TH, Andrew N. Multi-scale policy diffusion and translation in Pacific Island coastal fisheries. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2019 ;168:139 - 149. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569118302278
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Multilateral consensus forged among heads of states must be value-additive and relevant at the national level to facilitate on-ground implementation. Yet, despite general optimism and advances in policy understanding, multi-scale diffusion remains a challenge with little certainty in outcomes. This study focuses on examining intermediary dynamics occurring within national policy apparatus that can influence domestic uptake of policy innovation. We analyse the anticipated spread of two supranational policies on coastal fisheries in the Pacific region – the ‘Small-Scale Fisheries Guidelines’ and ‘the New Song’ – in three countries: Kiribati, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our approach combines instrumental perspectives on ‘policy coherence’ with cognitive–normative perspectives on ‘policy image’. Accordingly, we use two methods: a document-based comparison of the policies produced at different levels and interviews with national government officers in charge of policy deliberation and delivery. We find supranational-to-national policy coherence across most prescribed policy themes, except for emergent social themes such as ‘gender’ and ‘human rights–based approaches’. The views of government managers substantiate, and further augment, this finding. Crucially, managers' images (encompassing judgements, aspirations and convictions) represent personal and practical attributes involved in policy interpretation and implementation. Multi-scale policy diffusion is thus a translational process mediated by national-level staff, and managers' policy images offer nuanced and dynamic insights into why some policies are slow to take root while others take different shape to their agreed meanings. Analysts and policymakers must consider and mobilise translational approaches and policy images in order to understand and facilitate successful domestic implementation of international agreements.

A new proposal to classify small fishing vessels to improve tropical estuarine fishery management

Prestrelo L, Oliveira R, Vianna M. A new proposal to classify small fishing vessels to improve tropical estuarine fishery management. Fisheries Research [Internet]. 2019 ;211:100 - 110. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0165783618303229
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

An important step in fishery management is to classify fishing vessels by their technical, power, range and impact capacities. This allows management improvement for environmental, social and economic purposes. Technical features are commonly used to classify vessels, but are inadequately addressed for small-scale fisheries (SSF), especially in estuaries. This study analyzed 685 small fishing vessels in order to determine the best way to classify them and suggest how this can improve estuarine SSF management. Technical features, target species, and the degree of urbanization and income of the community were considered. Estuarine-dependent vessels differ from coastal vessels. Their simpler technology increases overlaps of target species and fishing gear. Technical features commonly used to classify vessels (length, engine power and tonnage) are inappropriate for those with low technology. Instead, the degree of technical homogeneity, the number of fishing gears, and the overlap of target species should be considered. We suggest the classification of vessels in management units for estuarine small-scale vessels: a group of vessels operating in the same area, with very low technology, similar fishing range and fishing capacity, a multi-gear pattern, and high target species overlap. Vessels with different main fishing gear may represent the same management unit, because the simple technology required by each gear allows the same vessel to uses several types. The multi-gear and multi-species strategy impairs the use of traditional gear-based management, yet enables low-income fishermen to continue fishing. Vessels with lower technology were observed in less-urbanized communities and had lower income, and therefore these fishermen depend more on the estuarine fishery. Financial capacity stimulates technology and increases fishing capacity, range and gear specialization. Simple technology may help to improve food security and alleviate poverty by maximizing catch diversity. This study identified management units through a novel use of the features of small-scale vessels. We discuss important issues that influence the technological development of small-scale vessels and how this method may improve SSF management.

Implementing Ecosystem Approaches to Fishery Management: Risk Assessment in the US Mid-Atlantic

Gaichas SK, DePiper GS, Seagraves RJ, Muffley BW, Sabo MG, Colburn LL, Loftus AJ. Implementing Ecosystem Approaches to Fishery Management: Risk Assessment in the US Mid-Atlantic. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 ;5. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2018.00442/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Fishery managers worldwide are evaluating methods for incorporating climate, habitat, ecological, social, and economic factors into current operations in order to implement Ecosystem Approaches to Fishery Management (EAFM). While this can seem overwhelming, it is possible to take practical steps toward EAFM implementation that make use of existing information and provide managers with valuable strategic advice. Here, we describe the process used by the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) to develop an ecosystem-level risk assessment, the initial step proposed in their recently adopted EAFM guidance document. The Council first defined five types of Risk Elements (ecological, economic, social, food production, management) and identified which management objectives aligned with each element. Based on an existing ecosystem status report for the region and other existing sources (including expert opinion), potential ecological, social, economic, and management indicators were identified for each risk element. Finally, low, low-moderate, moderate-high, and high risk criteria were defined for each indicator, and the indicator data were used to score each risk element using the criteria. The ultimate outcome is a ranked risk assessment in order to focus on the highest risk issues for further evaluation and mitigation. The risk assessment highlights certain species and certain management issues as posing higher cumulative risks to meeting Council management objectives when considering a broad range of ecological, social, and economic factors. Tabular color coded summaries of risk assessment results will be used by the Council to prioritize further EAFM analyses as well as research plans over the coming 5 years. As ecosystem reporting and operational EAFM continue to evolve in future years, the Council foresees integrating these efforts so that ecosystem indicators are refined to meet the needs of fishery managers in identifying and managing risks to achieving ecological, social, and economic fishery objectives. Overall, ecosystem indicator-based risk assessment is a method that can be adapted to a wide range of resource management systems and available information, and therefore represents a promising way forward in the implementation of EAFM.

Light and Shade in Marine Conservation Across European and Contiguous Seas

Fraschetti S, Pipitone C, Mazaris AD, Rilov G, Badalamenti F, Bevilacqua S, Claudet J, Carić H, Dahl K, D’Anna G, et al. Light and Shade in Marine Conservation Across European and Contiguous Seas. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 ;5. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2018.00420/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

As a response to increasing human pressures on marine ecosystems, the legislation aimed at improving the conservation and management of marine coastal areas in European and Contiguous Seas (ECS) underwent crucial advances. ECS, however, still remain largely affected by increasing threats leading to biodiversity loss. Here, by using emblematic case studies and expert knowledge, we review current conservation tools, comparing their application in different areas to assess their effectiveness, potential for synergies, and contradictions. Despite regional differences in their application, the existing legislative frameworks have the potential to regulate human activities and to protect marine biodiversity. However, four challenges remain to be addressed to fully achieve environmental policy goals: (1) Lack of shared vision representing a limitation in transboundary collaboration. Although all EU countries are committed to fulfil EU Directives and other binding international legislative acts, a remarkable heterogeneity exists among countries in the compliance with the common legislation on conservation and in their degree of implementation. (2) Lack of systematic procedures for the selection of protected marine sites. Regional and national approaches in designating Natura 2000 sites and nationally designated marine protected areas (MPAs) reflect varying conservation targets and importance of conservation issues in political agendas. (3) Lack of coherent ecological networks. Natura 2000 sites and other MPAs are still far from reaching the status of effective networks in all considered case studies. (4) Hotspot of conflicts with private economic interests prevailing over conservation aims. Recommendations are given to overcome the fragmented approach still characterizing the conservation and management of coastal marine environments. Holistic, integrated, ecosystem-based, cross-cutting approaches can avoid conflicts among institutions so as to provide effective and timely solutions to current and future challenges concerning the conservation and management of marine ecosystems and associated goods and services.

How effective is a marine spatial plan: An evaluation case study in China

Fang Q, Zhu S, Ma D, Zhang L, Yang S. How effective is a marine spatial plan: An evaluation case study in China. Ecological Indicators [Internet]. 2019 ;98:508 - 514. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X18308896
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP) aims to address conflicts between different sea uses and conflicts between such uses and marine environments. However, how to evaluate, particularly quantitatively evaluate, an MSP scheme on its performance of achieving the above objectives is still an issue. In this paper, an MSP scheme evaluation framework focusing on sea use compatibility and the protection degree of key ecological areas is put forward. First, the intensity of every sea use is graded on a scale of 1–10 based on its demand on marine resources and impacts on marine environments, and key ecological areas are identified based on scientific criteria for ecologically or biologically significant marine areas of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Then, a set of formulas are designed to calculate the conflict value among sea uses. The protection degree in a sea area is calculated through buffer zone tools and overlap analysis in Geographic Information System (GIS). The proposed method is applied to a case study of Xiamen, China, by comparing its marine spatial plans of version 2007 and version 2013. The results show that the sea use intensity increases from 3.51 to 4.20 on average in the Western Sea of Xiamen. The key ecological area protection value decreases from 0.59 to 0.45, and the sea use conflicts value decreases from 0.28 to 0.20. The results demonstrate that MSP is successful in reducing sea use conflicts in version 2013 in the context of an increasing sea use intensity. However, the protection degree of key ecological areas needs to be strengthened. Further statistical analysis of the results provides more information for the cause analysis of the performance changes. This information would inform potential revisions of the current marine spatial plan and future sea use management. The proposed method provides a feasible approach to analyse the MSP scheme in a quantitative way.

Monitoring the effects of knowledge communication on conservation managers’ perception of genetic biodiversity – A case study from the Baltic Sea

Lundmark C, Sandström A, Andersson K, Laikre L. Monitoring the effects of knowledge communication on conservation managers’ perception of genetic biodiversity – A case study from the Baltic Sea. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;99:223 - 229. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18304998
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Despite the attention given to genetic biodiversity in international agreements such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Strategic Plan and the Aichi Targets, previous research points at a “conservation genetics gap,” indicating that scientific insights into genetic biodiversity are poorly integrated into practical management. Both researchers and managers call for platforms for knowledge exchange between science and practice. However, few scientific studies on the potential effects of such knowledge transfer have been conducted. The present study is a follow-up to Lundmark et al. (2017), which identified significant effects of two forms of knowledge communication on conservation managers’ concerns and beliefs in regard to Baltic Sea genetic biodiversity. This study departs from Lundmark et al. (2017) and explores (a) whether the identified alterations in knowledge and beliefs persist over time, and (b) whether potential stability differs between different types of policy beliefs as well as between two types of knowledge communication (lecture and group deliberation). The results of this follow-up study show that the positive impacts on managers’ self-assessed knowledge remained, while the effects on policy beliefs largely had vanished a few months after the knowledge communication. Thus, changes in beliefs seem perishable, suggesting that continuity is more important than the form of educational efforts.

Establishing company level fishing revenue and profit losses from fisheries: A bottom-up approach

Cashion T, De la Puente S, Belhabib D, Pauly D, Zeller D, U. Sumaila R. Establishing company level fishing revenue and profit losses from fisheries: A bottom-up approach Tsikliras AC. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2018 ;13(11):e0207768. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207768
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

A third of global fish stocks are overexploited and many are economically underperforming, resulting in potential unrealized net economic benefits of USD 51 to 83 billion annually. However, this aggregate view, while useful for global policy discussion, may obscure the view for those actors who engage at a regional level. Therefore, we develop a method to associate large companies with their fishing operations and evaluate the biological sustainability of these operations. We link current fish biomass levels and landings to the revenue streams of the companies under study to compute potentially unrealized fisheries revenues and profits at the level of individual firms. We illustrate our method using two case studies: anchoveta (Engraulis ringens; Engraulidae) in Peru and menhaden in the USA (Brevoortia patronus and Btyrannus;Clupeidae). We demonstrate that both these fisheries could potentially increase their revenues compared to the current levels of exploitation. We estimate the net but unrealized fishery benefits for the companies under question. This information could be useful to investors and business owners who might want to be aware of the actual fisheries performance options of the companies they invest in.

Mapping the value chain of imported shellfish in China

Wang O, Somogyi S, Charlebois S. Mapping the value chain of imported shellfish in China. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;99:69 - 75. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18302628
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This study explores the value chain structure and chain activities of the imported shellfish industry in China. Data were collected from face-to-face semi-structured interviews in Guangzhou (n = 30) and Shanghai (n = 23) and a face-to-face survey in Shanghai (n = 71). Data analysis employed both content and descriptive analyses. Results show that the value chain is composed of several important members including foreign exporters, Chinese importers, wholesalers, resellers and clearance companies. Business partnership is the main channel by which marketing information is gained by chain members. Relationships are quite stable among the chain members, with qualityprice and credit items being the most important factors that influence chain relationships. It seems that imported shellfish from some developed countries (e.g. Canadian and U.S. lobsters) have reached a market saturation in China's first-tier cities (e.g. Guangzhou and Shanghai) and relevant chain members face fierce competition. E-commerce is still not mature enough as a tool for the marketing development of imported shellfish in China.

Navigating seafarer’s right to life across the shipping industry

Zhang P, Shan D, Zhao M, Pryce-Roberts N. Navigating seafarer’s right to life across the shipping industry. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;99:80 - 86. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18300927
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The right to life is a basic and fundamental core human right. Despite the idea that the lives of all human beings are equal under the protection of the law, the special characteristics of the seafarers’ profession suggests that they should be granted additional attention and protection. In recent years, issues related to seafarers’ welfare have moved to the forefront of concern, however, discussion on seafarers’ right to life has drawn little attention. This paper is intended to contribute to knowledge in this aspect by drawing together themes from theoretical policy and governance studies and uses case studies that apply lessons from these disciplines to the practical context of the worldwide shipping industry. Specifically, the discussion clarifies the concept and dimension of the human right to life as well as seafarers’ right to life as a special group of industrial workers, notes the hazardous feature of seafaring as an occupation, identifies the sources of seafarers rights in the related maritime policies and international regulations and illustrates the obligation of the state from the perspective of the ‘flag’ and the ‘port’. The paper finally provides conclusions to the ongoing major issues and suggests a mechanism that should be established to ensure seafarers’ right to life is to be respected.

How the race to achieve Aichi Target 11 could jeopardize the effective conservation of biodiversity in Canada and beyond

Lemieux CJ, Gray PA, Devillers R, Wright PA, Dearden P, Halpenny EA, Groulx M, Beechey TJ, Beazley K. How the race to achieve Aichi Target 11 could jeopardize the effective conservation of biodiversity in Canada and beyond. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;99:312 - 323. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18304706
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In 2010 Parties to the United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) agreed to reduce the rate of biodiversity loss within a decade by achieving 20 objectives that are commonly known as the Aichi Targets. This article explores aspects of Canada's work on one of the few quantified targets (Target 11), which is intended to improve the status of biodiversity through protected areas (PAs) and a new type of designation, “other effective area-based conservation measures” (OECMs). In a faltering attempt to reach its Aichi Target 11 commitments by 2020, some Canadian jurisdictions have elected to focus more on coverage (quantity) and less on ecological integrity (quality), which has significant ramifications for long-term success of biodiversity conservation. For example, a jurisdiction responsible for marine conservation has re-designated regulated fishery closures as ‘marine refuges’ under the auspices of an OECM designation, which brings into question the real intent of Canada's commitment to the CBD and its own Biodiversity Strategy. Ambiguous language used to define and prescribe application of OECMs is being used as the basis for a revisionist paradigm that promises to undermine national and international conservation standards, fracture partnerships, and jeopardize the integrity of Canada's PA network. Canada must reject half measures that will result in ineffective or unintended perverse conservation outcomes, and focus on a post-2020 agenda that prioritizes conservation outcomes, management effectiveness, and the implementation of accountability measures within and between jurisdictions and by the Secretariat of the CBD.

A glimpse into the genetic diversity of the Peruvian seafood sector: Unveiling species substitution, mislabeling and trade of threatened species

Marín A, Serna J, Robles C, Ramírez B, Reyes-Flores LE, Zelada-Mázmela E, Sotil G, Alfaro R. A glimpse into the genetic diversity of the Peruvian seafood sector: Unveiling species substitution, mislabeling and trade of threatened species Chen S. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2018 ;13(11):e0206596. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206596
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Peru is one of the world’s leading fishing nations and its seafood industry relies on the trade of a vast variety of aquatic resources, playing a key role in the country’s socio-economic development. DNA barcoding has become of paramount importance for systematics, conservation, and seafood traceability, complementing or even surpassing conventional identification methods when target organisms show similar morphology during the early life stages, have recently diverged, or have undergone processing. Aiming to increase our knowledge of the species diversity available across the Peruvian supply chain (from fish landing sites to markets and restaurants), we applied full and mini-barcoding approaches targeting three mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S, and 12S) and the control region to identify samples purchased at retailers from six departments along the north-central Peruvian coast. DNA barcodes from 131 samples were assigned to 55 species (plus five genus-level taxa) comprising 47 families, 24 orders, and six classes including Actinopterygii (45.03%), Chondrichthyes (36.64%), Bivalvia (6.87%), Cephalopoda (6.11%), Malacostraca (3.82%), and Gastropoda (1.53%). The identified samples included commercially important pelagic (anchovy, bonito, dolphinfish) and demersal (hake, smooth-hound, Peruvian rock seabass, croaker) fish species. Our results unveiled the marketing of protected and threatened species such as whale shark, Atlantic white marlin, smooth hammerhead (some specimens collected during closed season), shortfin mako, and pelagic thresher sharks. A total of 35 samples (26.72%) were mislabeled, including tilapia labeled as wild marine fish, dolphinfish and hake labeled as grouper, and different shark species sold as “smooth-hounds”. The present study highlights the necessity of implementing traceability and monitoring programs along the entire seafood supply chain using molecular tools to enhance sustainability efforts and ensure consumer choice.

The step-like evolution of Arctic open water

Goldstein MA, Lynch AH, Zsom A, Arbetter T, Chang A, Fetterer F. The step-like evolution of Arctic open water. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2018 ;8(1). Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-35064-5
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

September open water fraction in the Arctic is analyzed using the satellite era record of ice concentration (1979–2017). Evidence is presented that three breakpoints (shifts in the mean) occurred in the Pacific sector, with higher amounts of open water starting in 1989, 2002, and 2007. Breakpoints in the Atlantic sector record of open water are evident in 1971 in longer records, and around 2000 and 2011. Multiple breakpoints are also evident in the Canadian and Russian halves. Statistical models that use detected breakpoints of the Pacific and Atlantic sectors, as well as models with breakpoints in the Canadian and Russian halves and the Arctic as a whole, outperform linear trend models in fitting the data. From a physical standpoint, the results support the thesis that Arctic sea ice may have critical points beyond which a return to the previous state is less likely. From an analysis standpoint, the findings imply that de-meaning the data using the breakpoint means is less likely to cause spurious signals than employing a linear detrend.

Societal causes of, and responses to, ocean acidification

Jagers SC, Matti S, Crépin A-S, Langlet D, Havenhand JN, Troell M, Filipsson HL, Galaz VR, Anderson LG. Societal causes of, and responses to, ocean acidification. Ambio [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13280-018-1103-2
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Major climate and ecological changes affect the world’s oceans leading to a number of responses including increasing water temperatures, changing weather patterns, shrinking ice-sheets, temperature-driven shifts in marine species ranges, biodiversity loss and bleaching of coral reefs. In addition, ocean pH is falling, a process known as ocean acidification (OA). The root cause of OA lies in human policies and behaviours driving society’s dependence on fossil fuels, resulting in elevated CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. In this review, we detail the state of knowledge of the causes of, and potential responses to, OA with particular focus on Swedish coastal seas. We also discuss present knowledge gaps and implementation needs.

Are multiple-use marine protected areas meeting fishers’ proposals? Strengths and constraints in fisheries’ management in Brazil

Macedo HSchulz, Medeiros RPereira, McConney P. Are multiple-use marine protected areas meeting fishers’ proposals? Strengths and constraints in fisheries’ management in Brazil. Marine Policy [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18302367
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Although still controversial among some fisheries management stakeholders, marine protected areas (MPAs) are used worldwide to address fisheries crises. This study focused on the perspectives of fishers in evaluating the effectiveness of an MPA to address their management propositions. The study analysed the drafting and implementation of a multiple-use MPA management plan in the southern coast of Brazil. It evaluated the outcomes in fulfilling the small-scale fishers' proposals, raised and collectively agreed to in a participatory drafting process. Four years after the release of the MPA management plan half of the fishers' proposals were fulfilled. Most of the fishers' fulfilled proposals were related to regulations within the MPA and to strategies to improve their political representativeness, while the majority of the proposals on fishing licensing and on public policies to foster the activity have not yet been achieved. Scale mismatches, authority limitations, and options for innovative institutional arrangements are discussed here as key elements of the results. Additionally, fishers and managers agreed on the increased management performance and learning opportunities created through the participatory process of drafting the management plan, enabling an environment for fulfilling the proposals over the medium and long terms.

Seafood sleuthing: How citizen science contributed to the largest market study of seafood mislabeling in the U.S. and informed policy

Warner KA, Lowell B, Timme W, Shaftel E, Hanner RH. Seafood sleuthing: How citizen science contributed to the largest market study of seafood mislabeling in the U.S. and informed policy. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;99:304 - 311. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18302689
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

A seafood fraud campaign was launched by an ocean conservation group to increase transparency in global seafood supply chains by enacting policies on full chain boat-to-plate traceability for all seafood sold in the U.S. As part of this campaign, online members of the group were recruited to document and collect commercial seafood samples as part of a large investigation of U.S. seafood mislabeling, specifically species substitution. Following an iterative project design including several rounds of pilot testing of sample preservation methods and outreach materials, 1058 of the more than 55,000 members solicited signed up to be a “seafood sleuth” and were mailed seafood testing kits, containing supplies to submit two fish samples of their choice. On average, 33.4% (353/1058) of these citizen scientists in 11 metropolitan areas returned kits that contained 631 samples, or nearly half of the 1263 samples collected in the overall study. Assessment of the quality of citizen science data revealed comparable rates of sample integrity, data completeness and mislabeling compared to samples and data collected by trained scientists. Citizen science outreach provided a more informed and engaged online member population, who continued to take actions to advance seafood traceability policies with their decision makers. Citizen science outreach was an integral part of a successful campaign that included science, communication strategies to garner mass media attention and advocacy to promote seafood traceability which resulted in the first seafood traceability regulation in the U.S.

Exploring Dual Discount Rates for Ecosystem Services: Evidence from a Marine Protected Area Network

Vasquez-Lavín F, Oliva RDPonce, Hernández JIgnacio, Gelcich S, Carrasco M, Quiroga M. Exploring Dual Discount Rates for Ecosystem Services: Evidence from a Marine Protected Area Network. Resource and Energy Economics [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0928765518300022
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

This paper presents a joint estimation of the willingness to pay for conservation activities aimed at preserving the flow of ecosystem services provided by a marine protected area network and respondents’ personal discount rate using a contingent valuation survey. This work contributes to the literature on identifying people’s discount rates by moving beyond the use of the exponential schemes to include a hyperbolic discount rate through variations in the timing and duration of the provision of public goods. We present evidence that different discounting processes are associated with different programs, which depend on the type of ecosystem services under protection, including seed banks and biodiversity conservation for tourism activities. The results show the importance of using decreasing discounting (hyperbolic discounting) for projects aimed at preserving biodiversity for tourism activities. Using exponential discounting undervalues the net benefits associated with tourism by 23%, thus affecting projects’ cost-benefit analyses. These results are crucial for informing the design of marine conservation programs by clarifying the relationships among conservation project goals, the discounting used, and the relevant lifetime project assessment.

Wolves of the Sea: Managing human-wildlife conflict in an increasingly tense ocean

Guerra ASofia. Wolves of the Sea: Managing human-wildlife conflict in an increasingly tense ocean. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18303208
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Human-wildlife conflict has been receiving increased scientific and management attention, predominantly in terrestrial systems, as a side effect of successful predator conservation and recovery. These same conflicts exist in the ocean; however, they are mostly regarded in a region- or taxa-specific context despite evidence that human-wildlife conflict is prevalent across the global oceans and likely to increase as a result of successful conservation measures. Can the lessons learned from conflicts on land promote more sustainable success in the sea? Or, do ocean human-wildlife conflicts create unique challenges that require new solutions? This paper synthesizes evidence from human-wildlife conflicts in the ocean and provides initial suggestions for progressing with effective management in the ocean. Humans have extensive experience managing conflict with terrestrial predators and several of the strategies are transferable to marine predators, but several important differences between systems necessitate a marine-specific focus and evaluation of existing mitigation strategies. Further, in managing marine wildlife conflict, it is crucial to recognize that perceived conflicts can be just as important as actual conflict and that, in many cases, human-human conflict is at the root of human-wildlife conflict. As efforts to recover important predator populations continue, humans are faced with the exciting opportunity and a new necessity to constructively manage these recoveries to continue to meet goals for marine conservation while simultaneously promoting human safety and industry in the seas.

Changes in the biochemical and nutrient composition of seafood due to ocean acidification and warming

Lemasson AJ, Hall-Spencer JM, Kuri V, Knights AM. Changes in the biochemical and nutrient composition of seafood due to ocean acidification and warming. Marine Environmental Research [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141113618304161?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
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No
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US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Ocean acidification and warming may threaten future seafood production, safety and quality by negatively impacting the fitness of marine species. Identifying changes in nutritional quality, as well as species most at risk, is crucial if societies are to secure food production. Here, changes in the biochemical composition and nutritional properties of the commercially valuable oysters, Magallana gigas and Ostrea edulis, were evaluated following a 12-week exposure to six ocean acidification and warming scenarios that were designed to reflect the temperature (+3 °C above ambient) and atmospheric pCO2 conditions (increase of 350–600 ppm) predicted for the mid-to end-of-century. Results suggest that O. edulis, and especially M. gigas, are likely to become less nutritious (i.e. containing lower levels of protein, lipid, and carbohydrate), and have reduced caloric content under ocean acidification and warming. Important changes to essential mineral composition under ocean acidification and warming were evident in both species; enhanced accumulation of copper in M. gigasmay be of concern regarding consumption safety. In light of these findings, the aquaculture industry may wish to consider a shift in focus toward species that are most robust to climate change and less prone to deterioration in quality, in order to secure future food provision and socio-economic benefits of aquaculture.

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