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Marxan Good Practices Handbook

Citation Information: Ardron, J.A., Possingham, H.P., and Klein, C.J. (eds). 2010. Marxan Good Practices Handbook, Version 2. Pacific Marine Analysis and Research Association, Victoria, BC, Canada. 165 pages. http://pacmara.org/

Abstract: Marxan is software that delivers decision support for reserve system design. Marxan was initially designed to solve a particular class of reserve design problems known as the minimum set problem (see Box 1.1) where the goal is to achieve some minimum representation of biodiversity features for the smallest possible cost. Marxan helps users to determine the possible contribution of individual areas and whole networks towards meeting their objectives. Users may use Marxan to explore and propose possible network configurations, to facilitate collaborative network design, or to guide their own land acquisition / marine zoning. Marxan is not designed to act as a stand‐alone reserve design solution. Its effectiveness is dependent upon the involvement of people, the adoption of sound ecological principles, the establishment of scientifically defensible conservation goals and targets and the construction of spatial datasets. Marxan should be used as part of a systematic conservation planning process (outlined in this chapter) and in collaboration with other forms of knowledge. These other forms of knowledge are essential to the refinement of Marxan inputs, the interpretation of Marxan outcomes and the precise placement of final reserve boundaries. Because it seeks spatially efficient solutions, based on a defined problem, Marxan represents a significant step forward from earlier approaches of scoring sites. Nonetheless, there is a significant amount of uncertainty in selecting sites, which is but one aspect of systematic conservation planning, the final step of which is monitoring to evaluate whether the sites make meaningful contributions to the network.

Marine Protected Areas: Economic and Social Implications

Citation Information: Resources for the Future; Discussion Paper 02–26

Date: May 2002

Authors: James N. Sanchirico, Kathryn A. Cochran, and Peter M. Emerson

Abstract: This paper is a guide for citizens, scientists, resource managers, and policy makers, who are interested in understanding the economic and social value of marine protected areas (MPAs). We discuss the potential benefits and costs associated with MPAs as a means of illustrating the economic and social tradeoffs inherent in implementation decisions. In general, the effectiveness of a protected area depends on a complex set of interactions between biological, economic, and institutional factors. While MPAs might provide protection for critical habitats and cultural heritage sites and, in some cases, conserve biodiversity, as a tool to enhance fishery management their impact is less certain. The uncertainty stems from the fact that MPAs only treat the symptoms and not the fundamental causes of overfishing and waste in fisheries.

Economic Valuation of Critical Habitat Closures

Citation Information: Fisheries Centre Research Reports, 2008, Volume 16 Number 8; Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada

ISSN: 1198-6727

Authors: Matthew Berman, Edward J. Gregr, Gakushi Ishimura, Ryan Coatta, Rowenna Flinn, U. Rashid Sumaila, and Andrew Trites

Abstract: We developed methods to estimate the spatial variation in economic values of ocean fisheries, and applied the methods to estimate the cost of closing groundfish fisheries in Steller sea lion Critical Habitat in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. The research addressed two related goals: (1) explicitly linking spatial variability of fisheries biomass and profitability over time to environmental variables; and (2) developing estimates of opportunity costs of time and area closures to the fishing industry at scales relevant to management. The approach involved two stages of statistical analyses. First, environmental conditions measured at 3 km and 9 km spatial scales and two-week and one-month intervals were used to predict fish biomass and fisheries catch per unit of effort (CPUE). Environmental variables included bathymetry, remotely sensed physical and biological observations, and output from a physical oceanographic circulation model. Second, we used predicted CPUE and spatial regulatory and cost factors to explain the spatial distribution of fishing effort over time. Our results suggested that 2001 Critical Habitat closures cost the North Pacific groundfish trawl fisheries 5-40 percent of their total potential net earnings. The improved methods for estimating opportunity costs of fisheries closures we present have direct applications to evaluating boundary changes to marine protected areas and other spatial management decisions. Limitations include the extensive data requirements and the need to bootstrap confidence intervals. If further research demonstrates the robustness and stability of the estimated relationships over time, the methods could project spatial fishery effects of climate variability and change, leading to dynamic spatial models linking fisheries with ecosystems.

Evaluation of Site Selection Methodologies for use in Marine Protected Area Network Design

Citation Information: Fisheries and Oceans Canada; Research Document 2004/082

ISSN: 1499-3848

Date: 2004

Authors: S.M.J. Evans, G. Jamieson, J. Ardron, M. Patterson, and S. Jessen

Executive Summary: This report identifies and compares different methodologies used for the selection of (candidate) marine protected areas (MPAs), termed areas of interest (AOIs). It is hoped that this will provide DFO with the necessary information to evaluate which selection methodology would be most effective in furthering it's MPA objectives within the IM framework.

Choosing the most appropriate methodology depends on the underlying goal for establishing the set of marine protected areas. Clearly defining the purpose and the overall conservation goal is an important first step that must not be overlooked.

Sacred Natural Sites: Guidelines for Protected Area Managers

Citation Information: Wild, R. and McLeod, C. (Editors) (2008). Sacred Natural Sites: Guidelines for Protected Area Managers. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

ISBN: 978–2–8317–1039–6

Description: These guidelines evolved over the period 2003–2008. Their original focus was the sacred natural sites of indigenous and local communities, and this remains their primary scope. These communities, of which there are many thousands across the globe, usually hold deep sacred values in regard to nature, values that are often focused on and rooted in specific locations. Some indigenous people have such a close relationship to their sacred natural sites that the deterioration or destruction of those sites threatens their very existence. In addition, sacred natural sites related to indigenous and local communities are, in general, more vulnerable and more threatened than sacred natural sites associated with mainstream faiths.

Hundreds of sacred natural sites that are still guarded and maintained by traditional, indigenous custodians have been incorporated into protected areas in recent decades. Consistent with IUCN policies, priority has therefore been given, at this point in guideline development, to the sacred natural sites of indigenous and local communities, which account for an extraordinarily high level of both cultural and biological diversity.

During the process of guideline development, it was recognised that mainstream faiths also care for numerous sacred natural sites and many have profound teachings related to the relationship between humans and nature.1 We have endeavoured to develop the guidelines in such a way that they are broadly applicable to the sacred natural sites of all faiths. While retaining the focus on local communities and indigenous people, experiences derived from the sacred natural sites of the mainstream faiths have been included in the narrative, as well as a number of case studies. This attempt to incorporate limited experiences of mainstream faiths should be considered preliminary. Further work is needed to analyse and understand the diversity of sacred natural sites revered by mainstream faiths, which comprise the great majority of humankind.

Proceedings of the 1st Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas Conference

Citation Information: Piante Catherine, Nicol Jean-Puerre, Gerardin Nicolas (2008). Proceedings of the 1st Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas Conference (24-27 October 2007 - Port-Cros National Park). Port-Cros National Park, Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas, WWF-France.

Description: The objective of the conference i§ to promote the development of a comprehensive, ecologically representative and effectively managed marine protected area network in the Mediterranean by bringing together tile managers of marine protected areas and the competent institutions and organisations to share their experiences and consolidate the momentum created by the project to re-establish the MedPAN network, extending it to the Mediterranean region as a whole.

Status of Marine Protected Areas in the Mediterranean Sea

Citation Information: Ameer Abdulla, Marina Gomei, Elodie Maison, and Catherine Piante (2008) Status of Marine Protected Areas in the Mediterranean Sea. IUCN, Malaga and WWF, France. 152 pp.

ISBN: 978-2-8317-1097-6

Description: This work is a collaborative effort of IUCN, WWF and MedPAN3, to present the first evaluation of the status of marine conservation in the Mediterranean.

The main aim of the present survey was to provide an updated baseline to assess progress towards developing an ecologically representative and coherent network of MPAs in the Mediterranean Sea. Specifically, results of this survey were used to measure Mediterranean progress towards the targets of the Convention for Biological Diversity. These results are presented four years prior to the 2012 deadline to establish representative, comprehensive and effectively managed MPA networks and two years before the 2010 deadline to protect 10% of global ecoregions. In addition, the percentage of protection in the Mediterranean region can be used as an indicator to assess the progress in meeting Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring Environmental Sustainability.

The specific objectives of the study included:

  • Updating information regarding the quantity, type and distribution of Mediterranean MPAs and making this information available online through the MedPAN database http://www.medpan.org.
  • Assessing the following characteristics of Mediterranean MPAs:
    • General data and features;
    • Habitats and species currently under protection and conservation status of key ones;
    • Main threats of Mediterranean MPAs;
    • Strengths and weaknesses of management as well as level of capacity/effectiveness of the MPA .

The survey was carried out with the support of the UNEP Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas (RAC/SPA), the arm of the Mediterranean Action Plan regarding Mediterranean protection. It is offered as a resource to MPA managers, institutions, scientists and decision-makers, but also the general public to know better the work done in the region on marine conservation. It has been prepared over 2007 and 2008, and reflects the progress made up to September 2007 in the Mediterranean.

Towards Networks of Marine Protected Areas: The MPA Plan of Action for IUCN’s World Commission on Protected Areas

Citation Information: Laffoley, D. d’A., (ed.) 2008. Towards Networks of Marine Protected Areas. The MPA Plan of Action for IUCN’s World Commission on Protected Areas. IUCN WCPA, Gland, Switzerland. 28 pp.

ISBN: 978-2-8317-1091-4

Description: This Plan of Action has been developed by WCPA – Marine and our partners around the world as a result of an extensive consultation process. In this process we have been supported by a massive network of agencies, organisations and individuals that have helped make this happen. We are grateful to everyone and particularly the following for their significant assistance so far, and their ongoing support:

  • Curtis and Edith Munsen Foundation
  • David and Lucile Packard Foundation
  • Conservation International
  • Google
  • IUCN and IUCN’s Innovation Fund
  • National Geographic
  • Natural England
  • The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • The Nature Conservancy
  • Worldwide Fund for Nature

This Plan of Action set out in the following pages describes the added value that WCPA – Marine brings to the global community working on MPAs. We identify the renewed need for urgent action to protect our oceans and seas, the main themes we work under and the global priorities that we believe are needed to achieve this. This is to help bridge the gap between existing work on MPAs, and what is needed in order to put in place effective and lasting networks of MPAs throughout the world. Alongside this Plan of Action is a Business Plan that sets out more about the approach and management structures we will use to take our work forward.

The Optimization of the Greek Coastal Shipping Transportation Network

Citation Information: Tourismos: an International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism; 2012; Volume 7, Issue 1, p. 351-366

ISSN: 17908418

Author: Konstantinos Chainas

Abstract: This dissertation presents a heuristic algorithm that improves the coastal network in the Greek Aegean Sea. The Greek coastal shipping - except for its specific role for Greek tourism - becomes of utmost importance after the decision of the European Union to reinforce, for special reasons, the short-distance shipping. This dissertation suggests and describes a methodology for the re-planning of the coastal network of Greece and aims to develop a new model of the coastal shipping network in Greece. This model is documented by the heuristic algorithm for improvement, the NAUTILUS. This algorithm drastically improves the travel times for the Aegean destinations and poses the terms and conditions for the materialisation of a Complete Decision System, for the overall improvement of the Greek coastal shipping.

Qualitative and Quantitative Research into Public Engagement with the Undersea Landscape in England

Citation Information: ROSE, C., DADE, P. & SCOTT, J. 2008. Qualitative and Quantitative Research into Public Engagement with the Undersea Landscape in England. Natural England Research Reports, NERR019.

Description: In October 2006, Natural England announced that it would be running a Marine Campaign as part of its work on marine conservation and in particular Marine Protected Areas. Campaign Strategy Limited was commissioned to assist in the development of the campaign.

This report provides a summary and analysis of various market research projects into public perceptions of the undersea environment in England undertaken by various bodies, including two pieces of research commissioned by Natural England. The report was written under Natural England contract FST 20-69-019 by Chris Rose, with contributions from Pat Dade of Cultural Dynamics and John Scott of KSBR Brand Futures.

A summary of the findings covered by this report, as well as Natural England's views on this research, can be found within Natural England Research Information Note RIN019 - Qualitative and quantitative research into public engagement with the undersea landscape in England.

Gender and Equity in the Protected Areas of West Africa

Citation Informaiton: FIBA, UICN

ISBN: 2-9527741-6-1

Date: 2008

Author: Julienne N. Anoko

Description: A new report from IUCN and the Fondation Internationale du Banc d'Arguin (FIBA) examines the role of gender equity in protected area management in West Africa. Featuring several case studies of marine and coastal protected areas, the report discusses the relationship between conservation and social equality between the sexes. It also offers several recommendations for applying an equity-based approach to protected area management in West Africa and elsewhere.

Stemming Decline of the Coastal Ocean: Rethinking Environmental Management

Citation Information: Sale, P.F., M.J. Butler IV, A.J. Hooten, J.P. Kritzer, K.C. Lindeman, Y. J. Sadovy de Mitcheson, R.S. Steneck, and H. van Lavieren, 2008. Stemming Decline of the Coastal Ocean: Rethinking Environmental Management, UNU-INWEH, Hamilton, Canada.

ISBN: 92-808-6008-9

Summary: The coastal ocean environment provides enormous value in fishery and other products and in ecosystem services including coastal protection, water purification, and appropriate locations for ports, harbors, urban centers, tourist destinations, and numerous recreational pursuits. Coastal environments can also cleanse the soul, stimulate the mind, and restore the body. But 40% of all people live within 50km of a coast, and our enthusiasm for coastal living is creating ever more environmental damage.

Current management practices are ineffective and to continue them will endanger coastal economies and ecosystems that support over one half of the world’s population. The trend for coastal ocean ecosystems over recent decades has been for progressive decline in the face of growing human populations, growing demand for coastal resources, and growing use of the coastal environment. Now climate change is starting to add to the pressures on the coastal environment, further stressing ecosystems there. In the following pages, we summarize the present state of management, identify the impediments limiting success, and propose steps to make the substantial improvements needed in management of the coastal ocean.

Sociocultural significance of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal and the human dimensions of conservation planning

Citation Information: ESR 17:139-156 (2012)

DOI: 10.3354/esr00423

Authors: John N. Kittinger, Trisann Māhealani Bambico, Trisha Kehaulani Watson, Edward W. Glazier

Abstract: The Hawaiian monk seal Monachus schauinslandi is Critically Endangered, but relatively little is known about the sociocultural significance of the species in Native Hawaiian communities. An accurate assessment of historical and modern sociocultural values and perceptions is needed to inform conservation and recovery planning for the species, particularly since the species is not universally well-regarded by ocean users. We conducted extensive archival research and oral history interviews to characterize past and current human−monk seal relationships in the Hawaiian archipelago. We report heterogeneity in both historical and contemporary cultural associations for monk seals, which appear to be related to place-specific histories and specific stakeholder groups. We introduce the concept of ‘cultural endemism’ to characterize this pattern of sociocultural heterogeneity, and discuss the relevance of shifting baselines, species recovery, and sociocultural information to conservation planning. We focus on participatory conservation planning approaches as being potentially useful in reducing human−wildlife conflicts and developing collaborative stewardship for better conservation success.

Seas, Oceans and Fisheries: A Challenge for Good Governance

Citation Information: The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs; Volume 101, Issue 2, 2012; Special Issue: Environmental Governance: Securing Our Common Wealth

DOI: 10.1080/00358533.2012.661532

Author: U. Rashid Sumailaa

Abstract: Seas, oceans and fisheries are probably among the most challenging natural resource systems to govern. This contribution discusses why this is so by analysing the key issues and presenting a selection of approaches to tackle them. The main recommendations are for control of illegal and open access fisheries, reduction of perverse subsidies, establishment of more marine protected areas, and proper evaluation of the importance of fisheries to future generations. Only then can fisheries be managed sustainably. The paper uses fish and fisheries in the Commonwealth of Nations to illustrate the points being made.

Our Common Future in the Arctic Ocean

Citation Information: The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs; Volume 101, Issue 2, 2012; Special Issue: Environmental Governance: Securing Our Common Wealth

DOI: 10.1080/00358533.2012.661527

Author: Paul Arthur Berkman

Abstract: Environmental state-change in the Arctic Ocean is introducing risks of political, economic and cultural instability. Interests are awakening to take advantage of new energy, shipping, fishing and tourism opportunities associated with the diminishing sea-ice. With urgency–building on the common arctic issues of sustainable development and environmental protection—environmental security offers an holistic context to address the risks and opportunities within law of the sea, as the international legal framework to preserve peace and stability in the Arctic Ocean.

A comparative evaluation of women's perceptions and importance of sustainability in fish consumption: An exploratory study among light consumers with different education levels

Citation Information: Ana Pinto de Moura, Luís M. Cunha, M. Castro-Cunha, Rui Costa Lima, (2012) "A comparative evaluation of women's perceptions and importance of sustainability in fish consumption: An exploratory study among light consumers with different education levels", Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 23 Iss: 4, pp.451 - 461

Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore women's perceptions about the benefits and risks of fish consumption, while exploring differences on their views about wild and farmed fish, considering light fish consumers.

Design/methodology/approach – The methodology adopted is exploratory, using focus group technique, segregating women by education level (higher education versus lower education). A focus group guide was designed, taking into account the following dimensions: attitudes towards fish consumption and perceptions towards farmed fish relative to wild fish, also considering risk perceptions related to farmed versus wild fish.

Findings – This study has shown that fish consumers enjoy the taste of fish and they are strongly convinced that eating fish is healthy. The main reason for their low fish consumption is related to perceive lacking of convenience. Women with higher education levels expressed additional knowledge considering different aquaculture systems and women with lower education levels were convinced that both wild and farmed fish offer benefits and present disadvantages.

Originality/value – The paper shows that attitudes of light fish users are partially similar to heavy fish users considering farmed fish production, with the search for convenience being driven by either perceived lack of time or perceived lack of cookery skills to prepare fish-based meals.

Promoting sustainable aquaculture: Building the capacity of local institutions and online teaching (elearning)

Citation Information: Sónia Isabel Fernandes Borges Pena Seixas, John Bostock, Margaret Eleftheriou, (2012) "Promoting sustainable aquaculture: Building the capacity of local institutions and online teaching (elearning)", Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 23 Iss: 4, pp.434 - 450

Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review a number of recent initiatives to promote sustainable aquaculture development through improvements to education and training capacity, and innovations in the use of eLearning.

Design/methodology/approach – The authors share their experience in these initiatives and demonstrate how e-learning has been developed in specific cases to better serve the needs of the aquaculture sector, while addressing the pedagogical issues of distance learning and finding the best use of new internet-based technologies.

Findings – These examples show how to respond to the needs of adult learners who may have a substantially different learner profile to typical campus students and have a more diverse range of needs and background knowledge. Greater focus is needed on defining, enhancing and accrediting knowledge and skills acquired informally and “on the job”, so as to develop more effective formal education interventions.

Practical implications – Adults engaging with job-related education are not empty vessels requiring to be filled with the correct mix of knowledge and skills by teachers who know all the answers. They are active learners seeking a supportive and enabling structure involving access to appropriate resources, engagement with fellow learners and more expert practitioners, and appropriate challenges and rewards to maximise effort and achievement.

Originality/value – The paper shows that there is substantial social benefit in promoting an innovative and sustainable aquaculture industry that contributes positively to food security and human health. Continued Professional Development involving eLearning and other innovative approaches can make an important contribution throughout the sector.

Estuarine nurseries for marine fish: Connecting recruitment variability with sustainable fisheries management

Citation Information: Filipe Martinho, Henrique N. Cabral, Ulisses M. Azeiteiro, Miguel A. Pardal, (2012) "Estuarine nurseries for marine fish: Connecting recruitment variability with sustainable fisheries management", Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 23 Iss: 4, pp.414 - 433

Abstract: Purpose – Estuaries and shallow coastal areas are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, being recognized as important nursery areas for marine fish. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the causes and consequences of recruitment variability in marine fish, contributing to ecosystem-based management strategies of estuarine and coastal areas.

Design/methodology/approach – The authors conducted a literature review, exploring the role of estuaries as nursery areas for marine fish, and analyzed the connectivity between estuaries and coastal areas, the main processes driving recruitment variability in marine fish during their pelagic (larval) and estuarine residency (juveniles) phases, and how it can be translated into variable coastal stocks.

Findings – Recruitment variability in marine fish is still one of the most important issues in marine fisheries ecology. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the potential of several processes for inducing variability in recruitment, including density-independent mechanisms such as temperature, hydrodynamics, river flow and large-scale factors, as well as density-dependent processes, related with food abundance, competition and predation. Lastly, the authors evaluated the connectivity between estuaries and the ocean, and how this relationship can influence coastal stocks in the future. The main findings were analyzed in the context of climate change, which has been demonstrated to influence marine life at the individual, population and ecosystem levels.

Originality/value – This paper is a valuable tool for marine researchers and stakeholders, since it summarizes some of the most important processes that drive recruitment variability in marine fish, and how this information can be used for establishing sustainable ecosystem management programmes.

Considerations for integrative environmental assessments of contaminated estuarine sediments

Citation Information: Sandra Sofia Caeiro, Tomas Angel Del Valls, Peter Michael Chapman, (2012) "Considerations for integrative environmental assessments of contaminated estuarine sediments", Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 23 Iss: 4, pp.400 - 413

Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss integrative environmental assessments applicable to estuarine sediments, including the advantages and limitations of different lines of evidence that could form part of such assessments and their application to ecosystem services.

Design/methodology/approach – Weight of evident framework integrating multiple lines of evidence for sediment quality assessment.

Findings – Integrative environmental assessments are required to fully address the risks to resident fauna of anthropogenic contaminants deposited in estuarine sediments.

Originality/value – The paper presents an updated discussion of the methodologies for environmental assessments of contaminated estuarine sediments.

Sustainable coastal zones? A matter of “sense and sensibility”: Comparative analysis between Aveiro Lagoon (Portugal) and Sepetiba Bay (Brazil)

Citation Information: Maria Rosário Bastos, João Alveirinho Dias, Ana Cristina Dias, Silvia Dias Pereira, Nanci Vieira de Oliveira, Maria Antonieta Rodrigues, (2012) "Sustainable coastal zones? A matter of “sense and sensibility”: Comparative analysis between Aveiro Lagoon (Portugal) and Sepetiba Bay (Brazil)", Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 23 Iss: 4, pp.383 - 399

Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to perform a comparative analysis between Aveiro's Lagoon (Portugal) and Sepetiba Bay (Brazil), in order to understand the similarities and differences between these two coastal zones, in terms of human occupation.

Design/methodology/approach – This paper is supported by works (papers and scientific projects being developed) produced in Portugal and Brazil, by researchers from different areas of expertise.

Findings – These two coastal zones have a similar geomorphologic evolution, due to the fact that both appeared because of a sandy spit, which started to grow and separated these areas from the sea, converting them into sheltered coasts. It was because they are protected that these two study cases early became targets for human occupation. The anthropic impacts in the systems were sustainable until the middle of the twentieth century. Since then, however, the economic development options, based first in industry and second in tourism exploration, have compromised the natural healthy balance.

Practical implications – This paper could be a contribution to a scientific support for political decisions on the coastal zone management (namely in these studied areas).

Social implications – The paper provides and increases the knowledge of the coastal zones’ evolution and occupation – from a multidisciplinary perspective – produced and made available to scientists, local politicians, students and local populations.

Originality/value – The paper provides a truly interdisciplinary approach, which allows a better understanding of the evolution of these two systems, discussing the causes and consequences of human activities in both coastal areas.

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