Literature Library

Currently indexing 7513 titles

Impacts of Temperature, CO2, and Salinity on Phytoplankton Community Composition in the Western Arctic Ocean

Sugie K, Fujiwara A, Nishino S, Kameyama S, Harada N. Impacts of Temperature, CO2, and Salinity on Phytoplankton Community Composition in the Western Arctic Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00821/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Arctic Ocean has been experiencing rapid warming, which accelerates sea ice melt. Further, the increasing area and duration of sea ice-free conditions enhance ocean uptake of CO2. We conducted two shipboard experiments in September 2015 and 2016 to examine the effects of temperature, CO2, and salinity on phytoplankton dynamics to better understand the impacts of rapid environmental changes on the Arctic ecosystem. Two temperature conditions (control: <3 and 5°C above the control), two CO2levels (control: ∼300 and 300/450 μatm above the control; i.e., 600/750 μatm), and two salinity conditions (control: 29 in 2015 and 27 in 2016, and 1.4 below the control) conditions were fully factorially manipulated in eight treatments. Higher temperatures enhanced almost all phytoplankton traits in both experiments in terms of chl-a, accessory pigments and diatom biomass. The diatom diversity index decreased due to the replacement of chain-forming Thalassiosira spp. by solitary Cylindrotheca closterium or Pseudo-nitzschia spp. under higher temperature and lower salinity in combination. Higher CO2 levels significantly increased the growth of small-sized phytoplankton (<10 μm) in both years. Decreased salinity had marginal effects but significantly increased the growth of small-sized phytoplankton under higher CO2 levels in terms of chl-a in 2015. Our results suggest that the smaller phytoplankton tend to dominate in the shelf edge region of the Chukchi Sea in the western Arctic Ocean under multiple environmental perturbations.

Integrated Modeling to Evaluate Climate Change Impacts on Coupled Social-Ecological Systems in Alaska

Hollowed ABabcock, Holsman KKari, Haynie AC, Hermann AJ, Punt AE, Aydin K, Ianelli JN, Kasperski S, Cheng W, Faig A, et al. Integrated Modeling to Evaluate Climate Change Impacts on Coupled Social-Ecological Systems in Alaska. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2020 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00775/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Alaska Climate Integrated Modeling (ACLIM) project represents a comprehensive, multi-year, interdisciplinary effort to characterize and project climate-driven changes to the eastern Bering Sea (EBS) ecosystem, from physics to fishing communities. Results from the ACLIM project are being used to understand how different regional fisheries management approaches can help promote adaptation to climate-driven changes to sustain fish and shellfish populations and to inform managers and fishery dependent communities of the risks associated with different future climate scenarios. The project relies on iterative communications and outreaches with managers and fishery-dependent communities that have informed the selection of fishing scenarios. This iterative approach ensures that the research team focuses on policy relevant scenarios that explore realistic adaptation options for managers and communities. Within each iterative cycle, the interdisciplinary research team continues to improve: methods for downscaling climate models, climate-enhanced biological models, socio-economic modeling, and management strategy evaluation (MSE) within a common analytical framework. The evolving nature of the ACLIM framework ensures improved understanding of system responses and feedbacks are considered within the projections and that the fishing scenarios continue to reflect the management objectives of the regional fisheries management bodies. The multi-model approach used for projection of biological responses, facilitates the quantification of the relative contributions of climate forcing scenario, fishing scenario, parameter, and structural uncertainty with and between models. Ensemble means and variance within and between models inform risk assessments under different future scenarios. The first phase of projections of climate conditions to the end of the 21st century is complete, including projections of catch for core species under baseline (status quo) fishing conditions and two alternative fishing scenarios are discussed. The ACLIM modeling framework serves as a guide for multidisciplinary integrated climate impact and adaptation decision making in other large marine ecosystems.

Early conservation benefits of a de facto marine protected area at San Clemente Island, California

Esgro MW, Lindholm J, Nickols KJ, Bredvik J. Early conservation benefits of a de facto marine protected area at San Clemente Island, California. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0224060. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0224060
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

De facto marine protected areas (DFMPAs) are regions of the ocean where human activity is restricted for reasons other than conservation. Although DFMPAs are widespread globally, their potential role in the protection of marine habitats, species, and ecosystems has not been well studied. In 2012 and 2013, we conducted remotely operated vehicle (ROV) surveys of marine communities at a military DFMPA closed to all civilian access since 2010 and an adjacent fished reference site at San Clemente Island, the southernmost of California’s Channel Islands. We used data extracted from ROV imagery to compare density and biomass of focal species, as well as biodiversity and community composition, between the two sites. Generalized linear modeling indicated that both density and biomass of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) were significantly higher inside the DFMPA. Biomass of ocean whitefish (Caulolatilus princeps) was also significantly higher inside the DFMPA. However, species richness and Shannon-Weaver diversity were not significantly higher inside the DFMPA, and overall fish community composition did not differ significantly between sites. Demonstrable differences between the DFMPA and fished site for two highly sought-after species hint at early potential benefits of protection, though the lack of differences in the broader community suggests that a longer trajectory of recovery may be required for other species. A more comprehensive understanding of the potential conservation benefits of DFMPAs is important in the context of marine spatial planning and global marine conservation objectives.

Ecological coherence of Marine Protected Areas: New tools applied to the Baltic Sea network

Jonsson PR, Moksnes P‐O, Corell H, Bonsdorff E, Jacobi MNilsson. Ecological coherence of Marine Protected Areas: New tools applied to the Baltic Sea network. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems [Internet]. 2020 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/aqc.3286
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article
  1. Spatial connectivity is an essential process to consider in the design and assessment of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). To help maintain and restore marine populations and communities MPAs should form ecologically coherent networks. How to estimate and implement connectivity in MPA design remains a challenge.
  2. Here a new theoretical framework is presented based on biophysical modelling of organism dispersal, combined with a suite of tools to assess different aspects of connectivity that can be integrated in MPA design. As a demonstration, these tools are applied to an MPA network in the Baltic Sea (HELCOM MPA).
  3. The tools are based on the connectivity matrix, which summarizes dispersal probabilities, averaged over many years, between all considered areas in the geographic target area. The biophysical model used to estimate connectivity included important biological traits that affect dispersal patterns where different trait combinations and habitat preferences will produce specific connectivity matrices representing different species.
  4. Modelled connectivity matrices were used to assess local retention within individual MPAs, which offers indications about the adequacy of size when MPAs are considered in isolation. The connectivity matrix also provides information about source areas to individual MPAs, e.g. sources of larvae or pressures such as contaminants. How well several MPAs act as a network was assessed within a framework of eigenvalue perturbation theory (EPT). With EPT, the optimal MPA network with respect to connectivity can be identified. In addition, EPT can suggest optimal extensions of existing MPA networks to enhance connectivity. Finally, dispersal barriers can be identified based on the connectivity matrix, which may suggest boundaries for management units.
  5. The assessment of connectivity for the HELCOM MPA are discussed in terms of possible improvements, but the tools presented here could be applied to any region.

Social network analysis as a tool for marine spatial planning: Impacts of decommissioning on connectivity in the North Sea

Tidbury H, Taylor N, Molen J, Garcia L, Posen P, Gill A, Lincoln S, Judd A, Hyder K. Social network analysis as a tool for marine spatial planning: Impacts of decommissioning on connectivity in the North Sea. Journal of Applied Ecology [Internet]. 2020 . Available from: https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1365-2664.13551
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article
  1. Connectivity of marine populations and ecosystems is crucial to maintaining and enhancing their structure, distribution, persistence, resilience and productivity. Artificial hard substrate, such as that associated with oil and gas platforms, provides settlement opportunities for species adapted to hard substrates in areas of soft sediment. The contribution of artificial hard substrate and the consequences of its removal (e.g. through decommissioning) to marine connectivity is not clear, yet such information is vital to inform marine spatial planning and future policy decisions on the use and protection of marine resources.
  2. This study demonstrates the application of a social network analysis approach to quantify and describe the ecological connectivity, informed by particle tracking model outputs, of hard substrate marine communities in the North Sea. Through comparison of networks with and without artificial hard substrate, and based on hypothetical decommissioning scenarios, this study provides insight into the contribution of artificial hard substrate, and the consequence of decommissioning, to the structure and function of marine community connectivity.
  3. This study highlights that artificial hard substrate, despite providing only a small proportion of the total area of hard substrate, increases the geographic extent and connectivity of the hard substrate network, bridging gaps, thereby providing ‘stepping stones’ between otherwise disconnected areas of natural hard substrate. Compared to the baseline scenario, a decommissioning scenario with full removal of oil and gas platforms results in a nearly 60% reduction in connectivity. Such reduction in connectivity may have negative implications for species’ distribution, gene flow and resilience following disturbance or exploitation of marine hard substrate communities.
  4. Synthesis and applications. Social network analysis can provide valuable insight into connectivity between marine communities and enable the evaluation of impacts associated with changes to the marine environment. Providing standardized, transparent and robust outputs, such a tool is useful to facilitate understanding across different disciplines, including marine science, marine spatial planning and marine policy. Social network analysis therefore has great potential to address current knowledge gaps with respect to marine connectivity and crucially facilitate assessment of the impacts of changes in offshore substrate as part of the marine spatial planning process, thereby informing policy and marine management decisions.

Effectiveness of a marine conservation education program in Okayama, Japan

Sakurai R, Uehara T. Effectiveness of a marine conservation education program in Okayama, Japan. Conservation Science and Practice [Internet]. 2020 . Available from: https://conbio.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/csp2.167
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Sustainable management of coastal areas including their natural resources cannot be effectively implemented without the continued involvement of residents who are knowledgeable about the value of conservation. Carrying out long‐term conservation education programs and monitoring the impacts of such program in terms of changing people's awareness and behaviors are critical for conservation to be meaningful and sustainable. This research focused on a marine conservation education program (MCEP) offered at a junior high school in Japan that included collaboration with local fishermen. We aimed to reveal how such continuous and collaborative education program including field experience may change students' awareness and behaviors after several years. We conducted interviews with student participants, comparing their perceptions of when they were first‐graders and third‐graders, and with recent program graduates to understand their perception of the program and knowledge about the local environment. We also conducted surveys with parents and teachers at the junior high school to understand the impacts of the program. A series of studies revealed that the MCEP not only changed students' awareness and behaviors but also affected their parents and teachers.

Neural Network Recognition of Marine Benthos and Corals

Raphael A, Dubinsky Z, Iluz D, Netanyahu N. Neural Network Recognition of Marine Benthos and Corals. Diversity [Internet]. 2020 ;12(1):29. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/1424-2818/12/1/29
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

We present thorough this review the developments in the field, point out their current limitations, and outline its timelines and unique potential. In order to do so we introduce the methods used in each of the advances in the application of deep learning (DL) to coral research that took place between the years: 2016–2018. DL has unique capability of streamlining the description, analysis, and monitoring of coral reefs, saving time, and obtaining higher reliability and accuracy compared with error-prone human performance. Coral reefs are the most diverse and complex of marine ecosystems, undergoing a severe decline worldwide resulting from the adverse synergistic influences of global climate change, ocean acidification, and seawater warming, exacerbated by anthropogenic eutrophication and pollution. DL is an extension of some of the concepts originating from machine learning that join several multilayered neural networks. Machine learning refers to algorithms that automatically detect patterns in data. In the case of corals these data are underwater photographic images. Based on “learned” patterns, such programs can recognize new images. The novelty of DL is in the use of state-of-art computerized image analyses technologies, and its fully automated methodology of dealing with large data sets of images. Automated Image recognition refers to technologies that identify and detect objects or attributes in a digital video or image automatically. Image recognition classifies data into selected categories out of many. We show that Neural Network methods are already reliable in distinguishing corals from other benthos and non-coral organisms. Automated recognition of live coral cover is a powerful indicator of reef response to slow and transient changes in the environment. Improving automated recognition of coral species, DL methods already recognize decline of coral diversity due to natural and anthropogenic stressors. Diversity indicators can document the effectiveness of reef bioremediation initiatives. We explored the current applications of deep learning for corals and benthic image classification by discussing the most recent studies conducted by researchers. We review the developments in the field, point out their current limitations, and outline their timelines and unique potential. We also discussed a few future research directions in the fields of deep learning. Future needs are the age detection of single species, in order to track trends in their population recruitment, decline, and recovery. Fine resolution, at the polyp level, is still to be developed, in order to allow separation of species with similar macroscopic features. That refinement of DL will allow such comparisons and their analyses. We conclude that the usefulness of future, more refined automatic identification will allow reef comparison, and tracking long term changes in species diversity. The hitherto unused addition of intraspecific coral color parameters, will add the inclusion of physiological coral responses to environmental conditions and change thereof. The core aim of this review was to underscore the strength and reliability of the DL approach for documenting coral reef features based on an evaluation of the currently available published uses of this method. We expect that this review will encourage researchers from computer vision and marine societies to collaborate on similar long-term joint ventures.

Sustainable Cruise Tourism in Marine World Heritage Sites

Cerveny LK, Miller A, Gende S. Sustainable Cruise Tourism in Marine World Heritage Sites. Sustainability [Internet]. 2020 ;12(2):611. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/12/2/611
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Cruise-ship tourism is one of the fastest growing industry sectors, with itineraries that regularly visit marine parks and protected areas. UNESCO Marine World Heritage (MWH) Sites feature some of the world’s most exceptional ecosystems, resulting in some cruise lines targeting these sites. To understand the extent of cruise ship visitation and determine perceptions of cruise ship sustainability within and across environmental, economic, and sociocultural dimensions, we conducted an online survey of 45 (out of 50) sites. The survey included responses about the characteristics of cruise ship visitation, strategies for sustainably managing ships, and ideas for encouraging sustainable practices. Among the 45 respondents, 30 (67%) indicated that their MWH site hosts cruise ships or cruise ship passengers, and 25 sites have cruise ships that enter the protected area marine waters. Most sites (62%) indicated an increase in cruise visitation over the last three years. While most sites regulate ballast water (73%) and wastewater (73%) discharge, common concerns focused on ship air emissions and wildlife interactions. Lack of funds generated by cruise ships toward community infrastructure was noted. MWH site managers expressed interest in developing site networks to facilitate sharing of ideas as a first step for increasing sustainability across all sites.

Addressing food loss and waste in fish value chain using a web-based information, Repository

Peñarubia O, Ward A, Grever M, Ryder J. Addressing food loss and waste in fish value chain using a web-based information, Repository. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;414:012016. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012016
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Food loss and waste (FLW) in fisheries is a major concern and occur in most fish distribution chains throughout the world. FLW across the fish value chain is estimated to be 35 percent. These losses constitute lost income to fishers, processors and traders and other value chain actors and contribute to food and nutrition insecurity. Thus, it is globally recognized as a challenge that needs to be addressed. There has been much work done to address and prevent losses in fisheries value chains. However, a key issue is related to the availability and quality of information. Information needed to guide policy development and management of the resources is of poor quality and often not produced or distributed in a timely manner. The 32nd Session of the Committee on Fisheries (COFI), July 2016 reiterated the topical importance of reducing fish losses and made a plea for the development by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) for a guidance for reduction of fish losses. FAO, through the Products, Trade and Marketing Branch (FIAM), supported by the Norwegian government had developed an information repository that can provide solutions for reducing or eliminating food losses for common loss scenarios in fish value chains. It provides access to fish loss and waste related information for informed policy in the fisheries and aquaculture from the post-harvest to consumption stages. It aims to provide guidance to policy-makers, development practitioners, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and value chain actors ability to facilitate the development of solutions to food loss scenarios on the ground at the targeted points of the supply chain, as well as at policy level. The development of the repository was guided by an internal FAO specialist group covering food loss, policy, fisheries and ICT and an expert group of specialists coming from the public sector, civil society and research institutions with representation of a range of geographical regions. A series of internal and external consultations were done before the webpage was launched on May 2019.

Stock assessment of pelagic fish in the eastern part of Java Sea: A case study in offshore Regency of Rembang and Tuban, Indonesia

Zairion , Hamdani A, Rustandi Y, Fahrudin A, Arkham MN, Ramli A, Trihandoyo A. Stock assessment of pelagic fish in the eastern part of Java Sea: A case study in offshore Regency of Rembang and Tuban, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;414:012031. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012031
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Total annual landing of pelagic fish resources from the eastern part of Java Sea tend to be increased, but the stock status is not known well. This study was aimed to analyse optimal exploitation and stock status of pelagic fish in the eastern part of Java Sea and enlighten overfishing issues. Monthly catch of pelagic fish and effort data (trips) based on fishing gear during the period 2010 to 2016 were collected from four representative fish landing base or fishing port (i.e. Tasik Agung, Sarang, and Karang Anyer of Rembang Regency, and Bulu of Tuban Regency). Analyses were carried out using a surplus production model, and the best fit estimation was the Schaefer Model with Fox algorithm approach. Estimated bio-technique parameter of pelagic fish stock such as intrinsic growth rate (r) was 0.27 ton per year, catchability coefficient (q) was 0.000017 ton per unit, and environmental carrying capacity (K) was 622,614.72 ton per year. Result also showed that optimal production (h), effort (E) and profit (π) at Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) level 42,553.58 ton per year, 8,138 trips per year, and 263,783 billion rupiah (IDR), respectively. Meanwhile, those three variables at Maximum Economic Yield (MEY) were 41.670,87 ton per year, 6,966 trips per year, and 271,468 billion rupiah. However, the average of actual production, effort, and profit were 40,409.83 ton per year, 6,972 trips per year, and 260,408 billion rupiah. Moreover, total production and effort in 2016 were 42,009 ton and 10,114 trips. The status of pelagic fish stock in this area tends to be economic overfishing due to increased effort and less effective of fishing cost. Reducing fishing effort must be applied in fisheries management.

Strengthening of local marine protected area (MPA) in local autonomy era: Case of Bontang City East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

Solihin A, Isdahartati , Damar A, Erwiantono . Strengthening of local marine protected area (MPA) in local autonomy era: Case of Bontang City East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;414:012024. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012024
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine protected area (MPA) plays important roles to achieve biodiversity conservation and fisheries management goals, and as the main tool for ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). However, the goals of the local MPA in Indonesia is faced with the legal problems due to the enactment of Law No. 23/2014 on Local Government, regulate that the district or municipality government is no longer has authority to manage shoreline area within four miles as well as local MPA. The new law implies mismanagement of the MPA due to lack of capacity provincial government to manage the additional area of authority. There is no responsible institution focus to manage the MPA yet. This study aims to analyze the deregulation of Bontang City authority to manage the MPA. This research was conducted from January to April 2019 using normative juridical methods on the legal basis of MPA management. The results of this study suggested that based on Law No. 23/2014, actually the Bontang City Government still has opportunity to manage the MPA even though this area within the authority of Provincial Government. The authority of the Bontang City is still imbedded in several local government agencies, such as the Environment Agency, Community and Village Empowerment Service, and Fisheries Service. The institutional strengthening of the local MPA Bontang is proposed in two stages, in the short term through establishment of a Working Group involving the government of East Kalimantan Provinces and the City of Bontang, while in the long term to establish a new institution of the Technical Implementation Unit is under the Provincial Marine and Fisheries Agency.

Integrated Marine and Fisheries Center and priority for product intensification in East Sumba, Indonesia

Nababan BO, Christian Y, Afandy A, Damar A. Integrated Marine and Fisheries Center and priority for product intensification in East Sumba, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;414:012014. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012014
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The main composition of fishery's economy in Indonesia is small-scale fishery who rely on traditional capture fisheries management, likewise in East Sumba Regency. However, from the potential side, East Sumba waters have great resources besides capture fisheries. Thus, research is conducted to identify strategic products existing in East Sumba, Indonesia, and to calculate the level of economic impact for the regional economy and labour absorption. The method used in this research is a qualitative descriptive method using multiplier effect analysis and business feasibility analysis. The results of the study show that seaweed, capture fisheries, freshwater farming, salt, artemia, and tourism have the potential as economic prime-mover of small-scale fishery in East Sumba. Seaweed has the highest business feasibility, followed by capture fisheries, and freshwater farming as a third. Meanwhile, salt, artemia cultivation and marine tourism have lower business feasibility and still need further development in the trial phase. With the addition of a formal management institutional mechanism called the Integrated Marine and Fisheries Center (IMFC) by the government all of these resources can be managed integrally and efficiently, with high quality and acceleration so that the regional economy can be leveraged including the welfare of the small-scale fishers.

Participatory mapping: Assessing problems and defined marine conservation planning and zoning in Jor Bay, Indonesia

Amin MAAl, Adrianto L, Kusumastanto T, Imran Z, Kurniawan F. Participatory mapping: Assessing problems and defined marine conservation planning and zoning in Jor Bay, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;414:012001. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012001
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Jor Bay Lombok is a marine protected area (MPA) which is initiated by local communities, which have a local-driven marine management regulation called Awiq-awiq. Unfortunately, the fisheries condition has continued to decline in the past decades, where the rate of exploitation of capture fisheries in Jor Bay shows an unbalanced condition because the harvest value is still higher than the recruitments and growth. Awiq-awiq regulates all existing utilization and protection of marine resources, but yet, has not included spatial aspects, leaving a situation that leads to unsustainability for fisheries resources and other resources. Balanced zoning of ecosystems and marine resources is needed in order to ensure the sustainability of the fisheries system in Jor Bay. This paper aims to illustrate how a marine spatial planning approach in a local MPA can be built with a community-based zoning system. The integration of local systems and formal-government systems is very effective and fast in the development of MPA zoning systems by considering the optimum allocation of the existence of ecosystems that guarantee the natural metabolic processes of the fisheries system in the Bay. The implementation of the MPA zoning system is expected to be able to support the guarantee of sustainable fisheries production for the surrounding region.

Thirty years of marine debris in the Southern Ocean: Annual surveys of two island shores in the Scotia Sea

Waluda CM, Staniland IJ, Dunn MJ, Thorpe SE, Grilly E, Whitelaw M, Hughes KA. Thirty years of marine debris in the Southern Ocean: Annual surveys of two island shores in the Scotia Sea. Environment International [Internet]. 2020 ;136:105460. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412019336293
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

We report on three decades of repeat surveys of beached marine debris at two locations in the Scotia Sea, in the Southwest Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Between October 1989 and March 2019 10,112 items of beached debris were recovered from Main Bay, Bird Island, South Georgia in the northern Scotia Sea. The total mass of items (data from 1996 onwards) was 101 kg. Plastic was the most commonly recovered item (97.5% by number; 89% by mass) with the remainder made up of fabric, glass, metal, paper and rubber. Mean mass per item was 0.01 kg and the rate of accumulation was 100 items km−1 month−1. Analyses showed an increase in the number of debris items recovered (5.7 per year) but a decline in mean mass per item, suggesting a trend towards more, smaller items of debris at Bird Island. At Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, located in the southern Scotia Sea and within the Antarctic Treaty area, debris items were collected from three beaches, during the austral summer only, between 1991 and 2019. In total 1304 items with a mass of 268 kg were recovered. Plastic items contributed 84% by number and 80% by mass, with the remainder made up of metal (6% by number; 14% by mass), rubber (4% by number; 3% by mass), fabric, glass and paper (<1% by number; 3% by mass). Mean mass per item was 0.2 kg and rate of accumulation was 3 items km−1 month−1. Accumulation rates were an order of magnitude higher on the western (windward) side of the island (13–17 items km−1 month−1) than the eastern side (1.5 items km−1 month−1). Analyses showed a slight decline in number and slight increase in mean mass of debris items over time at Signy Island. This study highlights the prevalence of anthropogenic marine debris (particularly plastic) in the Southern Ocean. It shows the importance of long-term monitoring efforts in attempting to catalogue marine debris and identify trends, and serves warning of the urgent need for a wider understanding of the extent of marine debris across the whole of the Southern Ocean.

Integrated Marine and Fisheries Center and priority for product intensification in East Sumba, Indonesia

Nababan BO, Christian Y, Afandy A, Damar A. Integrated Marine and Fisheries Center and priority for product intensification in East Sumba, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;414:012014. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012014
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The main composition of fishery's economy in Indonesia is small-scale fishery who rely on traditional capture fisheries management, likewise in East Sumba Regency. However, from the potential side, East Sumba waters have great resources besides capture fisheries. Thus, research is conducted to identify strategic products existing in East Sumba, Indonesia, and to calculate the level of economic impact for the regional economy and labour absorption. The method used in this research is a qualitative descriptive method using multiplier effect analysis and business feasibility analysis. The results of the study show that seaweed, capture fisheries, freshwater farming, salt, artemia, and tourism have the potential as economic prime-mover of small-scale fishery in East Sumba. Seaweed has the highest business feasibility, followed by capture fisheries, and freshwater farming as a third. Meanwhile, salt, artemia cultivation and marine tourism have lower business feasibility and still need further development in the trial phase. With the addition of a formal management institutional mechanism called the Integrated Marine and Fisheries Center (IMFC) by the government all of these resources can be managed integrally and efficiently, with high quality and acceleration so that the regional economy can be leveraged including the welfare of the small-scale fishers.

The establishment of fisheries refugia as a new approach to sustainable management of fisheries in Malaysian waters

Siow R, Nurridan AH, Hadil R, Richard R. The establishment of fisheries refugia as a new approach to sustainable management of fisheries in Malaysian waters. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;414:012023. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012023
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The marine fisheries resources worldwide are facing depletion but traditional management methods may not be adequate to overcome this problem. A new fishery management approach which focuses on protecting the critical stages in the life cycle of the selected marine species is presented in this paper. The fisheries refugia concept focuses on temporal and a spatially defined marine or coastal area in which specific management measures are implemented to sustain the targeted species. This concept was initiated by SEAFDEC-UNEP-GEF in the South East Asia region and are participated by six member countries namely Malaysia, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines. In Malaysia, two sites were selected for this project which is the lobster refugia (Panulirus spp. and Thenus orientalis) in Tanjung Leman, Johor and the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) refugia at Kuala Baram, Miri, Sarawak. This paper discusses the activities carried out to establish these two refugia. These activities include resource surveys of lobsters and tiger prawns at different life stages (larvae, juvenile and adult) and socio-economic profiling of fishers communities at both sites. Several stakeholder consultation sessions were also held with fishers and local agencies to promote the refugia concept and gather feedbacks on the implementation of the new management approach. Two information centers were set up at Tanjung Leman and Kuala Baram, Miri with the objectives of disseminating information regarding the fisheries refugia project and its benefits to the stakeholders. Likewise, in collaboration with the local television station RTM, two fisheries refugia documentaries were produced and broadcast nationwide. The targeted outcome of this project is to have these two sites gazetted as fisheries refugia so that the wild resources of lobsters and tiger prawns are sustainably managed through spatial and seasonal closure during the critical stages of their life cycle.

Description and characterization of the artisanal elasmobranch fishery on Guatemala’s Caribbean coast

Hacohen-Domené A, Polanco-Vásquez F, Estupiñan-Montaño C, Graham RT. Description and characterization of the artisanal elasmobranch fishery on Guatemala’s Caribbean coast. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0227797. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227797
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Small-scale shark and ray fisheries are conducted throughout Central America’s Caribbean coast. Yet, there is limited information regarding catch composition and diversity of these fisheries, especially in Guatemala. Surveys of catch landings were conducted in two of Guatemala’s primary Caribbean coastal shark and ray fishing communities, El Quetzalito and Livingston, between January 2015 and July 2017. Biological data from 688 landed chondrichthyans were collected, with 31 species (24 sharks, six rays and one chimaera) identified. The four most frequently captured species included Carcharhinus falciformis (30.2%), Sphyrna lewini (12.7%), Hypanus guttatus (12%) and Rhizoprionodon spp. (6.7%). Landed sharks contained most size classes with a high proportion of juveniles of species with low productivity. The large-bodied species C. falciformis and S. lewini were often recorded at sizes below known maturity; 96.6% and 85.1%, of the captured individuals were immature, respectively. This study can serve as a baseline to determine future trends in the elasmobranch fisheries conducted by Guatemala’s Caribbean coastal communities and support assessments on the persistence of the fisheries.

Potential socioeconomic impacts from ocean acidification and climate change effects on Atlantic Canadian fisheries

Wilson TJB, Cooley SR, Tai TC, Cheung WWL, Tyedmers PH. Potential socioeconomic impacts from ocean acidification and climate change effects on Atlantic Canadian fisheries. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0226544. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226544
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Ocean acidification is an emerging consequence of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. The full extent of the biological impacts are currently not entirely defined. However, it is expected that invertebrate species that rely on the mineral calcium carbonate will be directly affected. Despite the limited understanding of the full extent of potential impacts and responses there is a need to identify potential pathways for human societies to be affected by ocean acidification. Research on these social implications is a small but developing field. This research contributes to this field by using an impact assessment framework, informed by a biophysical model of future species distributions, to investigate potential impacts facing Atlantic Canadian society from potential changes in shellfish fisheries driven by ocean acidification and climate change. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are expected to see declines in resource accessibility but are relatively socially insulated from these changes. Conversely, Prince Edward Island, along with Newfoundland and Labrador are more socially vulnerable to potential losses in fisheries, but are expected to experience relatively minor net changes in access.

Extreme mortality and reproductive failure of common murres resulting from the northeast Pacific marine heatwave of 2014-2016

Piatt JF, Parrish JK, Renner HM, Schoen SK, Jones TT, Arimitsu ML, Kuletz KJ, Bodenstein B, García-Reyes M, Duerr RS, et al. Extreme mortality and reproductive failure of common murres resulting from the northeast Pacific marine heatwave of 2014-2016. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0226087. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226087
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

About 62,000 dead or dying common murres (Uria aalge), the trophically dominant fish-eating seabird of the North Pacific, washed ashore between summer 2015 and spring 2016 on beaches from California to Alaska. Most birds were severely emaciated and, so far, no evidence for anything other than starvation was found to explain this mass mortality. Three-quarters of murres were found in the Gulf of Alaska and the remainder along the West Coast. Studies show that only a fraction of birds that die at sea typically wash ashore, and we estimate that total mortality approached 1 million birds. About two-thirds of murres killed were adults, a substantial blow to breeding populations. Additionally, 22 complete reproductive failures were observed at multiple colonies region-wide during (2015) and after (2016–2017) the mass mortality event. Die-offs and breeding failures occur sporadically in murres, but the magnitude, duration and spatial extent of this die-off, associated with multi-colony and multi-year reproductive failures, is unprecedented and astonishing. These events co-occurred with the most powerful marine heatwave on record that persisted through 2014–2016 and created an enormous volume of ocean water (the “Blob”) from California to Alaska with temperatures that exceeded average by 2–3 standard deviations. Other studies indicate that this prolonged heatwave reduced phytoplankton biomass and restructured zooplankton communities in favor of lower-calorie species, while it simultaneously increased metabolically driven food demands of ectothermic forage fish. In response, forage fish quality and quantity diminished. Similarly, large ectothermic groundfish were thought to have increased their demand for forage fish, resulting in greater top-predator demands for diminished forage fish resources. We hypothesize that these bottom-up and top-down forces created an “ectothermic vise” on forage species leading to their system-wide scarcity and resulting in mass mortality of murres and many other fish, bird and mammal species in the region during 2014–2017.

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