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The economics of marine protected areas: Application of principles to Australia’s South West Marine Region

Citation Information: Allen Consulting Group; Report to the Conservation Council of Western Australia

Date: November 2009

Executive Summary: The Commonwealth Government of Australia is currently in the planning and early implementation stages of developing a representative system of marine protected areas in Commonwealth waters by 2012. The primary goal is to establish a comprehensive, adequate and representative system of protected areas that will contribute to the long term ecological viability of marine systems, maintain ecological processes and protect Australia’s marine biodiversity.

As part of this strategy, the Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, in consultation with state and territory governments, is developing Marine Bioregional Plans for each of five regions. This focus of this report is on the South West Marine Region, for which a draft bioregional plan will shortly be released.

The Conservation Council of Western Australia has launched the ‘Save Our Marine Life’ campaign to ensure that conservation values are adequately considered as part of the planning process. The campaign is being supported by international and local conservation organisations, including The Nature Conservancy, WWF-Australia, the Pew Environment Group, Australian Conservation Foundation, The Wilderness Society, Conservation Council of South Australia, The Australian Marine Conservation Society, The Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society and Project Aware.

A variety of activities operate in the South West Marine Region, including commercial and recreational fishing, charter boat fishing, marine eco-tourism, shipping, petroleum exploration, defence, aquaculture shipping and ports. In some parts of the Region, competition for access to marine resources is intense.

Protected Areas and Development in Latin America From Santa Marta 1997 to Bariloche 2007 and Perspectives for a New Decade

Citation Information: Guerrero, E. & S. Sguerra (editors). 2009. Protected Areas and Development in Latin America - From Santa Marta 1997 to Bariloche 2007 and Perspectives for a New Decade, IUCN Colombian Committee, Parques Nacionales Naturales Colombia and Fundación Natura. Bogotá, 64 pp.

ISBN: 978-958-98040-5-6

Date: 2009

Description: A new report examines the status of protected areas in Latin America and their role in the region's sustainable development. It includes a chapter on MPAs as well as sections on World Heritage Sites and relationships between indigenous territories and protected areas. Much of the publication analyzes outcomes of the Second Latin American Congress on National Parks and Other Protected Areas, held in Bariloche, Argentina, in 2007. Based on that analysis, it also presents perspectives for the upcoming decade.

The report was co-produced by the IUCN Colombian Committee, National Parks Colombia, and Fundación Natura Colombia.

Natural Solutions: Protected Areas Helping People Cope with Climate Change

Citation Information: Dudley, N., S. Stolton, A. Belokurov, L. Krueger, N. Lopoukhine, K. MacKinnon, T. Sandwith and N. Sekhran [editors] (2010); Natural Solutions: Protected areas helping people cope with climate change, IUCNWCPA, TNC, UNDP, WCS, The World Bank and WWF, Gland, Switzerland, Washington DC and New York, USA

ISBN: 978-2-88085-308-2

Date: 2010

Description: A new report from IUCN documents the role of protected areas in mitigating and adapting to climate change. It features a section on coastal and marine protected areas in particular, including their use in sequestering carbon dioxide. It also describes how climate change considerations can be factored into protected area design, management, and governance.

"[Protected areas] are helping society cope with climate change impacts by maintaining essential services upon which people depend," states the report. "Without them, the challenges would be even greater, and their strengthening will yield one of the most powerful natural solutions to the climate crisis."

Guidance on size and spacing of Marine Protected Areas in England

Citation Information: Natural England Commissioned Report NECR037

Date: 17 May 2010

Description: This report was commissioned by Natural England to review existing evidence on adult movements and larval dispersal distances of species found in our waters and provide suggestions on how to maximise connectivity between areas and ensure viability of individual sites within the Marine Protected Area (MPA) network. Connectivity and viability are two of the seven network design principles we are using to identify sites to contribute to an ecologically coherent MPA network through the Marine and Coastal Access Act.

The findings are being used by Natural England and the JNCC to produce Ecological Network Guidance for the regional Marine Conservation Zone Project. The Ecological Network Guidance will guide stakeholders in identifying Marine Conservation Zones to contribute to the ecologically coherent MPA network.

Fortress conservation at sea: A commentary on the Chagos marine protected area

Citation Information: Marine Policy; Volume 35, Issue 2, March 2011, Pages 258–260

Authors: E.M. De Santo, P.J.S. Jones, A.M.M. Miller

Abstract: The world's largest no-take Marine Protected Area in Chagos is examined in light of the Convention on Biological Diversity's provisions on Access and Benefit Sharing, as well as terrestrial experiences with fortress conservation. It is acknowledged that this closure presents a unique opportunity to preserve an ecologically 'pristine' area. However, the means by which the political process unfolded are brought into question. In particular, the fact that the UK proceeded with designating the area whilst the European Court of Human Rights was deliberating the right of native Chagossians to return to the island is questioned. In addition it is argued that the scale of the area poses significant management and enforcement challenges, which are not necessarily taken into consideration in the rush for large, no-take Marine Protected Areas.

Coral Reef Resilience Assessment of the Bonaire National Marine Park, Netherlands Antilles

Citation Information: IUCN (2011). Coral Reef Resilience Assessment of the Bonaire National Marine Park, Netherlands Antilles. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 51pp.

ISBN: 978-2-8317-1352-6

Executive Summary: Although Bonaire’s coral reefs remain among the healthiest and most resilient in the Caribbean, this IUCN report based on the IUCN Resilience Assessment of Coral Reefs highlights some of the threats that exist to Bonaire’s coral reefs, and which could have serious implications for resilience to future climate change and other threats. The report identified recommendations for addressing the current threats, as well as high and low resilience sites.

The threats and recommendations identified include:

Coastal development and artificial beaches. Recommendation: All coastal construction on Bonaire should be strictly regulated and follow the construction guidelines. The guidelines should become law in order to be enforced appropriately.

Leaching from septic tanks. Recommendation: It is strongly recommended that Bonaire invest in appropriate sewage treatment facilities to improve water quality and increase the resilience of its valuable coral reefs. It is also recommended that a water quality monitoring program be set up and sustained.

Increasing damselfish populations. Recommendation: It is recommended that the fishing of predatory fish species on Bonaire’s coral reefs be controlled and managed to a sustainable level to prevent population explosions of prey fish capable of modifying the reef habitat.

Trididemnum and Lobophora. Recommendation: It is recommended that the populations of Trididemnum and Lobophora are closely monitored and the factors contributing to the unnatural abundance of these coral-overgrowing organisms should be studied and then eliminated.

Dealing with interests displaced by marine protected areas: A case study on the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Structural Adjustment Package

Citation Information: Ocean & Coastal Management; Volume 53, Issue 9, September 2010, Pages 581–588

Authors: Andrew Macintosh, Tim Bonyhady, Debra Wilkinson

Abstract: While steps can be taken to reduce the risk of excessive payouts, poor administration and politicisation, there is no way of eliminating all of the problems that confront MPA-related assistance programs. The reallocation of property rights that is associated with the creation of MPAs is an inherently difficult process, potentially involving significant political risks and intense industry and community resistance. Government assistance programs provide a means of mitigating these risks, while also addressing legitimate equity and efficiency concerns. Irrespective of what measures are put in place to manage program design and administration risks, there will always be a temptation for governments to use assistance programs to solve their own political problems and quell industry and community concerns.

Review of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Structural Adjustment Package

Citation Information: Australian Government: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities

Date: June 2010

Authors: John Gunn, Greg Fraser, Brian Kimball

Description: The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Structural Adjustment Package provided $213.7M financial support to 1782 fishers and fishery-related businesses affected by the 2004 rezoning of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.

The report, Review of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Structural Adjustment Package, critically examines the development and delivery of the package, specifically the business restructuring assistance and fishery-related business exit assistance. The fishing business exit (licence buyout) assistance component of the Package was reviewed in 2007.

The review makes recommendations to improve structural adjustment assistance package design and delivery in the future. The Department believes the review is a reasonable appraisal of the package and the circumstances surrounding its delivery. Significant investment in improving the Department's business systems and practices that will address many of the review's findings is underway.

Reducing the Threat of Ship Strikes on Large Cetaceans in the Santa Barbara Channel Region and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary: Recommendations and Case Studies

Citation Information: Abramson, L., S. Polefka, S. Hastings, K. Bor. 2010. Reducing the threat of ship strikes on large cetaceans in the Santa Barbara Channel region and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary: recommendations and case studies. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series ONMS-11-01. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, Silver Spring, MD. 59pp.

Date: January 2011

Description: A new report by the US Office of National Marine Sanctuaries analyzes the threat of ship strikes on whales in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary off the coast of California, and suggests options for reducing their likelihood. The report is in response to the events of December 2007, when four blue whale carcasses were discovered near or within the sanctuary. Based on necropsies, the four were determined to have all died directly from ship collisions; one was pregnant with a near-term calf. Prior to that, the maximum number of blue whale documented fatalities in a single year in the region had been three.

The report suggests several options for reducing the threat of ship strikes, including narrowing or moving the shipping lane that cuts through the sanctuary, or slowing ship speed. It also recommends a series of research and education measures, and consideration of voluntary, mandatory, and incentive-based policies to reduce risk. Some 6500 large vessels transit past the Channel Islands every year, the majority of them at speeds greater than 14 knots, according to sanctuary management. The archipelago provides critical feeding grounds for the largest stock of blue whales in the world as well as other endangered cetacean species.

A Guide to Ecological Scorecards for Marine Protected Areas in North America

Citation Information: Commission for Environmental Cooperation

Date: February 2011

ISBN: 978-2-923358-85-7

Description: This guide is an introduction to the use of marine ecological scorecards and condition reports, which are tools for assessing the condition of marine protected areas in North America. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are managed marine and coastal areas of ecological significance, featuring species and/or properties which require special consideration. Managing these areas effectively helps conserve marine biodiversity in critical marine habitats.

Science-based Guidelines for Marine Protected Areas and MPA Networks in Canada

Citation Information: Jessen, S., K. Chan, I. Côté, P. Dearden, E. De Santo, M.J. Fortin, F. Guichard, W. Haider, G. Jamieson, D.L. Kramer, A. McCrea-Strub, M. Mulrennan, W.A. Montevecchi, J. Roff , A. Salomon, J. Gardner, L. Honka, R. Menafra and A. Woodley. 2011. Science-based Guidelines for MPAs and MPA Networks in Canada. Vancouver: Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society. 58 pp.

Date: 2011

Description: A report co-authored by 14 marine scientists and published in May by the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS) calls on the Canadian government to designate no-take marine reserves in at least 30% of each of its marine bioregions, as well as plan and implement functional networks of MPAs nationwide. The report says that Canada, with less than 1% of its EEZ in MPAs and nearly no coverage in no-take marine reserves, lags behind other countries on marine protection.

The report provides guidelines both for selecting individual sites for MPAs (no-take and otherwise) and for planning networks of these sites. Potential reserve sites should be analyzed based on six general classes of ecological criteria, according to the report:

  • Uniqueness, rarity or special character;
  • Productivity;
  • Biological diversity;
  • Degree of naturalness/human impact;
  • Sensitivity/resistance to disturbance; and
  • Potential for recovery from disturbance.

The report recommends that functional MPA networks include a combination of large MPAs and no-take reserves, provide adequate representation and replication of habitats, and ensure connectivity between sites. The planning should also be based on a strong understanding of institutional arrangements and human communities, including respecting the rights and interests of Aboriginal peoples.

A Management Capacity Assessment of Selected Coral Reef Marine Protected Areas in the Caribbean

Citation Information: Gombos, M., A. Arrivillaga, D. Wusinich-Mendez, B. Glazer, S. Frew, G. Bustamante, E. Doyle, A. Vanzella-Khouri, A. Acosta, B. Causey, C. Rolli and J. Brown. 2011. A Management Capacity Assessment of Selected Coral Reef Marine Protected Areas in the Caribbean. Commissioned by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP), the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute (GCFI) and by the UNEP-CEP Caribbean Marine Protected Area Management Network and Forum (CaMPAM). 269 pp.

How to Support the Development of Alternative Livelihoods and/or Income-Generating Activities in the Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas?

Citation Information: MEDPAN Network Regional Experience-sharing Workshop, Workshop Proceedings, 12-14 December 2010

Date: 2010

Description: These are the proceedings of a workshop held in Korba, Tunisia, in December 2010, that gathered MPA managers and others from the Mediterranean region and beyond. Alternative livelihoods and income-generating programs are defined here as professional activities that (a) provide compensation for the possible loss of income by local populations due to MPAs and (b) ensure that any resulting use of natural resources is sustainable. The proceedings present 12 brief case studies of MPA-related alternative livelihood programs or other income-generating initiatives in practice. Conclusions and recommendations from the three-day workshop are also provided.

Navigating the Future of Marine World Heritage

Citation Information: UNESCO, 2011

ISBN: 978-92-3-104206-5

Authors: Charles Ehler and Fanny Douvere

Description: This report summarizes the conclusions and recommended actions from the first meeting of World Heritage marine site managers held in Honolulu, Hawaii (United States), from 1 to 3 December 2010. The World Heritage Marine Programme organized the meeting, in cooperation with the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was the first time that all World Heritage marine site managers had been invited to discuss the uture of Marine World Heritage. The meeting focused in particular on the exchange of success stories, providing the basis for a stronger community of site managers, and the capacity needed to deal with the increasing complexity of conserving World Heritage marine sites. Close to 80 per cent of all marine site managers or their representatives attended the three-day meeting.

However, to place the meeting in context, this report provides background information on the evolution of marine World Heritage from the first listing of marine sites in the early 1980s until the 2010 inscription of Phoenix Islands Protected Area (Kiribati) and Papaha-naumokua-kea (United States) that more than doubled the marine area protected under the World Heritage Convention. While the World Heritage Convention can be used to protect special marine areas and conserve marine resources, its potential has not been fully realized. Its far-reaching authority and many of its key concepts are unknown to many leaders in the global marine conservation community. For example, World Heritage sites are listed for their outstanding universal value (OUV), but the applicability of the concept to the marine environment is little understood, including the criteria for determining OUV. One of the purposes of this report is to inform marine conservation leaders and their organizations about the potential of the World Heritage Convention to make a difference.

Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals

Citation Information: Sandra Pompa, Paul R. Ehrlich, and Gerardo Ceballos; Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals; PNAS 2011 : 1101525108v1-201101525.

Abstract: We identified 20 global key conservation sites for all marine (123) and freshwater (6) mammal species based on their geographic ranges. We created geographic range maps for all 129 species and a Geographic Information System database for a 46,184 1° x 1° grid-cells, ∼10,000-km2. Patterns of species richness, endemism, and risk were variable among all species and species groups. Interestingly, marine mammal species richness was correlated strongly with areas of human impact across the oceans. Key conservation sites in the global geographic grid were determined either by their species richness or by their irreplaceability or uniqueness, because of the presence of endemic species. Nine key conservation sites, comprising the 2.5% of the grid cells with the highest species richness, were found, mostly in temperate latitudes, and hold 84% of marine mammal species. In addition, we identified 11 irreplaceable key conservation sites, six of which were found in freshwater bodies and five in marine regions. These key conservation sites represent critical areas of conservation value at a global level and can serve as a first step for adopting global strategies with explicit geographic conservation targets for Marine Protected Areas.

Man and the Last Great Wilderness: Human Impact on the Deep Sea

Citation Information: Ramirez-Llodra E, Tyler PA, Baker MC, Bergstad OA, Clark MR, et al. (2011) Man and the Last Great Wilderness: Human Impact on the Deep Sea. PLoS ONE 6(8): e22588. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022588

Authors: Eva Ramirez-Llodra, Paul A. Tyler, Maria C. Baker, Odd Aksel Bergstad, Malcolm R. Clark, Elva Escobar, Lisa A. Levin, Lenaick Menot, Ashley A. Rowden, Craig R. Smith, Cindy L. Van Dover

Emerging Marine Protected Area Networks in the Coral Triangle: Lessons and Way Forward

Citation Information: Conservation and Society, 2011, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 173-188

DOI: 10.4103/0972-4923.86986

Authors: Stuart J Green, Alan T White, Patrick Christie, Stacey Kilarski, Anna Blesilda T Meneses, Giselle Samonte-Tan, Leah Bunce Karrer, Helen Fox, Stuart Campbell, John D Claussen

Abstract: Marine protected areas (MPAs) and MPA networks are valuable tools for protecting coral reef habitats and managing near-shore fisheries, while playing an essential role in the overall conservation of marine biodiversity. In addition, MPAs and their networks are often the core strategy for larger scale and more integrated forms of marine resource management that can lead to ecosystem-based management regimes for seascapes and eco-regions. This study conducted in 2008 documents the status of selected MPAs and MPA networks in Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea, to better understand development and their level of success in the Coral Triangle. Findings reveal that substantial gaps exist between the theory and practice of creating functional MPA networks. Across these sites, biophysical and social science knowledge, required to build functional and effective MPAs or MPA networks, lagged behind substantially. Aspects that appeared to require the most attention to improve MPA network effectiveness included essential management systems, institutional arrangements, governance and sustainable financing. Common indicators of success such as increased fish catch and habitat quality parameters were consistently associated with several independent variables: sustainable financing for management, clarity of MPA network rules, enforcement by community level enforcers, local skills development, and involvement in management by local elected politicians, a functional management board, multi-stakeholder planning mechanisms and participatory biophysical assessments. Conclusions are that although considerable investments have been made in MPAs and potential MPA networks in the Coral Triangle, management effectiveness is generally poor throughout the region and that not many large, formally declared MPAs are well managed.

National Framework for Canada's Network of Marine Protected Areas

Citation Information: Government of Canada. 2011. National Framework for Canada’s Network of Marine Protected Areas. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa. 31 pp.

Description: The National Framework for Canada's Network of Marine Protected Areas (National Framework) provides strategic direction for the design of a national network of marine protected areas (MPAs) that will be composed of a number of bioregional networks. This is an important step towards meeting Canada's domestic and international commitments to establish a national network of marine protected areas by 2012. The National Framework outlines the proposed overarching vision and goals of the national network; establishes the network components, design properties, and eligibility criteria for which areas will contribute to the network; describes the proposed network governance structure; and provides the direction necessary to promote national consistency in bioregional network planning. The document has been drafted by a federal-provincial-territorial government Technical Experts Committee established by the Oceans Task Group that reports to the Canadian Council of Fisheries and Aquaculture Ministers.

Consultation on the National Framework began in August 2009 and incorporated 10 weeks of webbased public review that ended in late February 2011. Comments from federal-provincial-territorial government agencies; national Aboriginal, industry and non-government organizations; academia and the public at large have been considered in preparing this final version being submitted for approval by the Canadian Council of Fisheries and Aquaculture Ministers.

Guidelines for Protected Areas Legislation

Citation Information: Lausche, Barbara. (2011). Guidelines for Protected Areas Legislation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. xxvi + 370 pp.

ISBN: 978-2-8317-1245-1

Description: A new publication from IUCN helps national governments to create the legal frameworks needed to support effective designation and management of protected areas. Drawing on international best management practice and legal principles, the report serves as an update and expansion of guidelines produced by IUCN in 1980, and incorporates new and emerging issues. These issues include:

  • How to integrate coastal and marine protected areas into land use and marine spatial planning;
  • How to support new types of governance, such as private protected areas and community-conserved areas;
  • How to build flexibility into protected area legislation, including to allow for climate change adaptation; and
  • How to involve an array of innovative and sustainable financing mechanisms into protected area systems.

An entire chapter is devoted to special issues pertaining to MPAs - from their unique characteristics and management challenges, to MPA-specific international obligations, to incorporating marine principles in legislation.

Mapping Large-scale Spatial Patterns in Cetacean Density: Preliminary work to inform systematic conservation planning and MPA network design in the northeastern Pacific

Citation Information: Williams, R., Kaschner, K., Hoyt, E, Reeves, R. and Ashe, E. 2011. Mapping Large-scale Spatial Patterns in Cetacean Density: Preliminary work to inform systematic conservation planning and MPA network design in the northeastern Pacific. Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Chippenham, UK, 51pp

Date: August 2011

Description: At the First International Conference on Marine Mammal Protected Areas (ICMMPA) in Maui, Hawaii (April 2009), participants concluded that a global effort was needed “to identify and define important marine mammal habitats and hot spots” (Reeves 2009, p 6). Such information, once integrated and mapped with similar data on other species and with biogeographic data, can be used to design and create marine protected area (MPA) networks in national waters and on the high seas, as called for by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). It was further noted at the ICMMPA that the use of “global databases covering environmental features, ocean processes, and species may help identify critical habitat and contribute to the design of MPAs and MPA networks” (Reeves 2009, p 6). This is a key point, because it means not only that (a) a necessary first step is to compile available information on animal distribution, but also (b) such information is only one of several required inputs.

This paper is intended as a contribution to the effort called for by the Maui conference. It focuses on one of the identified tasks, namely to compile the available information on cetacean distribution in one region (the northeastern Pacific Ocean) as a first stage in a longer process of developing proposals for cetacean-oriented MPAs and MPA networks.


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