Literature Library

Currently indexing 8399 titles

Effects of Coastal Construction on Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Behavior and Habitat-Use Off Hong Kong

Piwetz S, Jefferson TA, Würsig B. Effects of Coastal Construction on Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Behavior and Habitat-Use Off Hong Kong. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2021 ;8. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.572535/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1571277_45_Marine_20210309_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Construction-related loss of habitat, degradation of existing habitat, noise pollution, and vessel activity are growing issues for Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) that occur in the shallow, near-shore, highly industrialized waters off Lantau Island, Hong Kong. We studied the occurrence of dolphins in discrete locations, fine-scale movement patterns, and dolphin behavioral activity states. Potential explanatory variables varied and included year, season, time of day, dolphin group size and behavioral activity state, proximity to construction activity, and vessel type and number. Land-based observations and theodolite tracking of dolphins and vessels were conducted from seven locations to the north of Lantau Island, Hong Kong, and marine construction activities near survey sites were identified. A total of 636 groups of dolphins were recorded, totaling 150.91 h of tracking, from 405 days of observation effort. Hurdle models were used to analyze dolphin occurrence, multivariate generalized additive models were used to analyze fine-scale movement patterns, and log-likelihood ratio and binomial z score post hoc tests were used to analyze behavioral activity states. Dolphin occurrence was lower in historically important areas near long-term, low-intensity construction activity, and dolphin swimming speed was higher in response to vessel presence. Overall, foraging and traveling were the most frequently observed behavioral activity states and resting behavior was observed off only one location that was not in proximity to construction activities. Temporal overlap in adjacent marine construction areas may displace animals for extended periods and nearby ecologically similar habitats should be identified and designated as marine protected areas to mitigate effects of such disturbance.

Dolphin-Watching Boats Affect Whistle Frequency Modulation in Bottlenose Dolphins

Perez-Ortega B, Daw R, Paradee B, Gimbrere E, May-Collado LJ. Dolphin-Watching Boats Affect Whistle Frequency Modulation in Bottlenose Dolphins. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2021 ;8. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.618420/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1571277_45_Marine_20210309_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Bottlenose dolphins’ whistles are key in social communication, conveying information about conspecifics and the environment. Therefore, their study can help to infer habitat use and identify areas of concern due to human activities. Here we studied the whistles of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in two sites of the archipelago of Bocas del Toro, Panama, that contrast in boat traffic. Almirante Bay is a site dominated by taxi-boats and Dolphin Bay is a major location for boat-based dolphin watching. Recordings were made using bottom-mounted hydrophones and from the research boat using an over-the-side hydrophone and a broadband recording system. A total recording effort time of 1,726 h was analyzed. Our results show significant differences in boat detection between sites, and a higher number of whistles detected per minute in the site with tour-boat traffic. Furthermore, whistle modulation accounted for most of the differences between sites, boat presence, and whistle types. Dolphin whistle modulation is thought to be a potential indicator of emotional states including danger, alertness, and stress. In this study, dolphin signature whistle modulation increased significantly with boat presence in both sites but changes in modulation were greater in Dolphin Bay where tour-boats directly and sometimes aggressively interact with the animals. These results support a potential association between whistle modulation and stress (or alertness). These findings indicate that if tour-boat captains behave more like taxi-boat captains by e.g., reducing the distance of approach and contact time during dolphin interactions, dolphin communication, and emotional state would be less disrupted. These measures are implemented in the national guidelines for whale-watching and are known to tour-boat operators. The key to protecting these dolphins is in finding ways to effectively enforce these operator guidelines.

Genetic Conservation Management of Marine Resources and Ecosystems of Patagonian Fjords

Addamo AMaria, Zaccara S, Försterra G, Höfer J, García-Jiménez R, Crosa G, Machordom A. Genetic Conservation Management of Marine Resources and Ecosystems of Patagonian Fjords. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2021 ;8. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2021.612195/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1571277_45_Marine_20210309_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Chilean fjord region includes many remote and poorly known areas where management plans for the marine living resources and conservation strategies are urgently needed. Few data are available about the spatial distribution of its marine invertebrate fauna, prevalently influenced by complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors, animal behavior and human activities. Patagonian fjords are a hotspot for finfish aquaculture, elevating Chile to the world’s second producer of farmed salmon, after Norway, a condition that emphasizes the necessity to develop strategies for a sustainable aquaculture management. The present study focuses on the emblematic cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus, dwelling the Comau Fjord from shallow to deep waters, with the aim to illustrate population structure, demography and adaptation of the species and its potential use for the development of a sustainable conservation and management plan for human activities. The analyses of microsatellite loci of D. dianthus individuals from four sampling localities along horizontal and vertical gradients of Comau Fjord, lead to identify them as a panmictic population. The results also contributed to consider a careful examination of the synchrony between the temporal and spatial variations of environmental factors and the biological cycle of the species as key role player in the inference of autecology of the species. The discussion stresses the importance of molecular analyses as extremely helpful tools for studies focusing on remote areas and non-model organisms, where logistic difficulties and limited scientific knowledge hamper a better management and conservation of marine resources, and in particular the relevance of multidisciplinary approaches to reduce the extensive knowledge gap on the remote fjord ecosystems of Patagonia. This study also highlights the importance of oceanographic information in the entire process of the analyses and interpretation of genetic results.

Bottom Trawling Threatens Future Climate Refugia of Rhodoliths Globally

Fragkopoulou E, Serrão EA, Horta PA, Koerich G, Assis J. Bottom Trawling Threatens Future Climate Refugia of Rhodoliths Globally. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2021 ;7. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.594537/full?utm_source=F-AAE&utm_medium=EMLF&utm_campaign=MRK_1571277_45_Marine_20210309_arts_A
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Climate driven range shifts are driving the redistribution of marine species and threatening the functioning and stability of marine ecosystems. For species that are the structural basis of marine ecosystems, such effects can be magnified into drastic loss of ecosystem functioning and resilience. Rhodoliths are unattached calcareous red algae that provide key complex three-dimensional habitats for highly diverse biological communities. These globally distributed biodiversity hotspots are increasingly threatened by ongoing environmental changes, mainly ocean acidification and warming, with wide negative impacts anticipated in the years to come. These are superimposed upon major local stressors caused by direct destructive impacts, such as bottom trawling, which act synergistically in the deterioration of the rhodolith ecosystem health and function. Anticipating the potential impacts of future environmental changes on the rhodolith biome may inform timely mitigation strategies integrating local effects of bottom trawling over vulnerable areas at global scales. This study aimed to identify future climate refugia, as regions where persistence is predicted under contrasting climate scenarios, and to analyze their trawling threat levels. This was approached by developing species distribution models with ecologically relevant environmental predictors, combined with the development of a global bottom trawling intensity index to identify heavily fished regions overlaying rhodoliths. Our results revealed the importance of light, thermal stress and pH driving the global distribution of rhodoliths. Future projections showed poleward expansions and contractions of suitable habitats at lower latitudes, structuring cryptic depth refugia, particularly evident under the more severe warming scenario RCP 8.5. Our results suggest that if management and conservation measures are not taken, bottom trawling may directly threaten the persistence of key rhodolith refugia. Since rhodoliths have slow growth rates, high sensitivity and ecological importance, understanding how their current and future distribution might be susceptible to bottom trawling pressure, may contribute to determine the fate of both the species and their associated communities.

SocMon Global Project 2020 Site Minicoy Island, U.T of Lakshadweep

Hoon V, Padgett R. SocMon Global Project 2020 Site Minicoy Island, U.T of Lakshadweep. SocMon; 2020.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

SocMon studies in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep have been carried out at Agatti Island in 2001-2002 (Hoon, V. et al. 2002) and 2010-2011 (Hoon, V. and Babu 2011), and at Minicoy Island in 2003-2004 (Hoon et al. 2004). Being representative of all other islands in Lakshadweep, Minicoy was selected for an assessment update in 2019-2020 in order to add results to the existing information. A detailed socioeconomic study of Minicoy provides insights into the resource dependency and the issues that are facing them. Residents of Minicoy Island are isolated and have to be self-reliant, especially during the monsoon period when the sea becomes very rough for boat transportation. The islanders depend on the goods and services from local resources of the island, lagoon, reef and the open sea for survival.

This was a repeat monitoring effort to look at trends and changes in the socioeconomic status of the islanders, that have taken place since the first study that was published in 2004.

The program was initiated with the premise that long-term sustainability of coral reef management and monitoring programs can be ensured if the local community partici- pates and feels a sense of ownership.

An additional benefit is that it serves as both a capacity and awareness building pro- gram for the local communities who are directly involved in using the ecosystem goods and services, as well as those who are involved in monitoring them.

Influence of interannual variability in estimating the rate and acceleration of present-day global mean sea level

Moreira L, Cazenave A, Palanisamy H. Influence of interannual variability in estimating the rate and acceleration of present-day global mean sea level. Global and Planetary Change [Internet]. 2021 ;199:103450. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921818121000357?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Recent studies have shown that the global mean sea level (GMSL) is accelerating. For improved process understanding and sea level projections, it is crucial to precisely estimate the GMSL acceleration due to externally-forced global climate change. For that purpose, the internal climate variability-related signal of the GMSL needs to be removed from the GMSL record. In the present study, we estimate how the observed GMSL rate has evolved with time over the altimetry era (1993-present), with the objective of determining how it is influenced by the interannual variability. We find that the GMSL rate computed over 5-year moving windows, displays significant interannual variability around 6–7 years and 12–13 years, preventing from robust acceleration estimation. To remove from the observed GMSL time series, the interannual variability, possibly related to internal climate modes, like ENSOPDOIODNAO or AMO, we use two methods previously widely applied in the literature: (1) multiple linear regression of the GMSL against some climate indices, and (2) Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) decomposition of the gridded sea level data to isolate the interannual signal. Although the interannual signal of the corrected GMSL time series is reduced, a cycle around 6–7 years still remains in the GMSL rate. We discuss possible sources of the remaining 6-7-year cycle, including the limitation of the methods used to remove the interannual variability.

Applying the ecosystem services - EBM framework to sustainably manage Qatar's coral reefs and seagrass beds

Fanning LM, Al-Naimi MNasser, Range P, Ali A-SM, Bouwmeester J, Al-Jamali F, Burt JA, Ben-Hamadou R. Applying the ecosystem services - EBM framework to sustainably manage Qatar's coral reefs and seagrass beds. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2021 ;205:105566. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096456912100051X?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Given the current natural and anthropogenic threats facing Qatar's marine environment and the consequential expected decline in ecosystem services, this paper examines the potential application of the Ecosystem Services-EBM framework developed by Granek et al. (2010) to sustainably manage Qatar's coral reef and seagrass bed ecosystems. Using interviews with stakeholders and field-collected data from sixteen coral reef sites and 6 seagrass meadows as well as secondary data, the paper presents new knowledge regarding the status of these ecosystems and the benefits they provide that are most valued by stakeholders. The research identifies existing and missing ecological and socio-economic data, as well as the processes and management strategies required to implement the five-step framework within a Qatari context. Key goals for implementing EBM identified by stakeholders include: adoption of scientific planning and valuation of marine environment, contextualizing and drafting legislation, regulations and policies in support of EBM; monitoring and enforcement of laws; and, promotion of public awareness and engagement. The article concludes with recommendations for filling remaining data gaps and highlights opportunities available to Qatar to become a leader in implementing EBM. These include maximizing the increasing role that stakeholders can play in mitigating further decline of the country's coastal ecosystems and leveraging mega events planned in Qatar, such as FIFA World Cup 2022.

An evaluation of the effectiveness of protected areas in Thailand

Singh M, Griaud C, C. Collins M. An evaluation of the effectiveness of protected areas in Thailand. Ecological Indicators [Internet]. 2021 ;125:107536. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X21002016?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Thailand is a biodiversity hotspot and home to over 1000 bird species, 15,000 plant species, and five of the World Wildlife Fund’s Global 200 Ecoregions of ecological significance. To preserve their unique ecosystems, the Thai government has established and maintained protected areas (PA) which in 2020, are estimated to cover 19% of Thailand’s land area. The success of these areas in preserving biodiversity to date is somewhat ambiguous. Using gap analyses, we evaluated the extent and adequacy of coverage provided by these PAs for the preservation of these unique ecoregions, to threatened amphibian, bird, and mammal species richness hotspots and at a range of altitudes within Thailand.

Regionally, the Indochina dry forests, Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests and Malaysian Peninsula rainforests are all under-represented. Though opportunities exist for their protection through marine designation, mangrove and wetland ecosystems are also seriously under-represented in the current spatial layout and network connectivity of Thailand’s protected area system. Highland areas (>750 m elevation) are well-protected, in contrast to the lower altitude areas where human and agricultural pressures are higher. Hotspots of threatened birds located in the northern and southern regions of Thailand, as well as most of the central threatened mammal hotspot, are inadequately covered (<10%). The current PAs could be expanded with a focus on these key areas, or further PAs created to address these gaps in provision. The Thai PA network is also highly fragmented and, in addition to increasing the area covered, contiguity and connectivity of the network should be considered. With human population expansion in the central lowland area particularly, there will be challenges and trade-offs to be negotiated along with enforcement within existing areas. We hope, though, that the results of this study can aid policymakers in improving Thai conservation effectiveness.

Silent winters and rock-and-roll summers: The long-term effects of changing oceans on marine fish vocalization

Siddagangaiah S, Chen C-F, Hu W-C, Danovaro R, Pieretti N. Silent winters and rock-and-roll summers: The long-term effects of changing oceans on marine fish vocalization. Ecological Indicators [Internet]. 2021 ;125:107456. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X21001217?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The analysis of temporal trends and spatial patterns of marine sounds can provide crucial insights to assess the abundance, distribution, and behavior of fishes and of many other species. However, data on species-specific temporal and seasonal changes are still extremely limited. We report here the result of the longest recording ever conducted (five years, from 2014 to 2018) on fish vocalization. Findings from the Eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS) revealed a periodic fish chorusing pattern, with peaks in summer and almost complete silence, for ~2 months, during winter. Chorusing pattern was influenced by abiotic parameters, including temperature, tides and moon phase. We also report, for the first time, that extreme weather events (e.g., typhoons, storms with sediment resuspension) caused the cessation of the chorusing. The chorusing pattern explored in this long-term study provides important baseline data to understand the impact of climate change and of climate-driven extreme/episodic events on the phenology of fishes; this work also provides evidence that changes in the ambient conditions might significantly alter the phenology of vocalizing marine species.

“It's not just about putting a smile on your face, it's about keeping people safe”: Causes and consequences of sleep loss and fatigue in the coral reef tourism industry

Reynolds AC, Pabel A, Ferguson SA, Naweed A. “It's not just about putting a smile on your face, it's about keeping people safe”: Causes and consequences of sleep loss and fatigue in the coral reef tourism industry. Annals of Tourism Research [Internet]. 2021 ;88:103160. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160738321000220?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This study provides an in-depth understanding of the causes and consequences of sleep loss and fatigue in the coral reef tourism industry. Utilizing a qualitative methodology, data were obtained from eight focus groups conducted in Far North Queensland with 42 reef tourism employees. Analysis involved identifying and inductively coding any emergent categories of the causes and consequences of sleep loss and fatigue. Findings are applied to Baum, Kralj, Robinson, and Solnet's (2016) taxonomy of tourism research to highlight where the causes of sleep loss and fatigue originate. This reflects individual, occupational and industry-level causes of sleep loss and fatigue which workers indicate have consequences for their wellbeing, and the safety and efficacy of their operations. Implications for the broader tourism industry are discussed.

Modeling the impact of climate change on mussel aquaculture in a coastal upwelling system: A critical assessment

Fuentes-Santos I, Labarta U, Fernández-Reiriz MJosé, Kay S, Hjøllo SSætre, X. Alvarez-Salgado A. Modeling the impact of climate change on mussel aquaculture in a coastal upwelling system: A critical assessment. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2021 ;775:145020. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969721000863?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Forecasting of climate change impacts on marine aquaculture production has become a major research task, which requires taking into account the biases and uncertainties arising from ocean climate models in coastal areas, as well as considering culture management strategies. Focusing on the suspended mussel culture in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system, we simulated current and future mussel growth by means of a multistructural net production Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model. We considered two scenarios and three ocean climate models to account for climate uncertainty, and applied a bias correction to the climate models in coastal areas. Our results show that the predicted impact of climate change on mussel growth is low compared with the role of the seeding time. However, the response of mussels varied across climate models, ranging from a minor growth decline to a moderate growth increase. Therefore, this work confirms that an accurate forecasting of climate change impacts on shellfish aquaculture should take into account the variability linked to both management strategies and climate uncertainty.

Troubled seas? The changing politics of maritime boundary disputes

Østhagen A. Troubled seas? The changing politics of maritime boundary disputes. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2021 ;205:105535. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096456912100020X?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Maritime space is growing in importance. How states utilise, emphasise and view the maritime domain is changing. At the same time, maritime boundary disputes exist on all continents. Why do states engage in disputes over who owns what at sea? How do states delineate ownership and rights? How are these dynamics evolving? These core questions are examined in this article, which explores and reviews the concept of maritime boundaries and related disputes. The focus is on exclusive economic zones (EEZ), the extended maritime zones beyond territorial waters. Ocean boundaries delineating EEZs are important constructs for everything from oil and gas production to fisheries and environmental protection. Beyond function, trends like an increasing focus on the intangible attributes of disputes at sea, combined with the ongoing institutionalisation of ocean-space since the adoption of the United Nations Convention for the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) in 1982, force us to update our assumptions regarding the political dynamics of ocean-space.

Establishing a pre-COVID-19 baseline for surf tourism: Trip expenditure and attitudes, behaviors and willingness to pay for sustainability

Mach L, Ponting J. Establishing a pre-COVID-19 baseline for surf tourism: Trip expenditure and attitudes, behaviors and willingness to pay for sustainability. Annals of Tourism Research Empirical Insights [Internet]. 2021 ;2(1):100011. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666957921000021?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This manuscript provides the only empirically derived pre-COVID-19 global estimation of international surf travel spending and the first assessment of sustainable surf tourism attitudes, behaviors, and willingness to pay. It establishes important baselines that can serve as points of comparison as, and after, surf tourism returns, inevitably changed, post-COVID-19. Employing a direct cost method, international surf tourism expenditure was valued between $31.5 to $64.9 billion USD per year and surfers reported being willing to pay between $1.99 and $4.1 billion USD more annually for sustainable surf tourism products. These results suggest surfing tourism deserves a more significant place in funding initiatives, discussions, and research related to fostering sustainable development from ocean resources in the rapidly changing world.

A food chain-based ecological risk assessment model for oil spills in the Arctic environment

Fahd F, Yang M, Khan F, Veitch B. A food chain-based ecological risk assessment model for oil spills in the Arctic environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2021 ;166:112164. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X21001983?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This paper investigates the linkage between the acute impacts on apex marine mammals with polar cod responses to an oil spill. It proposes a Bayesian network-based model to link these direct and indirect effects on the apex marine mammals. The model predicts a recruitment collapse (for the scenarios considered), causing a higher risk of mortality of polar bears, beluga whales, and Narwhals in the Arctic region. Whales (adult and calves) were predicted to be at higher risk when the spill was under thick ice, while adult polar bears were at higher risk when the spill occurred on thin ice. A spill over the thick ice caused the least risk to whale and adult polar bears. The spill's timing and location have a significant impact on the animals in the Arctic region due to its unique sea ice dynamics, simple food web, and short periods of food abundance.

Applying the ecosystem services - EBM framework to sustainably manage Qatar's coral reefs and seagrass beds

Fanning LM, Al-Naimi MNasser, Range P, Ali A-SM, Bouwmeester J, Al-Jamali F, Burt JA, Ben-Hamadou R. Applying the ecosystem services - EBM framework to sustainably manage Qatar's coral reefs and seagrass beds. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2021 ;205:105566. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096456912100051X?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Given the current natural and anthropogenic threats facing Qatar's marine environment and the consequential expected decline in ecosystem services, this paper examines the potential application of the Ecosystem Services-EBM framework developed by Granek et al. (2010) to sustainably manage Qatar's coral reef and seagrass bed ecosystems. Using interviews with stakeholders and field-collected data from sixteen coral reef sites and 6 seagrass meadows as well as secondary data, the paper presents new knowledge regarding the status of these ecosystems and the benefits they provide that are most valued by stakeholders. The research identifies existing and missing ecological and socio-economic data, as well as the processes and management strategies required to implement the five-step framework within a Qatari context. Key goals for implementing EBM identified by stakeholders include: adoption of scientific planning and valuation of marine environment, contextualizing and drafting legislation, regulations and policies in support of EBM; monitoring and enforcement of laws; and, promotion of public awareness and engagement. The article concludes with recommendations for filling remaining data gaps and highlights opportunities available to Qatar to become a leader in implementing EBM. These include maximizing the increasing role that stakeholders can play in mitigating further decline of the country's coastal ecosystems and leveraging mega events planned in Qatar, such as FIFA World Cup 2022.

Why they must be counted: Significant contributions of Fijian women fishers to food security and livelihoods

Thomas A, Mangubhai S, Fox M, Meo S, Miller K, Naisilisili W, Veitayaki J, Waqairatu S. Why they must be counted: Significant contributions of Fijian women fishers to food security and livelihoods. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2021 ;205:105571. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569121000569?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Worldwide, small-scale fisheries (SSF) are an important source of food and livelihoods for rural communities and contribute substantially to national economies. Women play crucial roles in these fisheries, yet their contributions are largely invisible, often ignored and unrecognized. We conducted household and focus group surveys to examine the role of indigenous Fijian (iTaukei) women in SSF, documenting fishing practices and contributions to household food security and income. Our results reinforced several traditional views, such as iTaukei women preferentially fishing closer to their villages; but also challenged other assumptions with women fishing a wider range of habitats (from inland rivers to the open ocean) and species than previously described, and many using a boat and fishing with men. In addition to gleaning for invertebrates and seaweed, women also caught over 100 species of fish. Women fished primarily for subsistence, emphasizing their significant contribution to household food security. Although almost half of the women sold part of their catch to supplement household incomes, they also engaged in other income earning livelihoods, and therefore were not solely dependent on fisheries. Of concern was the high targeting of nursery areas for fish and invertebrate species by women fishers, and species with low spawning potential ratios. Given the level of engagement in, and contributions to fisheries, the inclusion of iTaukei women fishers in fisheries planning and management is critical for ensuring the sustainability of SSF in Fiji. Furthermore, empowering women for full participation in fisheries and lifting them out of poverty requires a re-consideration of traditional gender norms in rural communities, which are already shifting and evolving.

Modelling ecosystem dynamics to assess the effect of coastal fisheries on cetacean species

Paradell OGiralt, Methion S, Rogan E, López BDíaz. Modelling ecosystem dynamics to assess the effect of coastal fisheries on cetacean species. Journal of Environmental Management [Internet]. 2021 ;285:112175. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479721002371?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The expansion of fisheries and its increased efficiency are causing severe detrimental impacts on marine species and ecosystems, that can be categorised into operational and ecological effects. While impacts directly caused by fishing activities have been extensively documented, it is difficult to set an empirical link between fisheries and changes in predator biomass and abundance. Therefore, exploring the functioning of ecosystems as a whole, the interactions between the different species within them and the impact of human activities, is key to understanding the ecological effects of fisheries on top predators and ecosystems, and to develop effective conservation measures, while ensuring a more sustainable exploitation of fishing resources. For instance, mass balance models, such as Ecopath with Ecosim, have proven to be a useful tool to develop more holistic fisheries management and conservation strategies. In this study, Ecopath with Ecosim was used to investigate the temporal dynamics of the Rías Baixas shelf ecosystem (North-West Spain) between 2005 and 2017. Additionally, nine 30-year forward projecting simulations covering the period 2018–2047 were developed to examine the effects of differing fisheries management strategies on common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Results from these models suggest that when intense fishing increases it poses a major threat to the conservation of these top predators in the area, by reducing the variety of their available prey and potentially enhancing competition amongst them. The study highlights the applicability of Ecopath with Ecosim to develop cetacean conservation measures and despite its small spatial scale, it provides a general framework that can be used to assess cetacean conservation in larger and impacted areas.

How ready are we to cope with climate change? Extent of adaptation to sea level rise and coastal risks in local planning documents of southern France

Robert S, Schleyer-Lindenmann A. How ready are we to cope with climate change? Extent of adaptation to sea level rise and coastal risks in local planning documents of southern France. Land Use Policy [Internet]. 2021 ;104:105354. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264837721000776?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Sea-level rise and related risks are an aspect of climate change that deeply affects coastal areas worldwide and calls for adaptive responses. Spatial planning is one key to adaptation, in particular at local level, where coastal risks might be experienced and solutions need to be developed. However, local spatial planning is a complex process involving various governance levels and decision-makers in specific social, cultural, economic and geographical contexts. Focusing on Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region in southern France, this article proposes an analysis of the extent to which coastal risks are taken into account in the town planning documents of 65 coastal municipalities. The objective is to assess how seriously sea-level rise, coastal risks and adaptation are addressed in spatial planning. Results show that there is still a long way to go. Local development strategies often run counter to the idea of adapting, while local authorities and central government need to take a more collaborative approach. This work also shows the relevance of using spatial planning documents to reveal territories’ attitudes to adaptive policies, and the crucial role played by interaction between decisional levels.

COVID pollution: impact of COVID-19 pandemic on global plastic waste footprint

Benson NU, Bassey DE, Palanisami T. COVID pollution: impact of COVID-19 pandemic on global plastic waste footprint. Heliyon [Internet]. 2021 ;7(2):e06343. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405844021004485?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Plastic products have played significant roles in protecting people during the COVID-19 pandemic. The widespread use of personal protective gear created a massive disruption in the supply chain and waste disposal system. Millions of discarded single-use plastics (masks, gloves, aprons, and bottles of sanitizers) have been added to the terrestrial environment and could cause a surge in plastics washing up the ocean coastlines and littering the seabed. This paper attempts to assess the environmental footprints of the global plastic wastes generated during COVID-19 and analyze the potential impacts associated with plastic pollution. The amount of plastic wastes generated worldwide since the outbreak is estimated at 1.6 million tonnes/day. We estimate that approximately 3.4 billion single-use facemasks/face shields are discarded daily as a result of COVID-19 pandemic, globally. Our comprehensive data analysis does indicate that COVID-19 will reverse the momentum of years-long global battle to reduce plastic waste pollution. As governments are looking to turbo-charge the economy by supporting businesses weather the pandemic, there is an opportunity to rebuild new industries that can innovate new reusable or non-plastic PPEs. The unanticipated occurrence of a pandemic of this scale has resulted in unmanageable levels of biomedical plastic wastes. This expert insight attempts to raise awareness for the adoption of dynamic waste management strategies targeted at reducing environmental contamination by plastics generated during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Cetacean habitat modelling to inform conservation management, marine spatial planning, and as a basis for anthropogenic threat mitigation in Indonesia

Sahri A, Putra MIqbal Herw, Mustika PLiza Kusum, Kreb D, Murk AJ. Cetacean habitat modelling to inform conservation management, marine spatial planning, and as a basis for anthropogenic threat mitigation in Indonesia. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2021 ;205:105555. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569121000405?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Indonesia harbours a high diversity of cetaceans, yet effective conservation is hampered by a lack of knowledge about cetacean spatial distribution and habitat preferences. This study aimed to address this knowledge gap at an adequate resolution to support national cetacean conservation and management planning. Maximum Entropy (Maxent) modelling was used to map the distribution of 15 selected cetacean species in seven areas within Indonesian waters using recent cetacean presence datasets as well as environmental predictors (topographic and oceanographic variables). We then combined the individual species suitable habitat maps and overlaid them with provincial marine spatial planning (MSP) jurisdictions, marine protected areas (MPAs), oil and gas contract areas, and marine traffic density. Our results reflect a great heterogeneity in distribution among species and within species among different locations. This heterogeneity reflects an interrelated influence of topographic variables and oceanographic processes on the distribution of cetacean species. Bathymetry, distance to- coast and the −200m isobaths, and chlorophyll-a concentration and sea surface temperature were important variables influencing distribution of most species in many regions. Areas rich in species were mainly related to coastal areas or insular-reef complexity, representing high productivity and upwelling-modified waters. Although some important suitable habitats currently fall within MPAs, other areas are not and overlap with oil and gas exploration activities and marine traffic, indicating potentially high risk areas for cetaceans. The results of this study can support national cetacean conservation and management planning, and be used to reduce or avoid adverse anthropogenic threats. We advise to consider currently unprotected suitable cetacean habitats in MPA and MSP development.

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