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Ecomarkets for conservation and sustainable development in the coastal zone

Citation Information: Biological Reviews, 24 November 2012

DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-185X.2012.00251.x

Authors: Rod Fujita, John Lynham, Fiorenza Micheli, Pasha G. Feinberg, Luis Bourillón, Andrea Sáenz-Arroyo, Alexander C. Markham

Science in support of the Deepwater Horizon response

Citation Information: PNAS December 3, 2012 201204729; doi: 10.1073/pnas.1204729109

Authors: Jane Lubchenco, Marcia K. McNutt, Gabrielle Dreyfus, Steven A. Murawski, David M. Kennedy, Paul T. Anastas, Steven Chu, and Tom Hunter

Abstract: This introduction to the Special Feature presents the context for science during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response, summarizes how scientific knowledge was integrated across disciplines and statutory responsibilities, identifies areas where scientific information was accurate and where it was not, and considers lessons learned and recommendations for future research and response. Scientific information was integrated within and across federal and state agencies, with input from nongovernmental scientists, across a diverse portfolio of needs—stopping the flow of oil, estimating the amount of oil, capturing and recovering the oil, tracking and forecasting surface oil, protecting coastal and oceanic wildlife and habitat, managing fisheries, and protecting the safety of seafood. Disciplines involved included atmospheric, oceanographic, biogeochemical, ecological, health, biological, and chemical sciences, physics, geology, and mechanical and chemical engineering. Platforms ranged from satellites and planes to ships, buoys, gliders, and remotely operated vehicles to laboratories and computer simulations. The unprecedented response effort depended directly on intense and extensive scientific and engineering data, information, and advice. Many valuable lessons were learned that should be applied to future events.

Fisheries management for regime-based ecosystems: a management strategy evaluation for the snow crab fishery in the eastern Bering Sea

Citation Information: Szuwalski, C., and Punt A. E. 2012. Fisheries management for regime-based ecosystems: a management strategy evaluation for the snow crab fishery in the eastern Bering Sea. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fss182.

Abstract: Regime shifts are a prominent feature of the physical environment of some ecosystems and have the potential to influence stock productivity. However, few management strategies or harvest control rules (HCRs) consider the possibility of changes in stock productivity. A management strategy evaluation is conducted for the snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) fishery in the eastern Bering Sea, an ecosystem influenced by regime shifts. Operating models that project recruitment as a single average (i.e. the current basis for management advice), regime-based with no relationship between recruitment and spawning biomass, and regime-based with control of recruitment oscillating between environmental conditions and spawning biomass are considered. An HCR that accounts for shifts in recruitment regime is compared with the status quo HCR for each operating model. The regime-based HCR increases yield and decreases variability in yield at the cost of a higher probability of overfishing in regime-based systems. However, the regime-based HCR slightly decreases yield (no change in variability) and increases the probability of overfishing in non-regime-based systems. Identifying changes in productivity that are definitely driven by environmental regime rather than fishing pressure is the largest difficulty in implementing these rules.

Co-management and adaptive co-management: Two modes of governance in a Honduran marine protected area

Citation Information: Marine Policy; Volume 39, May 2013, Pages 128–134

Authors: Natalie K. Bown, Tim S. Gray, Selina M. Stead

Abstract: Selecting the best mode of governance for marine protected areas (MPAs) especially in developing countries has generated considerable controversy in the academic and policy literature during the last 20 years. In this article, two modes – co-management (CM) and adaptive co-management (ACM) – are analysed in detail, and an examination is made of an attempt to put these modes sequentially into practice in the first (2003–2009) and second (2008–2013) management plans, respectively, of the Cayos Cochinos MPA (CCMPA) in Honduras. Extensive fieldwork was carried out during 2006–2010 in three communities dependent on the CCMPA (Rio Esteban, Nueva Armenia, and Chachahuate) including key informant interviews, focus group meetings, household surveys, and participant observation. The paper’s findings are (1) that while the first plan implemented some CM principles (such as sharing responsibility between government, stakeholders and NGOs) it failed to deliver other CM principles (such as transparency and accountability); and (2) that while the second plan increased participation and transparency, and used a more adaptive approach, it still left many stakeholders out of the decision-making process, and its processes of experimentation, monitoring and social learning were very limited. The fact is that CM and ACM are laudable objectives, but very difficult to implement in full.

Valuing the Benefits of Designating a Network of Scottish MPAs in Territorial and Offshore Waters: A report to Scottish Environment LINK

Citation Information: Scottish Environment LINK and the Institute of Natural Resources and Spatial Planning, University of Oviedo; November 2012

Executive Summary: The marine environment provides us with many goods and services upon which we rely, such as food production, climate regulation, recreational enjoyment and storm protection. Furthermore, Scotland’s seas are a hugely important natural resource upon which many jobs and industries depend. The provision of these goods and services depend on a healthy and well-functioning marine ecosystem. However, there is growing evidence that many marine ecosystems have been degraded. During recent years there has been a policy shift towards a holistic ecosystem approach to manage marine environments with an objective of reversing the degradation of the marine ecosystems, as well as recognising the relevance of such marine ecosystem services for society.

In this sense, the Marine (Scotland) Act 2010 provides a great opportunity to improve the state of our seas and adapt to current international conventions regarding integrated marine management. Notably, amongst other tools such as marine planning, it requires Scottish Ministers to designate new Nature Conservation Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to create an ecologically coherent network of well-managed sites that contribute to the conservation or improvement of the Scottish marine area.

However, the move to integrated management, and in particular the implementation of regulatory tools such as MPAs, requires the collaboration and support of a broad range of stakeholders. Economic valuation provides an important tool to help with the successful implementation of MPAs by providing a common unit to measure the socio-economic benefits for the different stakeholder groups. A full understanding of social and economic benefits of establishing a MPA network should help to ensure support and compliance from all sea users and the general public.

A decision support system to assist the sustainable management of navigation activities in the St. Lawrence River Estuary, Canada

Citation Information: Environmental Modelling & Software, Volume 26, Issue 12, December 2011, Pages 1403–1418

Authors: L. Parrott, C. Chion, C.C.A. Martins, P. Lamontagne, S. Turgeon, J.A. Landry, B. Zhens, D.J. Marceau, R. Michaud, G. Cantin, N. Ménard, S. Dionne

Abstract: We describe a decision support system that has been developed to inform management and planning in a portion of the St. Lawrence Estuary in Canada (covering the Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park and the proposed St. Lawrence Estuary Marine Protected Area). The system is composed of a spatiotemporal, georeferenced database, a simulator (3MTSim) that reproduces the spatiotemporal movement of marine mammals and maritime traffic in the estuary, and data post-processing tools that can be used to analyse the output of 3MTSim. 3MTSim allows users to test different management scenarios for maritime traffic (e.g., area closures, speed limits, regulations concerning the observation of marine mammals) in order to assess their effects on navigational patterns which may influence marine mammal exposure to vessels. 3MTSim includes an individual-based model of marine mammal movement patterns that has been elaborated based on existing telemetry data on fin, blue, and beluga whales as well as on land-based theodolite tracking of humpback and minke whales. Observations recorded aboard research and whale-watching vessels have provided the spatial data necessary to estimate species’ abundances and distribution maps that are used to initialise the whale model. Different types of vessels, including cargo ships and commercial whale-watching boats are also modelled individually, using an agent-based approach. The boat model represents the decision-making process of boat captains as a function of environmental conditions, the contextual setting, and their respective goals. An extensive database of real-time tracking data available for the different types of vessels, coupled with observations and interviews, has served in the elaboration of the boat model. In this paper, an overview of the entire system is presented and its effectiveness as a decision support tool is demonstrated via the results from a sample of scenario-based simulations.

Spatially explicit economic assessment of cultural ecosystem services: Non-extractive recreational uses of the coastal environment related to marine biodiversity

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 38, March 2013, Pages 90–98

Authors: A. Ruiz-Frau, H. Hinz, G. Edwards-Jones, M.J. Kaiser

Abstract: The adoption of comprehensive marine spatial plans (MSP) requires that all aspects of value associated with marine biodiversity are considered in their development. Therefore, a holistic approach to MSP needs to include the ecological, social and economic aspects related to the range of goods and services provided by marine biodiversity. In temperate coastal areas however, extractive uses of marine biodiversity (i.e., fisheries) tend to receive more consideration than other non-extractive uses such as certain forms of recreation. This is primarily due to its economic and social importance and a lack of information on non-extractive uses of marine biodiversity. This study presents an assessment of the economic importance and spatial distribution of non-extractive uses of marine biodiversity (diving, kayaking, wildlife watching from boats and seabird watching) in the coastal temperate area of Wales and its application to MSP. The assessment of the economic importance and spatial distribution of these uses was ascertained through questionnaires with relevant users. Results indicated that the economic importance of non-extractive recreational uses of marine biodiversity in Wales is comparable to that of commercial fisheries for the same region. Spatially there was a significant degree of overlap among areas used by the different recreational groups studied here and the distribution of uses could be linked to different aspects of marine biodiversity, such as the presence of particular habitats in the case of divers. The integration of spatially explicit socioeconomic data for a range of different uses of marine biodiversity enables policy makers to gain useful insight into the potential consequences of implementing a spatial management regime, as certain uses can be sometimes overlooked but are still essential if we are to consider the impact of spatial planning on all economically relevant activities. Such data provide a balanced overview of the value of marine biodiversity to different sectors of society and contributes to the process of developing comprehensive marine spatial plans.

International, regional and national commitments meet local implementation: A case study of marine conservation in Northern Ireland

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 38, March 2013, Pages 140–150

Authors: K.L. Yates, A. Payo Payo, D.S. Schoeman

Abstract: It is increasingly accepted that humanity’s unsustainable use of the marine environment is causing the degradation of the very marine ecosystems it relies upon. This awareness had led to the generation of a significant number of international agreements and conventions aimed at improving marine management and conserving marine ecosystems. In the European Union, this has resulted in the evolution of an extensive array of environmental legislation and policy. In addition, the United Kingdom and its devolved regions have been developing their own policies and legislative tools to advance marine conservation and management. Party to all of these tiers of governance, Northern Ireland has made numerous international, regional and national commitments to protecting and restoring marine ecosystems. Here those commitments are explored in terms of the local political, administrative and governance reality in Northern Ireland. A complex governance structure and lack of interdepartmental co-operation is shown to severely hinder Northern Ireland’s ability to meet stated commitments. Underfunding and lack of political will also seriously hamper conservation efforts. Findings indicate that the integration of all marine management functions into a single marine management organisation would greatly facilitate Northern Ireland’s progress and that the development of an ecologically coherent network of marine protected areas would go a long way towards fulfilling its conservation commitments. This case study demonstrates some of the hurdles small nations face in meeting their responsibilities under regional and international agreements and highlights the gap between a nations conservation commitments and its successful implementation of policy to fulfil them.

Spatiotemporal modelling for policy analysis: Application to sustainable management of whale-watching activities

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 38, March 2013, Pages 151–162

Authors: Clément Chion, Guy Cantin, Suzan Dionne, Benoit Dubeau, Philippe Lamontagne, Jacques-André Landry, Danielle Marceau, Cristiane C.A. Martins, Nadia Ménard, Robert Michaud, Lael Parrott, Samuel Turgeon

Food security and the Coral Triangle Initiative

Citation Information: Marine Policy; Volume 38, March 2013, Pages 174–183

Authors: Simon Foale, Dedi Adhuri, Porfiro Aliño, Edward H. Allison, Neil Andrew, Philippa Cohen, Louisa Evans, Michael Fabinyi, Pedro Fidelman, Christopher Gregory, Natasha Stacey, John Tanzer, Nireka Weeratunge

Abstract: The Asia-Pacific's Coral Triangle is defined by its extremely high marine biodiversity. Over one hundred million people living in its coastal zones use this biodiversity to support their livelihoods. Hundreds of millions more derive nutritious food directly from the region′s marine resources and through local, regional and global trade. Biodiversity and its values to society are threatened by demographic and habitat change, rising demand, intensive harvesting and climate change. In partnership with international conservation organisations and development funders, the governments of the region′s six countries have come together to develop the Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI) on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security. The CTI has explicit goals and defined targets for marine biodiversity conservation, but not for the food security of the region′s marine-resource dependent people, despite this being the wider aim used to justify conservation action. This article suggests how the food security aim of the CTI could be made more explicit. It outlines the complex pathways linking marine biodiversity with food security and argues that improved social science analysis, inter-sectoral policy and management interactions are necessary if conserving marine biodiversity is to contribute towards meeting food security challenges in the region.

A comparison of zoning analyses to inform the planning of a marine protected area network in Raja Ampat, Indonesia

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 38, March 2013, Pages 184–194

Authors: Hedley S. Grantham, Vera N. Agostini, Joanne Wilson, Sangeeta Mangubhai, Nur Hidayat, Andreas Muljadi, Muhajir, Chris Rotinsulu, Meity Mongdong, Michael W. Beck, Hugh P. Possingham

Institutional entrepreneurs, global networks, and the emergence of international institutions for ecosystem-based management: The Coral Triangle Initiative

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 38, March 2013, Pages 195–204

Authors: Franciska Rosen, Per Olsson

Abstract: This study explores the role of institutional entrepreneurship in the creation of an international agreement to radically transform management of coastal and marine resources in the Coral Triangle. It analyzes how institutional entrepreneurs develop strategies to overcome barriers to change and navigate opportunity contexts to mobilize support for ecosystem-based management. The analysis shows that institutional change depends on collaboration among several institutional entrepreneurs that have access to different networks and are supported by different types of organizations. It also shows that interplay between institutional entrepreneurship and high-level political leadership plays a critical role in institution building. Institutional entrepreneurs must therefore align their ideas of ecosystem-based management to multiple political priorities and transfer experience and social capital from previous multilateral projects. By supporting the development of new governance arenas for deliberation, institutional entrepreneurs may enhance the fit between domestic and multilateral policy making. Lastly, institutional entrepreneurship may raise critical questions about legitimacy, accountability and ownership.

Who gets what? Developing a more equitable framework for EU fishing agreements

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 38, March 2013, Pages 257–266

Authors: Frédéric Le Manach, Mialy Andriamahefazafy, Sarah Harper, Alasdair Harris, Gilles Hosch, Glenn-Marie Lange, Dirk Zeller, Ussif Rashid Sumaila

Abstract: The reform of the European Union’s Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is focusing attention on EU distant water fishing activities, including the agreements signed with developing coastal states. Here, the EU’s fishing agreement with Madagascar, among the poorest countries to hold such an agreement, is examined. Incomes received by Madagascar since the first agreement with the EU in 1986 are documented, in both nominal and real terms, and discussed in the context of other conditions tied to the agreement, in particular support provided by the EU to improve Madagascar’s fisheries management capacity. Results indicate that since 1986, EU quotas increased by 30% while the fees paid by the EU decreased by 20%. Yet, Madagascar’s treasury income from these agreements decreased by 90%. This shows that the EU agreements with Madagascar are in direct contradiction to the goals set forth by the CFP, which states that benefits of agreements should be directed towards developing countries, and not towards private EU entities. This raises profound ethical questions that the CFP reform must address. A new framework is proposed, prioritizing fisheries sustainability and equitable benefit sharing, in which reasonable quotas are set, fees are indexed to the landed value of catches, and all costs of agreements are borne directly by the benefiting industries. EU development assistance should be decoupled from these agreements, and should focus on enhancing the host countries’ monitoring and enforcement capacities. This new framework would increase the benefits to Madagascar while reducing costs to EU taxpayers.

Knowing in context: An exploration of the interface of marine harvesters' local ecological knowledge with ecosystem approaches to management

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 38, March 2013, Pages 277–286

Authors: Alida Bundy, Anthony Davis

Abstract: Marine resource crises have initiated a search for alternative approaches to resource assessment and management that has culminated in a global focus on ecosystem approaches to management (EAM). Here, the ecosystem extends to humans as drivers and recipients of ecosystem change. More specifically, attention is being paid to identifying specific qualities of local resource users' experiences and knowledge that might productively inform resource management, while also providing local users with substantial “voice” in shaping new management policies and practices. Here an evaluation is provided of the extent to which local ecological knowledge (LEK) can provide advice for an ecosystem approach to inshore coastal management, specifically, the identification of ecologically and biologically significant areas, based on the results of two comprehensive studies of coastal Nova Scotian commercial harvesters' local ecological knowledge. While spatially explicit, local ecological knowledge displays strengths and limitations that must be explicated for it to prove useful for strengthening “voice” and providing EAM inputs.

A comparative case study of fish stocking between Sweden and Finland: Explaining differences in decision making at the street level

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 38, March 2013, Pages 287–292

Author: Mikael Sevä

Abstract: Even though fish stocking might have unfavourable effects on the genetic composition of wild populations, stocking programmes are currently developed in significant numbers in the Baltic Sea. The aim of this study is to examine and propose explanations for potential differences in fish stocking practices between Finland and Sweden. A comparative case study, focusing on the operational decisions made by frontline bureaucrats at the regional level, is conducted. The results show that frontline bureaucrats in Finland make more similar decisions than their colleagues in Sweden do. The lower regional variation can be explained by greater similarities in policy beliefs and by the fact that Finnish bureaucrats, in cases of uncertainties, consult the same implementation resource. Thus, by clarifying policy substance and by designing a central organisation for the provision of knowledge and advice, policy makers can counteract regional variation in fish stocking practices.

A communicative turnaround: Shifting the burden of proof in European fisheries governance

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 38, March 2013, Pages 337–345

Authors: Sebastian Linke, Svein Jentoft

Abstract: Current and prospective changes in European fisheries governance suggest not only a “communicative turn” but a complete turnaround in the relationships between government, science, and the fishing industry. At the heart of these changes are the so-called Regional Advisory Councils (RACs) and the idea of partially replacing the burden of proof on the resource users (fishing industry). This change entails new forms of interaction between fishers’ representatives, other stakeholders (e.g. NGOs), policy-makers and scientists. By drawing on experiences from the Baltic Sea RAC, the analysis focuses on two aspects of fisheries governance: institutional design and the process of negotiation and decision-making. It is concluded that to allow for a partial shift in the burden of proof, stakeholder organisations such as RACs need to adapt both institutionally as well as process-wise to enable a more constructive and responsible fisheries governance system.

Lessons learned from investing in marine and coastal management initiatives in the East Asian Seas

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 38, March 2013, Pages 355–364

Authors: Anna Tengberg, Annadel S Cabanban

Abstract: The concept that underlies the interventions of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) International Waters Program is adaptive management at the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) scale across the sequence of interventions from assessment and analysis to development of regional strategic action programs and national implementation of action plans to address transboundary environmental concerns. The GEF has provided grants to recipient countries in the East Asian Seas region covering five LMEs since the early 1990s and amounting to about US$200 million. This paper analyses GEF support to the Seas of the East Asian Region to draw lessons for future investments in LME management. To identify investment gaps and the overarching drivers of environmental degradation across scales, transboundary diagnostic analysis of LMEs need to be linked to analysis of existing investment flows. Most funding for implementation of strategic action programs should be targeted at the national level, as interventions at this level are on average leveraging much more co-financing to GEF projects than regional interventions. Better coordination and agreed procedures and methodologies among different regional entities, programs and projects are necessary in regions, such as the EAS, with multiple regional initiatives at different scales. Better coordination of financial support to programs and projects operating at different scales would also strengthen the extent to which ecosystem-based management could be applied through better harmonization of management frameworks and tools for marine and coastal management from local to national to regional levels. Strategies towards achieving sustainable financing should be encouraged and implemented to ensure adaptive management and achievement of goals and targets under SAPs.

A critical review of fishing agreements with tropical developing countries

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 38, March 2013, Pages 375–386

Authors: Antonius Gagern, Jeroen van den Bergh

Abstract: Many African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries sell fishing licenses to distant water fleets. Fishing agreements have the potential to improve the performance of local fishing sectors. They create income that can be reinvested into domestic industries and often go along with partnerships in management and enforcement. However, many fishing agreements run a serious risk of undermining sustainable resource management. The present study critically reviews trends in distant water fishing as well as identifies those tropical host countries most dependent on fishing agreements. It is shown that traditional, more responsible distant water fleets (DWFs) are being displaced by less responsible, low-cost DWFs and that the most vulnerable host countries are small coastal states with large exclusive economic zones that lack the ability to benefit from value adding processes associated with fishing. The results suggest that the once-promising concept of fishing agreements is gradually posing a threat to both economic development and environmental sustainability of ACP countries.

Multilevel governance and management of shared stocks with integrated markets: The European anchovy case

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 38, March 2013, Pages 407–416

Authors: Luca Mulazzani, Richard Curtin, Marga Andrés, Giulio Malorgio

Abstract: Bioeconomics of shared stocks and integration between markets are two aspects often debated in the literature but rarely analyzed together. Although both aspects are essential for the economic optimization of the fisheries, the general impression is that the European governance, at every level, is at the moment more concerned with the biological interactions rather than the market interactions of landings. The objective of the study is therefore to focus these two elements using as case studies the two shared European anchovy fisheries of Croatia and Italy in the Adriatic Sea and France and Spain in the Bay of Biscay. The analysis is carried out by means of the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework for the description of the system, and through a graphical bioeconomic tool in order to explain causal interactions between rules, stocks, landings and prices, and possible equilibrium solutions. The analysis confirms that, with the exception of some differences in the governance structure, management authorities are more concerned with biological interactions in the Atlantic, while in the Mediterranean Sea cooperation is very poor. On the other hand trade, especially from Italy to Spain, is an important factor to balance disequilibrium between supply and demand and for the formation of price. The analysis also shows how coordinated planning of two shared stocks, in two European sea-basins, exploited by four countries, could achieve a more profitable exploitation, leading to higher stocks of anchovy and increased economic profit for the fisheries. However this kind of cooperation should have a bottom-up origin, with the Producer Organizations as key actors.

Climate change, scenarios and marine biodiversity conservation

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 38, March 2013, Pages 438–446

Authors: Marcus Haward, Julie Davidson, Michael Lockwood, Marc Hockings, Lorne Kriwoken, Robyn Allchin

Abstract: This paper explores the utility of qualitative scenario approaches to examine the potential impacts of climate change on marine biodiversity conservation on the east coast of Australia. This region is large and diverse, with considerable variation in marine biodiversity and, concomitantly, considerable diversity in the likely impacts from climate change. The results reinforce a number of key points. Engaging with stakeholders in scenario planning provides not only a focus to discuss the future in a disciplined way, but also provides ongoing reference points for contemporary decision making and planning. The paper illustrates how qualitative scenario planning provides opportunities to address the challenges of marine biodiversity conservation in a changing environment.

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