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Using Siting Algorithms In The Design Of Marine Reserve Networks

Citation Information: Ecological Applications 13:185–198; 2003

Authors: Heather Leslie, Mary Ruckelshaus, Ian R. Ball, Sandy Andelman, and Hugh P. Possingham

Abstract: Using benthic habitat data from the Florida Keys (USA), we demonstrate how siting algorithms can help identify potential networks of marine reserves that comprehensively represent target habitat types. We applied a flexible optimization tool—simulated annealing—to represent a fixed proportion of different marine habitat types within a geographic area. We investigated the relative influence of spatial information, planning-unit size, detail of habitat classification, and magnitude of the overall conservation goal on the resulting network scenarios. With this method, we were able to identify many adequate reserve systems that met the conservation goals, e.g., representing at least 20% of each conservation target (i.e., habitat type) while fulfilling the overall aim of minimizing the system area and perimeter. One of the most useful types of information provided by this siting algorithm comes from an “irreplaceability analysis,” which is a count of the number of times unique planning units were included in reserve system scenarios. This analysis indicated that many different combinations of sites produced networks that met the conservation goals. While individual 1-km2 areas were fairly interchangeable, the irreplaceability analysis highlighted larger areas within the planning region that were chosen consistently to meet the goals incorporated into the algorithm. Additionally, we found that reserve systems designed with a high degree of spatial clustering tended to have considerably less perimeter and larger overall areas in reserve—a configuration that may be preferable particularly for sociopolitical reasons. This exercise illustrates the value of using the simulated annealing algorithm to help site marine reserves: the approach makes efficient use of available resources, can be used interactively by conservation decision makers, and offers biologically suitable alternative networks from which an effective system of marine reserves can be crafted.

Applying Ecological Criteria To Marine Reserve Design: A Case Study From The California Channel Islands

Citation Information: Ecological Applications 13:170–184; 2003

Authors: Satie Airamé, Jenifer E. Dugan, Kevin D. Lafferty, Heather Leslie, Deborah A. McArdle, and Robert R. Warner

Abstract: Using ecological criteria as a theoretical framework, we describe the steps involved in designing a network of marine reserves for conservation and fisheries management. Although we describe the case study of the Channel Islands, the approach to marine reserve design may be effective in other regions where traditional management alone does not sustain marine resources. A group of agencies, organizations, and individuals established clear goals for marine reserves in the Channel Islands, including conservation of ecosystem biodiversity, sustainable fisheries, economic viability, natural and cultural heritage, and education. Given the constraints of risk management, experimental design, monitoring, and enforcement, scientists recommended at least one, but no more than four, reserves in each biogeographic region. In general, the percentage of an area to be included in a reserve network depends on the goals. In the Channel Islands, after consideration of both conservation goals and the risk from human threats and natural catastrophes, scientists recommended reserving an area of 30–50% of all representative habitats in each biogeographic region. For most species of concern, except pinnipeds and seabirds, information about distributions, dispersal, and population growth was limited. As an alternative to species distribution information, suitable habitats for species of concern were used to locate potential reserve sites. We used a simulated annealing algorithm to identify potential reserve network scenarios that would represent all habitats within the smallest area possible. The analysis produced an array of potential reserve network scenarios that all met the established goals.

Propagule Dispersal Distance And The Size And Spacing Of Marine Reserves

Citation Information: Ecological Applications 13:159–169; 2003

Authors: Alan L. Shanks, Brian A. Grantham, and Mark H. Carr

Abstract: This study compiled available information on the dispersal distance of the propagules of benthic marine organisms and used this information in the development of criteria for the design of marine reserves. Many benthic marine organisms release propagules that spend time in the water column before settlement. During this period, ocean currents transport or disperse the propagules. When considering the size of a marine reserve and the spacing between reserves, one must consider the distance which propagules disperse. We could find estimates of dispersal distance for 32 taxa; for 25 of these, we were also able to find data on the time the propagules spent dispersing. Dispersal distance ranged from meters to thousands of kilometers, and time in the plankton ranged from minutes to months. A significant positive correlation was found between the log-transformed duration in the plankton and the log-transformed dispersal distance (r = 0.7776, r2 = 0.60, df = 1, 25, P = 0.000); the more time propagules spend in the water column the further they tend to be dispersed. The frequency distribution of the log-transformed dispersal distance is bimodal (kurtosis = −1.29, t = −4.062, P < 0.001) with a gap between 1 and 20 km. Propagules that dispersed <1 km spent less time in the plankton (<100 h), or if they remained in the plankton for a longer period, they tended to remain in the waters near the bottom. Propagules that dispersed >20 km spent more than 300 h in the plankton. The bimodal nature of the distribution suggests that evolutionary constraints may reduce the likelihood of evolving mid-range dispersal strategies (i.e., dispersal between 1 and 20 km) resulting in two evolutionarily stable dispersal strategies: dispersal <1 km or >20 km. We suggest that reserves be designed large enough to contain the short-distance dispersing propagules and be spaced far enough apart that long-distance dispersing propagules released from one reserve can settle in adjacent reserves. A reserve 4–6 km in diameter should be large enough to contain the larvae of short-distance dispersers, and reserves spaced 10–20 km apart should be close enough to capture propagules released from adjacent reserves.

Species–Area Relationships And Marine Conservation

Citation Information: Ecological Applications 13:138–145; 2003

Author: Joseph E. Neigel

Abstract: The species–area relationship (SPAR) was the central paradigm for the emerging science of reserve design in the 1970s and early 1980s. The apparent consistency of the SPAR for natural areas suggested that it could be used to predict the number of species that would be maintained within the isolated confines of a nature reserve. This proposed use of the SPAR led to heated debates about how best to partition space among reserves. However, by the end of the 1980s, the SPAR was no longer a central issue in reserve design. There was too much uncertainty about the underlying causes of the SPAR to trust that it would hold for reserves. The SPAR was also inappropriate for the design of single-species reserves and thus did not answer the traditional needs of wildlife managers. Ecologists subsequently focused their reserve-design efforts on the management of individual populations to reduce the probability of extinction and the loss of genetic variation. Nevertheless, because the SPAR does not require detailed knowledge of the requirements of individual species, it is still used to estimate local species richness and to predict the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on biodiversity. These applications of the SPAR may be especially useful in the design of marine reserves, which often differ in purpose from conventional terrestrial reserves and may require fundamentally different approaches.

The impact of marine reserves: do reserves work and does reserve size matter?

Citation Information: Ecological Applications 13:117–137; 2003

Author: Benjamin S. Halpern

Abstract: Marine reserves are quickly gaining popularity as a management option for marine conservation, fisheries, and other human uses of the oceans. Despite the popularity of marine reserves as a management tool, few reserves appear to have been created or designed with an understanding of how reserves affect biological factors or how reserves can be designed to meet biological goals more effectively (e.g., attaining sustainable fish populations). This shortcoming occurs in part because the many studies that have examined the impacts of reserves on marine organisms remain isolated examples or anecdotes; the results of these many studies have not yet been synthesized. Here, I review the empirical work and discuss the theoretical literature to assess the impacts of marine reserves on several biological measures (density, biomass, size of organisms, and diversity), paying particular attention to the role reserve size has in determining those impacts. The results of 89 separate studies show that, on average, with the exception of invertebrate biomass and size, values for all four biological measures are significantly higher inside reserves compared to outside (or after reserve establishment vs. before) when evaluated for both the overall communities and by each functional group within these communities (carnivorous fishes, herbivorous fishes, planktivorous fishes/invertebrate eaters, and invertebrates). Surprisingly, results also show that the relative impacts of reserves, such as the proportional differences in density or biomass, are independent of reserve size, suggesting that the effects of marine reserves increase directly rather than proportionally with the size of a reserve. However, equal relative differences in biological measures between small and large reserves nearly always translate into greater absolute differences for larger reserves, and so larger reserves may be necessary to meet the goals set for marine reserves.

Dispersal Potential of Marine Invertebrates in Diverse Habitats

Citation Information: Ecological Applications 13:108–116; 2003

Authors: Grantham, Brian A., Ginny L. Eckert, and Alan L. Shanks

Abstract: Life-history parameters were used to estimate the dispersal potential of 1021 marine macroinvertebrates recorded in species lists from 91 sites comprising rocky intertidal, subtidal, kelp forest, sandy beach, and soft-bottom habitats in Washington, Oregon, and California. Mean species richness was significantly greater in the California rocky subtidal habitat. Data on development mode, planktonic larval duration, rafting potential, and adult mobility were compiled, and summaries of the dispersal potentials of taxa within each habitat type were generated and compared. In summary, development mode was known or estimated for 76% of species; larval planktonic duration for 49%; adult mobility for 76%; and rafting potential for 46%. In comparisons of species' life-history traits among habitats, sand-dominated habitats were distinct from rocky habitats. In rocky habitats, 42% of species had planktonic feeding larvae, 43% had planktonic nonfeeding larvae, and 15% had nonplanktonic larvae. Sandy intertidal habitats had higher proportions of taxa with nondispersing, nonplanktonic larvae and lower proportions of planktonic feeding and nonfeeding larvae than all other sites. Soft-bottom subtidal communities had the highest proportion of taxa with planktonic feeding development and larvae with planktonic lifespans >30 d. Species in soft-bottom subtidal sites, therefore, have the greatest potential for extensive larval dispersal, whereas species in soft-bottom intertidal sites have the least potential for larval dispersal. In these sites with limited larval dispersal potential, there is greater potential for adult dispersal through adult movement and rafting. These differences in the dispersal potential of larvae and adults suggest that the effect of environmental changes and the effectiveness of reserves may differ between habitats. Conservation methods, including the use of marine reserves, must therefore be tailored to the habitat of interest if effective protection of community resources is to be achieved.

Comparing Marine And Terrestrial Ecosystems: Implications For The Design Of Coastal Marine Reserves

Citation Information: Ecological Applications 13:90–107; 2003

Authors: Mark H. Carr, Joseph E. Neigel, James A. Estes, Sandy Andelman, Robert R. Warner, and John L. Largier

Abstract: Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes responsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how humans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment depends, in part, on the degree of similarity between these systems. Several marked differences in ecological and evolutionary processes exist between marine and terrestrial ecosystems as ramifications of fundamental differences in their physical environments (i.e., the relative prevalence of air and water) and contemporary patterns of human impacts. Most notably, the great extent and rate of dispersal of nutrients, materials, holoplanktonic organisms, and reproductive propagules of benthic organisms expand scales of connectivity among nearshore communities and ecosystems. Consequently, the “openness” of marine populations, communities, and ecosystems probably has marked influences on their spatial, genetic, and trophic structures and dynamics in ways experienced by only some terrestrial species. Such differences appear to be particularly significant for the kinds of organisms most exploited and targeted for protection in coastal marine ecosystems (fishes and macroinvertebrates). These and other differences imply some unique design criteria and application of reserves in the marine environment. In explaining the implications of these differences for marine reserve design and application, we identify many of the environmental and ecological processes and design criteria necessary for consideration in the development of the analytical approaches developed elsewhere in this Special Issue.

Considerations In Estimating Larval Dispersal Distances From Oceanographic Data

Citation Information: Ecological Applications 13:71–89; 2003

Author: John L. Largier

Abstract: Determination of larval dispersal distances and larval origins is a central challenge in contemporary marine ecology. In this work, the larval dispersal problem is discussed from the perspective of oceanography. Following formulation of the advection–diffusion model, the importance of scale is argued. When considering dispersion parameters at the appropriate population scales, advection is usually weaker than initially anticipated (and often used), and diffusion is stronger than typically used in model studies. Focusing attention on coastal populations, the importance of retention zones is described, and the more general existence of a coastal boundary layer is discussed. The coupling of cross-shore and alongshore dispersion results in a nonlinear relation between alongshore dispersal distance and larval planktonic period for dispersion in a sheared flow. Thus, small changes in cross-shore dispersal, whether due to environmental differences or larval behavior result in significant differences in alongshore dispersal. Finally, the interplay between advection and diffusion is explored, showing the importance of adequately representing the diffusive effects that mitigate alongshore advection. In most cases, diffusion acts to prevent “washout” of a population and allows for more flexibility in the size and spacing of effective marine reserves. Future challenges must bring oceanographers and ecologists together around specific dispersal problems if there is to be a significant improvement in the notable absence of hard data in this field of enquiry.

Comparing Designs Of Marine Reserves For Fisheries And For Biodiversity

Citation Information: Ecological Applications 13:65–70; 2003

Authors: Alan Hastings and Louis W. Botsford

Abstract: We compare and contrast the design of networks of marine reserves for two different, commonly stated goals: (1) maintaining high yield in fisheries and (2) conserving biodiversity, in an idealized setting using simple models. The models describe larval dispersal over a system of evenly spaced reserves of equal size, assuming sedentary adults. We initially demonstrate that, since populations in reserve systems can be sustained either by covering a minimal fraction of the coast with small reserves or by covering a smaller fraction of the coast with few large reserves, cost considerations dictate that the conservation goal would be best met by reserves as large as practically possible. In contrast, the fisheries goal of maximizing yield requires maximizing larval export outside of reserves, which we show means that reserves should be as small as practically possible. Meeting the fisheries goal is ultimately more costly because it suggests a larger area of the coastline should be in reserves, but it also improves on conservation goals by enhancing sustainability for species dispersing longer distances.

Population Models For Marine Reserve Design: A Retrospective And Prospective Synthesis

Citation Information: Ecological Applications 13:47–64; 2003

Authors: Leah R. Gerber, Louis W. Botsford, Alan Hastings, Hugh P. Possingham, Steven D. Gaines, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Sandy Andelman

Abstract: We synthesize results from existing models of marine reserves to identify key theoretical issues that appear to be well understood, as well as issues in need of further exploration. Models of marine reserves are relatively new in the scientific literature; 32 of the 34 theoretical papers we reviewed were published after 1990. These models have focused primarily on questions concerning fishery management at the expense of other objectives such as conservation, scientific understanding, recreation, education, and tourism. Roughly one-third of the models analyze effects on cohorts while the remaining models have some form of complete population dynamics. Few models explicitly include larval dispersal. In a fisheries context, the primary conclusion drawn by many of the complete population models is that reserves increase yield when populations would otherwise be overfished. A second conclusion, resulting primarily from single-cohort models, is that reserves will provide fewer benefits for species with greater adult rates of movement. Although some models are beginning to yield information on the spatial configurations of reserves required for populations with specific dispersal distances to persist, it remains an aspect of reserve design in need of further analysis. Other outstanding issues include the effects of (1) particular forms of density dependence, (2) multispecies interactions, (3) fisher behavior, and (4) effects of concentrated fishing on habitat. Model results indicate that marine reserves could play a beneficial role in the protection of marine systems against overfishing. Additional modeling and analysis will greatly improve prospects for a better understanding of the potential of marine reserves for conserving biodiversity.

Avoiding Current Oversights In Marine Reserve Design

Citation Information: Ecological Applications 13:32–46; 2003

Authors: Steven D. Gaines, Brian Gaylord, and John L. Largier

Abstract: The pun in the above title reflects two points. First, marine life cycles commonly include a dispersive juvenile stage that is moved about by ocean currents. This stage often is the predominant, or only, means of dispersal that connects spatially disjunct populations. As a consequence, details of dispersal likely play a critical role in determining the effectiveness of marine reserves as a management and conservation tool. Curiously, however (and this is the second point of the title), although dozens of models for marine reserves now exist, few actually account explicitly for larval dispersal. Moreover, those that do include dispersal, do so almost exclusively by considering it to be a nondirectional spreading process (diffusion), ignoring the effects of directional transport by currents (advection). Here we develop a population dynamical model for marine organisms with relatively sedentary adults whose larvae are transported in a simple flow field with both diffusive spreading and directional characteristics. We find that advection can play a dominant role in determining the effectiveness of different reserve configurations. Two of the most important consequences are: (1) with strong currents, multiple reserves can be markedly more effective than single reserves of equivalent total size; and (2) in the presence of strong currents, reserves can significantly outperform traditional, effort-based management strategies in terms of fisheries yield, and do so with less risk. These results suggest that successful reserve design may require considerable new efforts to examine explicitly the role of dispersal of young.

Principles for the Design of Marine Reserves

Citation Information: Ecological Applications 13:25–31; 2003

Authors: Louis W. Botsford, Fiorenza Micheli, and Alan Hastings

Abstract: The theory underlying the design of marine reserves, whether the goal is to preserve biodiversity or to manage fisheries, is still in its infancy. For both of these goals, there is a need for general principles on which to base marine reserve design, and because of the paucity of empirical experience, these principles must be based on models. However, most of the theoretical studies to date have been specific to a single situation, with few attempts to deduce general principles. Here we attempt to distill existing results into general principles useful to designers of marine reserves. To answer the question of how fishery management using reserves compares to conventional management, we provide two principles: (1) the effect of reserves on yield per recruit is similar to increasing the age of first capture, and (2) the effect of reserves on yield is similar to reducing effort. Another two principles answer the question of how to design reserve configurations so that species with movement in various stages will be sustainable: (3) higher juvenile and adult movement lowers sustainability of reserves for biodiversity, but an intermediate level of adult movement is required for reserves for fishery management, and (4) longer larval dispersal distance requires larger reserves for sustainability. These principles provide general guidelines for design, and attention to them will allow more rapid progress in future modeling studies. Whether populations or communities will persist under any specific reserve design is uncertain, and we suggest ways of dealing with that uncertainty.

Ensuring Persistence Of Marine Reserves: Catastrophes Require Adopting An Insurance Factor

Citation Information: Ecological Applications 13:8–24; 2003.

Authors: Gary W. Allison, Steven D. Gaines, Jane Lubchenco, and Hugh P. Possingham

Abstract: When viewed across long temporal and large spatial scales, severe disturbances in marine ecosystems are not uncommon. Events such as hurricanes, oil spills, disease outbreaks, hypoxic events, harmful algal blooms, and coral bleaching can cause massive mortality and dramatic habitat effects on local or even regional scales. Although designers of marine reserves might assume low risk from such events over the short term, catastrophes are quite probable over the long term and must be considered for successful implementation of reserves. A simple way to increase performance of a reserve network is to incorporate into the reserve design a mechanism for calculating how much additional area would be required to buffer the reserve against effects of catastrophes. In this paper, we develop a method to determine this “insurance factor”: a multiplier to calculate the additional reserve area necessary to ensure that functional goals of reserves will be met within a given “catastrophe regime.” We document and analyze the characteristics of two relatively well-studied types of disturbances: oil spills and hurricanes. We examine historical data to characterize catastrophe regimes within which reserves must function and use these regimes to illustrate the application of the insurance factor. This tool can be applied to any reserve design for which goals are defined by a quantifiable measure, such as a fraction of shoreline, that is necessary to accomplish a particular function. In the absence of such quantitative measures, the concept of additional area as insurance against catastrophes may still be useful.

Plugging A Hole In The Ocean: The Emerging Science Of Marine Reserves

Citation Information: Ecological Applications 13:3–7; 2003

Authors: Jane Lubchenco, Stephen R. Palumbi, Steven D. Gaines, and Sandy Andelman

Abstract: Rapid and radical degradation of the world’s oceans is triggering increasing calls for more effective approaches to protect, maintain, and restore marine ecosystems (Allison et al. 1998, Murray et al. 1999, NRC 1999a, 2000a). A broad spectrum of land and oceanbased activities, coupled with continued growth of the human population and migration to coastal areas, is driving unanticipated, unprecedented, and complex changes in the chemistry (Committee on Environment and Natural Resources 2000, NRC 2000b, Boesch et al. 2001), physical structure (Lubchenco et al. 1995, Watling and Norse 1998), biology and ecological functioning (Lubchenco et al. 1995, Vitousek et al. 1997, Botsford et al. 1997, Watling and Norse 1998, NRC 1999b, NMFS 1999, FAO 2000, Hutchings 2000, Carlton 2001, Jackson et al. 2001) of oceans worldwide. Symptoms of complex and fundamental alterations to marine ecosystems abound, including increases in: coral bleaching, zones of hypoxic or anoxic water, abrupt changes in species composition, habitat degradation, invasive species, harmful algal blooms, marine epidemics, mass mortalities, and fisheries collapses (Botsford et al. 1997, Vitousek et al. 1997, Harvell et al. 1999, NRC 1999b, 2000a). Fishing practices, coastal development, landbased chemical and nutrient pollution, energy practices, aquaculture, land use and land transformation, water use and shipping practices combine to alter the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems globally (Lubchenco et al. 1995). Fundamental alterations to ecosystem structure include changes in species diversity; population abundance, size structure, sex ratios, and behavior; habitat structure; trophic dynamics; biogeochemistry; biological interactions; and more. These changes in turn affect the functioning of marine ecosystems and the consequent provision of goods and services (Lubchenco et al. 1995, Peterson and Lubchenco 1997). As both the value and vulnerability of marine ecosystems become more broadly recognized, there is an urgent search for effective mechanisms to prevent or reverse widespread declines and to protect, maintain, and restore ocean ecosystems.

Governance baselines as a basis for adaptive marine spatial planning

Citation Information: Journal of Coastal Conservation; Volume 15, Number 2 (2011), 313-322

DOI: 10.1007/s11852-011-0151-6

Authors: Stephen Bloye Olsen, Erik Olsen and Nicole Schaefer

Abstract: A marine spatial planning (MSP) initiative—if to be successful—has to be rooted in a thorough understanding of the tradition and structures of the governance system in the area targeted for the initiative. After decades of a mainly sectoral approach towards maritime affairs, governments began to recognised the need for a governance framework that applies a more integrated approach to maritime policy. The new Integrated Maritime Policy of the European Union is only one example for such a changed way of policy and decision making. The assembly of a governance baseline can help to identify the crucial hindering and success factors for the implementation of MSP. A governance baseline has two parts. Part One focuses upon the past and current performance of the governance system as it has responded—or failed to respond—to changes in the condition of ecosystems in a specific locale. Part Two of a baseline outlines a strategic approach to the design of a new program and records the goals, objectives and strategies of MSP implementation. Focus on both governance processes and their outcomes is essential and forms the core justification for documenting governance responses to ecosystem change. 

The integration of land and marine spatial planning

Citation Information: Journal of Coastal Conservation; Volume 15, Number 2 (2011), 291-303

DOI: 10.1007/s11852-010-0098-z

Authors: Hance D. Smith, Frank Maes, Tim A. Stojanovic and Rhoda C. Ballinger

Abstract: Whilst spatial planning has evolved as a tool to manage the development and use of the terrestrial environment over decades, the development of spatial planning systems for the marine environment are in their infancy. This paper focuses on the integration of land and marine based spatial planning systems. This is informed by a brief overview of the regional development of the lands and seas of Europe which underlie spatial planning systems and by a discussion of respective spatial planning systems in terms of economic sectors, land use, and sea use. The integration of spatial planning systems is then considered, followed by evaluation of relationships between spatial planning, and the wider field of environmental management. This includes consideration of organisational and geographical scales, technical management including legal aspects, policy, strategic planning and time scales of decision-making. The paper identifies the significant factors which must be considered in the integration of marine and terrestrial planning systems over the coming decades.

Transboundary maritime spatial planning: a Baltic Sea perspective

Citation Information: Journal of Coastal Conservation; Volume 15, Number 2 (2011), 279-289

DOI: 10.1007/s11852-011-0156-1

Author: Hermanni Backer

Abstract: Maritime Spatial Planning is a new form of spatial planning emerging at the intersection of expanding demands for commercial use of marine space and increasing concerns for marine ecosystems. Many coastal countries around Europe are presently engaged in this field -not only by their national activities but also cooperating across borders through transboundary dialogue, joint strategies and even considering joint planning. In the Baltic Sea region transboundary cooperation takes all these forms. Such activities, including the Plan Bothnia pilot planning of the Bothnian Sea between Sweden and Finland, bring into surface differences in planning procedures and approaches, views on the environment, compatibilities of geographical data and the general complexity of the international-national legal framework. Creativity and transparent, accountable procedures are needed to ensure that such initiatives are both useful and legitimate.

Zoning, a fundamental cornerstone of effective Marine Spatial Planning: lessons learnt from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

Citation Information: Journal of Coastal Conservation; Volume 15, Number 2 (2011), 271-278

DOI: 10.1007/s11852-011-0147-2

Authors: R. A. Kenchington and J. C. Day

Abstract: The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park was established to provide for conservation and ecologically sustainable multiple use of 344,400 km2 of a large marine ecosystem. Management is based on multiple use, with zoning as a fundamental component of marine spatial planning. The legislative framework, including a specific Act and Regulations, address the objectives of ecosystem-based, integrated management of human uses and impacts consistent with best contemporary understanding of biological diversity. Zoning is one of a suite of management tools that include other spatial and temporal management tools and non-spatial measures including public education, community engagement, codes of environmental best practice, industry partnerships and economic instruments. The first section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park came into operation in 1981 and the most recent zoning came into operation in mid 2004. The paper discusses some common misunderstandings about zoning and identifies lessons that appear relevant for others addressing management and use of marine ecosystems and natural resources. 

Place-based management at different spatial scales

Citation Information: Journal of Coastal Conservation; Volume 15, Number 2 (2011), 257-269

DOI: 10.1007/s11852-010-0108-1

Authors: Erik Olsen, Alf Ring Kleiven, Hein Rune Skjoldal and Cecilie H. von Quillfeldt

Abstract: Place-based management is any management action having implications for a specified area. Place-based management is seen as a key component to practical implementation of ecosystem approach to management, with marine spatial planning (MSP) being the currently most promoted approach. In the present paper we address the challenges of place-based management at local, regional and global (oceanic) spatial scales using case studies from the Northeast Atlantic with examples from Norway. Both ecological, governance and management complexity increases with increasing geographic scale, with associated increases in uncertainty and thus increasing need for managing under the precautionary approach. A process where (ecologically) valuable and vulnerable areas are defined early on is essential to successful place-based management under the ecosystem approach. Integrating across sectors and achieving necessary cooperation between involved institutions and stakeholders is also necessary. 

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