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Marine bird colony and at-sea distributions along the Oregon coast: Implications for marine spatial planning and information gap analysis

Citation Information: Suryan, R. M., E. M. Phillips, K. J. So, J. E. Zamon, R. W. Lowe, and S. W. Stephensen. 2012. Marine bird colony and at-sea distributions along the Oregon coast: Implications for marine spatial planning and information gap analysis. Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Report no. 2. Corvallis: NNMREC. 26 pp.

Date: April 2012

How terrestrial management concepts have led to unrealistic expectations of marine protected areas

Citation Information: Marine Policy; Available online 5 July 2012; In Press, Corrected Proof

Authors: R. Kearney, G. Farebrother, C.D. Buxton, P. Goodsell

Abstract: Terrestrial reserves and national parks have taken many forms and they continue to be directed toward variable and often imprecisely defined outcomes. A prominent contemporary focus is to pursue the continuance of biodiversity. To this aim the concept of protecting comprehensive, effectively managed and representative areas from overt development, such as urban sprawl and agriculture, has been globally adopted. Within Australia ‘effectively managed’, has been replaced by ‘adequate’, a poorly defined term which is interpreted optimistically and combined with ‘comprehensive’ and ‘representative’ to create the CAR principle. This principle was first developed within the Australian forestry sector to guide management in addressing a very specific threat to a clearly identified component of biodiversity in limited and well defined areas; the preservation of declining stands of some tree species within limited old growth forests. Even though the CAR principle is central to Australia's process of developing a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) its relevance to marine systems has not been demonstrated. Its efficacy for the conservation of marine environments is questioned. The uncritical transposition of terrestrial management paradigms, including the CAR principle, to the marine realm has misled marine management. It is argued that disproportionate commitment to terrestrial principles, including CAR, and unjustified advocacy for MPAs generally have biased public perception and management efforts to the detriment of effective marine conservation and sustainable use of marine resources.

Institutional entrepreneurs, global networks, and the emergence of international institutions for ecosystem-based management: The Coral Triangle Initiative

Citation Information: Marine Policy; Available online 6 July 2012; In Press, Corrected Proof

Authors: Franciska Rosen, Per Olsson

Abstract: This study explores the role of institutional entrepreneurship in the creation of an international agreement to radically transform management of coastal and marine resources in the Coral Triangle. It analyzes how institutional entrepreneurs develop strategies to overcome barriers to change and navigate opportunity contexts to mobilize support for ecosystem-based management. The analysis shows that institutional change depends on collaboration among several institutional entrepreneurs that have access to different networks and are supported by different types of organizations. It also shows that interplay between institutional entrepreneurship and high-level political leadership plays a critical role in institution building. Institutional entrepreneurs must therefore align their ideas of ecosystem-based management to multiple political priorities and transfer experience and social capital from previous multilateral projects. By supporting the development of new governance arenas for deliberation, institutional entrepreneurs may enhance the fit between domestic and multilateral policy making. Lastly, institutional entrepreneurship may raise critical questions about legitimacy, accountability and ownership.

Review of Surveillance and Enforcement of Federal Fisheries in the Southeastern US

Citation Information: Marine Conservation Institute, Report to the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council

Date: December 2011

Author: Sandra Brooke

Executive Summary: Over the past several decades, there has been a significant increase in the number of marine protected areas including those that are remote from shore and cover large areas of the US Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The large size of the areas and the complex assortment of regulations within them pose many challenges to policy-makers and resource managers. One of the greatest challenges is monitoring activity in these areas and enforcing regulations so that the designated areas are truly protecting the resources and are not merely ‘paper parks’.

The overarching objective of this project entitled ‘Review of surveillance and enforcement of federal fisheries in the southeastern US’ was to increase the effectiveness of resource protection within the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) boundaries through identification of potential improvement of monitoring and enforcement. The Marine Conservation Institute, in collaboration with the law enforcement and management agencies within the SAFMC region, has identified surveillance and enforcement challenges and suggests a series of recommendations for addressing some of these problems. Selected recommendations are listed briefly below and are described in more detail in the full report.

For enforcement purposes, boundaries of protected or restricted areas should be kept as simple as possible. Whenever practical, boundaries should form rectangles that follow along lines of latitude and longitude. Regulations for Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and Fishery Management Plans (FMPs) should be kept as clear and logical as possible for ease of enforceability and public understanding.

Sustainability of deep-sea fisheries

Citation Information: Marine Policy; Volume 36, Issue 2, March 2012, Pages 307–320

Authors: Elliott A. Norse, Sandra Brooke, William W.L. Cheung, Malcolm R. Clark, Ivar Ekeland, Rainer Froese, Kristina M. Gjerde, Richard L. Haedrich, Selina S. Heppell, Telmo Morato, Lance E. Morgan, Daniel Pauly, Rashid Sumaila, Reg Watson

Abstract: As coastal fisheries around the world have collapsed, industrial fishing has spread seaward and deeper in pursuit of the last economically attractive concentrations of fishable biomass. For a seafood-hungry world depending on the oceans' ecosystem services, it is crucial to know whether deep-sea fisheries can be sustainable.

The deep sea is by far the largest but least productive part of the oceans, although in very limited places fish biomass can be very high. Most deep-sea fishes have life histories giving them far less population resilience/productivity than shallow-water fishes, and could be fished sustainably only at very low catch rates if population resilience were the sole consideration. But like old-growth trees and great whales, their biomass makes them tempting targets while their low productivity creates strong economic incentive to liquidate their populations rather than exploiting them sustainably (Clark's Law). Many deep-sea fisheries use bottom trawls, which often have high impacts on nontarget fishes (e.g., sharks) and invertebrates (e.g., corals), and can often proceed only because they receive massive government subsidies. The combination of very low target population productivity, nonselective fishing gear, economics that favor population liquidation and a very weak regulatory regime makes deep-sea fisheries unsustainable with very few exceptions. Rather, deep-sea fisheries more closely resemble mining operations that serially eliminate fishable populations and move on.

Instead of mining fish from the least-suitable places on Earth, an ecologically and economically preferable strategy would be rebuilding and sustainably fishing resilient populations in the most suitable places, namely shallower and more productive marine ecosystems that are closer to markets.

Monitoring Climate Effects in Temperate Marine Ecosystems: A test-case using California's MPAs

Citation Information: Monitoring climate effects in temperate marine ecosystems. MPA Monitoring Enterprise, California Ocean Science Trust, Oakland, CA. February 2012.

Summary: Changes to atmospheric and oceanographic conditions, including increased temperatures (air and water), ocean acidification, sea level rise and altered ocean currents, may affect temperate marine ecosystems. Some species will likely be able to adapt to these impacts and even thrive under new conditions, while others may be adversely affected, resulting in ecologically significant biological, phenological, or community shifts. While these potential changes present a challenge for managing coastal resources, we have the opportunity to address this challenge with the tools we currently use.

This report recommends an approach to efficiently and effectively augment MPA monitoring to provide additional information that can inform the management dialogue around potential climate change effects on marine ecosystems and adaptation or mitigation measures. This report explicitly focuses on approaches for monitoring the potential impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems (e.g. rocky intertidal, kelp and shallow rock). While we recognize that climate change will likely impact human uses, both consumptive (e.g. fishing, crabbing) and non-consumptive (e.g. tidepooling, SCUBA diving), consideration of monitoring these effects is not covered in this report.

The MPA Monitoring Enterprise has developed a framework for MPA monitoring in California to ensure that monitoring efficiently and effectively assesses MPA performance and provides information to support future MPA management decisions. This framework, that was developed to assess the progress of California’s regional networks of MPAs in meeting the goals of the Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA), adopts an ecosystem-based approach to assess the condition of marine ecosystems. While climate change is not explicitly incorporated into the goals and objectives of California’s MPAs, future evaluations of MPA performance will occur in the context of a changing climate and associated changing oceanographic environment.

Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction

Citation Information: Danish Energy Authority; DTU Aqua Report No 246-2011

Editors: Simon B. Leonhard, Orbicon A/S; Claus Stenberg and Josianne Støttrup, DTU Aqua

Authors: Claus Stenberg, Michael van Deurs, Josianne Støttrup, Henrik Mosegaard, Thomas Grome, Grete Dinesen, Asbjørn Christensen, Henrik Jensen, Maria Kaspersen, Casper Willestofte Berg, Simon B. Leonhard, Henrik Skov, John Pedersen, Christian B. Hvidt and Maks Klaustrup

Description: A study of one of the world's largest offshore wind farms - the Horns Rev 1 farm in the Danish North Sea with 80 turbines - shows the facility does not adversely impact fish species that depend on the same sandy bottom environment as the turbines require. The wind farm also provides reef-like habitat for species with affinity to reefs. In light of these findings, and in light of the no-take regulations within the farm, the researchers (from the consultancy Orbicon and the Technical University of Denmark) suggest that such offshore wind facilities could conceivably help rebuild overfished stocks - particularly if several farms were grouped together.

"Our studies suggest that the Horns Rev 1 wind farm is too small [by itself] to function as a true marine protected area, because over their lifecycles the fish utilize a much greater area than just the wind farm," said biologist Claus Stenberg. "But presumably several farms located close to one another could have a combined positive effect on spawning and the survival of fish fry, as wind farms that are located downstream of each other can act as a kind of dispersion corridor for eggs and larvae."

Benthic Protection Areas: Best Practices and Recommendations

Citation Information:​ Sustainable Fisheries Partnership

Date: April 2012

Authors: Braddock Spear and Jim Cannon

Executive Summary: Nearly 13 percent of land on our planet is afforded some level of formal protection. A mere 1.2 percent of our ocean area is protected as formal marine protected areas (MPAs). Generally, Sustainable Fisheries Partnership (SFP) views any form of spatial marine conservation as an MPA. An MPA is “a clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated, and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values.” This report focuses on benthic protection areas (BPAs), a type of MPA. Generally, BPAs afford habitat protection by limiting or eliminating direct fishing impacts to benthic habitats.

While bottom fishing is known to have impacts, this mode of operation and the associated gears will likely continue to be used. Most forms of food production result in some degree of environmental change or modification, and fishing is no exception. To expect fishing to be free from all impacts is unrealistic. However, a balance can be struck. Benthic biodiversity, habitats, and ecological roles can be maintained by managing some benthic areas for food production (i.e., maintaining sustainable fish populations and reasonable commercial access to them by the harvest sector) and protecting other areas for the conservation and biodiversity values. Depending on the protection needs, the types of fishing that are permitted as well as the size of the areas set aside will vary.

Financial Sustainability Scorecard for National Systems of Protected Areas

Citation Information: United Nations Development Programme, Bureau for Development Policy, Energy and Environment Group

Author: Andrew Bovarnick

Date: January 2010; 2nd Edition

Description: Protected area financing is critical for sound PA management. However, globally, protected area financing needs to be improved at both site and system level. Hence developing long-term financing systems is a key element for protected areas sustainability.

Protected area “financial sustainability” refers to the ability of a country to meet all costs associated with the management of a protected area system. The system level is defined here simply as the aggregation of PA sites and central level operations. This implies a funding “supply” issue of generating more revenue across the system, but just as importantly, a “demand” side challenge of managing PA financing needs (at sites and at the central level). PA financial sustainability needs to be addressed from both sides of the financial equation.

It is this systematic process of defining costs and identifying ways to meet those costs that constitutes financial planning. Good financial planning enables PA managers to make strategic financial decisions such as reallocating spending to match management priorities, and identifying appropriate cost reductions and potential cash flow problems.

In addition to cost and revenue concerns, a third area that requires special consideration in order to achieve PA financial sustainability is institutional arrangements. Responsibility for PA management and financing are often shared across various institutions and roles need to be clarified and harmonized for effective financial planning and budgeting. Furthermore, within these managing institutions efficient and transparent mechanisms for collecting and managing PA-related fees are often not in place.

Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages

Citation Information: Fitzpatrick BM, Harvey ES, Heyward AJ, Twiggs EJ, Colquhoun J (2012) Habitat Specialization in Tropical Continental Shelf Demersal Fish Assemblages. PLoS ONE 7(6): e39634. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039634

Abstract: The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304) collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1–10 m depth), down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10–30 m depth) then across the adjacent continental shelf (30–110 m depth). Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category) were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of connected habitats through which fish can migrate.

High Seas Driftnet Fishing Moratorium Protection Act; Identification and Certification Procedures To Address Shark Conservation

50 CFR Part 300
Docket No. 110321208–1203–01
RIN 0648–BA89

Agency: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce.

Action: Proposed rule; request for comments.

Summary: This proposed action sets forth identification and certification procedures established by the Shark Conservation Act to address shark conservation in areas beyond any national jurisdiction. The objectives of these procedures are to promote the conservation and sustainable management of sharks. Agency actions and recommendations under this rule will be in accordance with U.S. obligations under applicable international trade law, including the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement. This action would also amend the definition of illegal, unreported, or unregulated (IUU) fishing for purposes of the High Seas Driftnet Fishing Moratorium Protection Act.

Dates: Written comments must be received no later than 5 p.m. Eastern time on August 9, 2012.

MPA News - Vol. 13, No. 6

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 13, Number 6

Date: May-June 2012

Table of Contents:

  • Paying for MPAs: Examples of Large-Scale Fundraising for Planning and Management
  • Marine Protected Areas in Fisheries Management: A West African Perspective
  • Notes & News: Chagos size - Chile - Artisanal fishers and MPAs - Benthic protection areas - Wind farms as MPAs - Climate and MPAs - MPA manager exchanges - Training MPA scientists
  • From the Database: Five median-sized MPAs

MPA News - Vol. 13, No. 5

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 13, Number 5

Date: March-April 2012

Table of Contents:

  • The MPA Math: How to Reach the 10% Target for Global MPA Coverage
  • MPA Perspective: Key Lessons Learned in the Management of MPAs and Marine Natural Resources
  • By Graeme Kelleher
  • Notes & News: MPA Agency Summit - Global Partnership for Oceans - Ross Sea marine reserve - Coral Sea MPA - Guidelines on MPAs and fisheries - Mediterranean MPAs - MPA presentations
  • From the Database: Most-viewed MPAs on protectedplanet.net website

MPA News - Vol. 13, No. 4

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 13, Number 4

Date: January-February 2012

Table of Contents:

  • Paper Parks Re-Examined: Building a Future for "MPAs-in-Waiting"
  • On the Current State of MPA Science: An Interview with Joachim Claudet
  • Australian Government Releases Proposal for Large Coral Sea MPA; Stakeholders Respond
  • Notes & News: MPA enforcement - Southern California - Uruguay - High seas MPAs - Baltic and northeast Atlantic - Australia - Marine mammal protected areas - Prisoners fishing in no-take area - Marine debris forum
  • From the Database: The Northernmost MPAs

MPA News - Vol. 13, No. 3

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 13, Number 3

Date: November-December 2011

Table of Contents:

  • Marine Debris and MPAs: Managing the Impacts of Litter on Marine Ecosystems
  • Letter to the Editor: Clarifying the Status of Proposed Marine Reserves in New Zealand
  • MPA Perspective: Creation of a Network of Locally Managed Marine Areas in the Western Indian Ocean
    • By Kame Westerman
  • MPA Perspective: Promoting Peer-to-Peer Dialogue to Achieve Successful MPA Targets
    • By Giuseppe Di Carlo and Alessandra Pome
  • Notes & News: No oil exploration in Seaflower - Antarctic MPAs - MPA legislation guidelines- Canada - Planting mangroves - MPA mobile app - MPA management success
  • From the Database: Largest MPAs by Hemisphere

MPA News - Vol. 13, No. 2

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 13, Number 2

Date: September-October 2011

Table of Contents:

  • The Surge in Very Large MPAs: What Is Driving It and What Does the Future Hold?
  • Letter to the Editor: Additional Comment on Australia's Proposed South-west MPAs
  • Is Mexico's Cabo Pulmo National Park the Most Successful No-Take Marine Reserve in the World?
  • Notes & News: MPA enforcement - UK MPAs - Pacific shark sanctuary - 15 MPAs in one town - Brazil protest - New Zealand reserves - Deep ocean MPAs - Mediterranean - Marine mammals - US
  • MPA Bookshelf: New Publications

MPA News - Vol. 13, No. 1

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 13, Number 1

Date: July-August 2011

Table of Contents:

  • Marine Mammal Protected Areas: What Makes Them Special, and How Their Management Can Be Advanced
  • UN Working Group Recommends Path toward Multilateral Agreement on High Seas Conservation, Including MPAs
  • Letter to the Editor: Well-Managed Trawl Fishery Would Be Disproportionately Impacted by SW Australian MPAs
  • Notes & News: Guide on EBM - World Heritage - China - Canada - Mediterranean

MPA News - Vol. 12, No. 6

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 12, Number 6

Date: May-June 2011

Table of Contents:

  • Finding the Balance: Strengthening MPA Governance by Mixing Top-Down, Bottom-Up, and Other Approaches
  • What Are the Main Challenges Facing the MPA World?
  • Australia Announces Plan for Large Network of MPAs off SW Coast
  • Comparing the Costs of Large vs. Small MPAs, and No-Take Areas vs. Multi-Use MPAs: Interview with Natalie Ban
  • Notes & News: Compensation for displaced fishers - Chile & US - Palau - MPA scorecards - Reserve science - Bonaire coral resilience - Reducing ship strikes - Mobile apps for MPAs - Retailers support MPAs
  • Impacts of the March 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami on Japanese MPAs

MPA News - Vol. 12, No. 5

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 12, Number 5

Date: March-April 2011

Table of Contents:

  • The Great Barrier Reef Structural Adjustment Package: How It Grew Out of Control, and Its Implications for Future MPA Processes
  • In Colombian MPA, Management Files Suit to Stop Oil Exploration Inside Boundary
  • High Seas Closures in the Western Tropical Pacific: A Step Forward for MPAs in International Waters
  • Letter to the Editor: Large MPAs Can Be a Distraction
  • Notes & News: Bottom fishing in N. Pacific - Costa Rica - New Zealand - Namibia - Sargasso Sea - Grenadines MPA network - Marine World Heritage - US national system - Lionfish invasion - MPA winemaking
  • Correction: Global MPA Coverage Figure Was Low

MPA News - Vol. 12, No. 4

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 12, Number 4

Date: January-February 2011

Table of Contents:

  • Comparing Two Methods of Building MPA Networks: One Site at a Time vs. All at Once
  • Network Launched for Managers of Very Large MPAs
  • MPA Perspective: Autonomous Vessels Offer New Tool for MPA Research and Enforcement
  • Letters to the Editor
  • Science Spotlight: Studies on Larval Export, MPA Impacts on Communities
  • Notes & News: MPA web domains for sale - Purse seine closures - California - Raja Ampat - US - IMCC2 - MPAs in fisheries management

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