Using the green economy framework of DeLacy , this paper evaluated the policy environment regarding the green economy concept and circumstance in the destination of Wakatobi Island, Indonesia. The four policy clusters of the green economy framework guided the investigation in order to provide an understanding of the existing green economy framework policies and identify policy gaps that were pertinent to the transformation to the green economy of the tourism sector in the destination of Wakatobi Island. The policy analysis was also informed by observations in the destination to explore the extent that the destination has implemented green economy policies. It was found that the policy environment in Indonesia is generally conducive for the tourism sector to transform into a green economy. However, most of the green economy initiatives in the country are policy-level adaptation. Further, there is a strong need to incorporate measurement of indicators of progress towards the success of implementation of the published policies.
We examined the relationships between bathymetry, latitude and energy and the diversity of marine benthic invertebrates across wide environmental ranges of Canada's three oceans.
Canadian Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic Oceans from the intertidal zone to upper bathyal depths, encompassing 13 marine ecoregions.
We compiled 35 benthic datasets that encompass 3,337 taxa (70% identified to species and 21% to genus) from 13,172 samples spanning 6,117 sites. Partitioning the analyses by different gear types, ecoregions or sites, we used Hill numbers to examine spatial patterns in α‐diversity. We used resampling and extrapolation to standardized sampling effort and examined the effects of depth, latitude, chemical energy (export particulate organic carbon [POC] flux), thermal energy (bottom temperature) and seasonality of primary production on the benthic biodiversity.
The Canadian Arctic harboured the highest benthic diversity (e.g. epifauna and common and dominant infauna species), whereas the lowest diversity was found in the Atlantic. The Puget Trough (Pacific), Beaufort Sea, Arctic Archipelago, Hudson Bay, Northern Labrador and Southern Grand Bank (Atlantic) were the “hotspots" of diversity among the ecoregions. The infauna and epifauna both exhibited hump‐shaped diversity–depth relationships, with peak diversity near shelf breaks; latitude (positively) predicted infaunal diversity, albeit weakly. Food supply, as inferred from primary production and depth, was more important than thermal energy in controlling diversity patterns. Limitations with respect to calculating POC flux in coastal (e.g. terrestrial runoff) and ice‐covered regions or biological interactions may explain the negative POC flux–infaunal diversity relationship.
We show previously unreported diversity hotspots in the Canadian Arctic and in other ecoregions. Our analyses reveal potential controlling mechanisms of large‐scale benthic biodiversity patterns in Canada's three oceans, which are inconsistent with the prevailing view of seafloor energy–diversity relationships. These results provide insightful information for conservation that can help to implement further MPA networks.
Mangrove ecosystems have an important role and provide ecosystem services that support the surrounding life, but their existence gets to experience pressure and degradation continuously. This study aims to analyze the ecosystem services carrying capacity of Angke Kapuk Mangrove (MAK) Jakarta Bay. The carrying capacity of the MAK ecosystem area was analyzed by examining the condition of ecosystem services and the carrying capacity of the protected function of the MAK and surrounding ecosystems. The condition of ecosystem services refers to the carrying capacity (D3TLH) map of the Muara Angke Kapuk mangrove ecosystem Area, Jakarta Bay, P3EJawa KLHK, while the carrying capacity of the protected function refers to the 2014 Ministry of Environment (KLH) D3TLH Guidelines and remote sensing and GIS techniques. MAK ecosystem areas are mostly in the low ecosystem services category. The results of the analysis show that the carrying capacity of the protected area of MAK ecosystem in Penjaringan District is 0.32, which means the carrying capacity of the protected function of the region is categorized damaged. These results provide an overview of the challenges and threats that occur in the MAK ecosystem area so that it requires attention and strategic efforts in maintaining the sustainability of ecosystem services.
Moving toward new ways of governing ecosystems in varied contexts worldwide is likely to be a critical part of achieving the global Sustainable Development Goals, yet understanding of the tensions between forces driving and opposing such sustainability transformations is very limited. Here, I shed light on this critical research and policy domain by applying participatory actor and influence mapping (Net-Map) and innovation histories methods to understand the power relations and social processes involved in enabling and blocking the institutionalization of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM) in the Philippines. Drawing upon a case study of an intermunicipal alliance in Lanuza Bay, the results highlight how challenges such as vested and divergent interests, corruption, weak coordination between levels of government, and the particular contingencies of place conspire to weaken and undermine initial EAFM successes. I conclude that agents of resistance, the role of power and agency, and socio-political realities need to be central to resilience conceptualizations of sustainability transformations.
Coastal waters of Ondo State, Nigeria have diverse assemblage of fish, yet there is dearth of information on its plankton composition. This study investigates plankton components in relation to physicochemical characteristics of the coastal waters bordering Olotu, Ayetoro and Bijimi in providing baseline information that can be used for planning and implementation of policies for monitoring, impacts assessment and conservation. Surface water samples were collected on monthly basis from March to June 2015 to analyze physicochemical parameters while plankton net of 55μm mesh size was used for collection of plankton using standard methods prescribed by APHA. The light and dark bottle method was used to determine primary productivity. Shannon-wiener, Margalef and Equitability Indices were used for diversity. Values of the physicochemical parameters observed ranged as follows: temperature, 27.47±2.06-29.27±0.31ºC; turbidity, 43.43±0.91-65.33±2.52NTU; pH, 5.54±0.31-6.12±0.30; BOD, 2.20±0.29-5.43±0.54 mg/l; COD, 6.08±2.71-6.66±1.52 mg/l; dissolved oxygen, 6.39±0.39-7.78±0.19 mg/l and salinity, 2.03±0.06-3.77±0.04 mg/l. Fifteen species of phytoplankton and three developmental stages of zooplankton were recorded. Phytoplankton accounted for 83.3% as against 16.7% zooplankton. Diatoms (93.3%) and dinoflagellates (6.7%) represented phytoplankton whereas 66.7% of zooplankton belonged to the phylum Arthropoda. Primary productivity ranged between 132.194±13.48m-3hr-1 and 134.48±15.27m-3hr-1. Some dominant species recorded were Coscinodiscus, Biddulphia, Copepod, Skeletonema and Ditylum. pH and Temperature were major determinant of the composition, diversity and abundance of plankton. The observed plankton group indicates the suitability of the creeks as habitat and breeding ground for diverse aquatic species. The water quality falls within acceptable range hence the environment can be classified as healthy ecosystem.
Caribbean countries, including Jamaica, face substantial risks from storms and hurricanes. Coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds protect communities from storms, and are critical for the sustainability of many economic activities, jobs, and inclusive growth.
A recent report, “Forces of Nature,” examines the considerable flood risk reduction services that mangroves provide to Jamaica, together with benefits related to fisheries production, and carbon sequestration.
This report supports the growing interest within the development agenda to include nature-based solutions for disaster risk management and provides vital information for discussion on climate change adaptation and mitigation, insurance, and disaster recovery decisions.
A comprehensive research study of Cabeza de Toro and Punta Cana’s fishing and tourism industries reveal viability of economic solutions between the hospitality industry, fishermen, and the government to reduce practices harmful to the coastal marine ecosystem. Recent research studies of Punta Cana and Cabeza de Toro’s coastal marine ecosystem demonstrate diminishing coral coverage and reduced fish populations. Causes for the decline of the coastal marine ecosystem include overfishing, illegal fishing of species conducive to coral health, and the destruction of mangrove sanctuaries. By methods of survey and in-person interview, researchers gathered data on over 20% of Cabeza de Toro’s fisherman population with the intent of further developing a co-management plan for the recently established marine protected area. Data collection included qualitative and quantitative research into income and livelihoods of Cabeza de Toro fishermen, fishing practices, interest in alternative work opportunities, and strength of social responsibility and environmental beliefs. Findings demonstrate that viable economic applications exist in forging partnerships between fishermen, the tourism and hospitality industries, and the local government.
Transboundary conservation has an important, yet often undervalued, role in the international conservation regime. When applied to the legally ambiguous and interconnected marine environment this is magnified. The lack of clear guidance for transboundary marine conservation from the international conservation community exacerbates this problem, leaving individual initiatives to develop their own governance arrangements. Yet, well-managed transboundary marine protected areas (MPAs) have the potential to contribute significantly to global conservation aims. Conversely, in a period where there is increasing interest in marine resources and space from all sectors, the designation of MPAs can create or amplify a regional conflict. In some instances, states have used MPAs to extend rights over disputed marine resources, restrict the freedom of others and establish sovereignty over maritime space. Six case studies were taken from Europe, North Africa and the Middle East to illustrate how states have interpreted and utilized different legislative mechanisms to either come together or diverge over the governance of marine resources or maritime space. Each of the case studies illustrates how different actors have used the same legislative tools, but with different interpretations and applications, to justify their claims. It is clear that the role of science combined with a deeper engagement with stakeholders can play a critical role in tempering conflict between states. Where states are willing to cooperate, the absence of clear guidelines at the global level means that often ad hoc measures are put into place, with the international frameworks then playing catch up. Balancing different jurisdictional claims with the conservation of the marine environment, whilst considering the increasing special economic interests will become increasingly difficult. Developing a transboundary conservation tool, such as the simple conservation caveats found in the Barcelona Convention and Antarctic Convention, which allow for the establishment of intergovernmental cooperation without prejudicing any outstanding jurisdictional issue, would provide a framework for the development of individual transboundary MPAs.
Impactful communication remains a vexing problem for climate science researchers and public outreach. This article identifies a range of moving images and screen-based media used to visualize climate change, focusing especially on the Arctic region and the efforts of the United Nations. The authors examine the aesthetics of big data visualization of melting sea ice and glaciers made by NASA and similar entities; eye-witness, expert accounts and youth-produced documentaries designed for United Nations delegates to the annual COP events such as the Youth Climate Report; Please Help the World, the dystopian cli-fi narrative produced for the UN’s COP 15; and Isuma TV’s streaming of works by Indigenous practitioners in Nunavut.
Studying the distribution of zooplankton in relation to their prey and predators is challenging, especially in situ. Recent developments in underwater imaging enable such fine-scale research. We deployed the Lightframe On-sight Keyspecies Investigation (LOKI) image profiler to study the fine-scale (1 m) vertical distribution of the copepods Calanus hyperboreus and C. glacialis in relation to the subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) at the end of the grazing season in August in the North Water and Nares Strait (Canadian Arctic). The vertical distribution of both species was generally consistent with the predictions of the Predator Avoidance Hypothesis. In the absence of a significant SCM, both copepods remained at depth during the night. In the presence of a significant SCM, copepods remained at depth in daytime and a fraction of the population migrated in the SCM at night. All three profiles where the numerically dominant copepodite stages C4 and C5 of the two species grazed in the SCM at night presented the same intriguing pattern: the abundance of C. hyperboreus peaked in the core of the SCM while that of C. glacialis peaked just above and below the core SCM. These distributions of the same-stage congeners in the SCMs were significantly different. Lipid fullness of copepod individuals was significantly higher in C. hyperboreus in the core SCM than in C. glacialis above and below the core SCM. Foraging interference resulting in the exclusion from the core SCM of the smaller C. glacialis by the larger C. hyperboreus could explain this vertical partitioning of the actively grazing copepodite stages of the two species. Alternatively, specific preferences for microalgal and/or microzooplankton food hypothetically occupying different layers in the SCM could explain the observed partitioning. Investigating the observed fine-scale co-distributions further will enable researchers to better predict potential climate change effects on these important Arctic congeners.
The article discusses the possibility and perspectives of using the reclaimed artificial areas in the coastal zone of marine estuaries for the sustainable development of urban infrastructure and creation of modern architectural ensembles with the background of green economy using the example of Lakhta-Center on the northern coast of the Neva Bay (St. Petersburg, Russia). The geo-ecological stability of underwater and coastal landscapes of the coastal zone of the Neva Bay is analyzed using side scan sonar. The environmental sensitivity of coastal ecosystems is estimated. The received data can be used on practice for planning the construction work and for the development of the infrastructure of urbanized coastal zone of the Neva Bay. The general geo-ecological situation in the observed area is rather stable. The coastal zone has good perspectives for the development of a sustainable urban infrastructure against the backdrop of the green economy. The special attention should be paid to migration of birds and fish, who are using the North Lakhta coast as a temporary refugium during Spring and Autumn migrations. An effective solution from both environmental and economic points of view could be the organization of the Nature Conservation Reserve, which is spatially associated with the Lakhta Center zone. Such type of the complex using of the coastal zone could be a good example of the spatial planning in the environmentally sensitive area.
China is the largest plastic consumer in the world. Despite its plastic waste import ban in 2017, this populous economy inevitably generates a large amount of waste, including plastic waste, a considerable part of which has become marine litter. Data from the 2018 National Coastal Cleanup and Monitoring Project, the largest beach litter monitoring activities using the citizen science approach in China, have been retrieved and analyzed to understand spatial patterns, composition, and original usage of marine litter. Within this project, 24 beaches were surveyed every two months. As a result, the mean density was 3.85 ± 5.39 items m−2, much higher than that reported by previous studies in China. There were great differences in the spatial distribution of litter. The highest densities appeared in the runoff-affected area of the Yangtze River, which was another difference from previous studies. Low-density, easy-to-transport foamed plastics were the major contributor to marine litter in these areas. Along China's coast, approximately 90% of litter was from land-based sources, and over half of that originated from domestic sources. Including foamed plastic products, plastic litter with low recycling value dominated. Both natural and human factors influencing the spatiotemporal distribution and composition of litter are discussed. Socioeconomic factors, such as the lifestyle and consumption levels of citizens and local waste management systems, are possible explanations for the low-value characteristic of marine litter. The deviation between previous data and citizen science data in this study may be caused by many factors. Based on the discussion on these factors, some suggestions for citizen science research in China are also put forward.
The question of how to efficiently and effectively manage ocean resources in a sustainable way has reached the forefront of discussion at an international level, but women's contributions to this process have been underestimated or unrecognized. Inclusive management plays a major role in the effective creation, use and adoption of environmental governance, necessitating efforts to measure, monitor and advance inclusivity. In many Pacific island states, there is a lack of disaggregated data collection and management to assist reliable and liable gender-responsive decision-making by national and regional authorities. This lack of information leads to unquantified female contributions and unexplored potential for women to actively contribute to sustainable ocean management as traditional leaders, researchers or science-based managers and in accordance with traditional customs, cultures and processes. This paper examines the contribution of gender-disaggregated data in both (1) effective management of natural resources and (2) measurement and monitoring of the active involvement of women in ocean management. We seek to shift the question from simply “(How) are oceans used by women?” to “How can we build a clear path towards inclusive oceans management using science?”, drawing data mainly from gender and ocean management practices in Pacific Small Island Developing States. This work also seeks to ground in reality the increasing national and international evocations about social equity and avoidance of gender discrimination. Given the existing relationships of Pacific peoples with the ocean and the emerging status of ocean science-based governance, wider integration of science and women in marine management can make an interesting and positive impact in this region.
Mangrove ecosystems are threatened by climate change. We investigated the effects of expected future (year 2100) drought intensities and rising sea levels on the spatial extent and biomass production of mangroves located along the southern Iranian semi-desert coastal areas of the Persian Gulf (PG) and the Gulf of Oman (GO) under the projections of the RCP 8.5 climate change scenario. To do so, we first needed to establish a robust link of past drought intensities to spatial extents and biomass amounts of mangroves in the study region that would enable the prediction of biomass for the climatic conditions projected by the RCP 8.5 scenario for the year 2100. Large differences in drought intensities in the past pointed to a coordinated wet (1986–1998) and a dry (1998–2017) period throughout the study area and resulted in strong correlations of drought intensity to spatial extents and above- and below-ground biomass amounts. Whereas landward mangrove margins expanded modestly during the wet and contracted severely during the dry periods, leading to variable net areal gains and losses over time, seaward mangrove margins retreated during both periods, presumably due to rising sea levels. By the end of the 21st century, predicted values of biomass per hectare in the remaining mangroves exceeded current values by 47–64% (above-ground) and 41–48% (below-ground) due to a reduced drought intensity predicted for the region. Assuming no landward expansion, predicted mangrove areas declined between 4.9 and 7.2% for every 10 cm rise in sea levels, resulting in a net loss of total mangrove biomass between 18 and 56% throughout the study region at a sea level rise of 100 cm. Variability among sites at all times was partly due to differences in drought intensities, coastal topographies, and differential rates of sedimentation and subsidence/uplift, with greater adverse effects on the coastal areas of the GO than the PG. We conclude that adverse effects of rising sea levels on the extent of mangroves were only partly offset by the increased biomass in the remaining mangroves following reduced drought severities predicted for the end of the 21st century. It is still unclear to what degree mangroves can take advantage of lesser drought intensities predicted for the end of the 21st century and expand their landward margins.
Climate change and its accompanying sea-level rise is set to create risks to the United States’ stockpile of spent nuclear fuel, which results largely from nuclear power. Coastal spent fuel management facilities are vulnerable to unanticipated environmental events, as evidenced by the 2011 tsunami-related flooding at the Fukushima plant in Japan. We examine how policy-makers can manage climate risks posed to the coastal storage of radioactive materials, and identify the coastal spent fuel storage sites that will be most vulnerable to sea-level rise. A geospatial analysis of coastal sites shows that with six feet of sea-level rise, seven spent fuel sites will be juxtaposed by seawater. Of those, three will be near or completely surrounded by water, and should be considered a priority for mitigation: Humboldt Bay (California), Turkey Point (Florida), and Crystal River (Florida). To ensure policy-makers manage such climate risks, a risk management approach is proposed. Further, we recommend that policy-makers 1) transfer overdue spent fuel from cooling pools to dry casks, particularly where located in high risk sites; 2) develop a long-term and comprehensive storage plan that is less vulnerable to climate change; and 3) encourage international nuclear treaties and standards to take climate change into account.
As an emerging contaminant in the environment, microplastics have attracted worldwide attention. Although research methods on microplastics in the environment have been reported extensively, the data on microplastics obtained cannot be comparable due to different methods. In this work, we critically reviewed the analytical methods of microplastics, including sample collection, separation, identification and quantification. Manta trawl and tweezers or cassette corers are used to collect water samples and sediments, respectively. For biota sample, internal organs need to be dissected and separated to obtain microplastics. Density differences are often used to separate microplastics from the sample matrix. Visual classification is one of the most common methods for identifying microplastics, and it can be better detected by combining it with other instruments. However, they are not suitable for detection nanoplastics, which may lead to underestimation of risk. The abundance of microplastics varies with the detection method. Thus, the analytical methods for microplastics need to be standardized as soon as possible. Meanwhile, new methods for analyzing nanoplastics are urgently needed.
Global warming is driving changes in the distribution patterns of many species, leading to a general tropicalization and meridionalization of biota. In this context, populations of some marine species are in regression while others are expanding their populations. Such is the case of benthic cnidarians belonging to the order Zoantharia and suborder Brachycnemina, whose populations are able to cause phase-shifts in coral reef ecosystems. Marine assemblages in the subtropical Canary Islands region consist of a combination of both temperate and tropical species, mainly due to the east-to-west seawater temperature gradient that naturally exists throughout the archipelago. This can reach a 2 °C difference (≈23-25 °C east to west in summer months). These biogeographical features make the archipelago a unique location to research into biota reorganisation processes. The aim of this study was to establish a baseline of the distribution and abundance data of zoantharian Brachycnemina populations in the Canary Islands. To elucidate whether these species are potential bioindicators of ocean warming processes, patterns of species distribution and their relationships with the temperature gradient across the archipelago were also evaluated. Results demonstrated that intertidal and subtidal populations of Palythoa aff. clavata and P. caribaeorum, respectively, followed distribution patterns related to the temperature ranges recorded in situ by data loggers. Extensive populations were found in the western islands where seawater temperatures are warmer than the eastern islands. Since biota reorganisation usually produces loss of ecosystem functions, it is essential to establish baseline datasets of climate change indicators and also effective monitoring programmes. These will allow early detection of phase-shifts before they lead to significant changes in ecosystem dynamics.
Ornamental fish have been legally harvested since the 1930's but in the 60's, cyanide fishing was first documented. Target fish exposed to the chemical are temporarily paralysed making them easier to catch, but with high post-capture mortality and significant ecological impacts, its use is banned in most exporting countries. To differentiate illegally caught fish from those sustainably collected, efforts to develop a post-collection detection test began nearly 30 years ago. However, even the most promising approach has been questioned by other researchers as unrepeatable under different experimental conditions. In this paper we summarise the evidence-base for establishing a cyanide detection test for live fish by evaluating current approaches. We describe the key knowledge gaps which continue to limit our progress in implementing a screening programme and highlight some alternative solutions which may provide greater short to medium term opportunities to prevent the illegal practise before fish enter the supply chain.
Coral reef refugia are habitats which possess physical, biological and ecological characteristics that make them likely to be relatively resilient to future climate change. Identification of refugia locations will be important to ensure suitable marine conservation planning is undertaken to protect sites where coral ecosystems will be better preserved now and in the future. This paper presents (1) a review of current knowledge of the oceanographic conditions and coral community in the Revillagigedo Archipelago Large Scale Marine Protected Area, (2) the first assessment of the potential for the Revillagigedo Archipelago to act as a climate refugia site for corals and coral reefs in the eastern tropical Pacific, and (3) consequent management and learning opportunities, to inform reef conservation both locally and globally. Through utilising published literature, remote and in situ environmental data, and field observations it was found that the Revillagigedo area exhibits a combination of distinctive characteristics in the coral community and in oceanographic processes which support conditions of refugia. The potential for refugia is further enhanced due to the absence of significant secondary anthropogenic stressors. This leads to a recommendation to establish the Revillagigedo as a globally significant ‘sentinel site’ where, through long-term monitoring of oceanographic conditions and of the coral and associated ecosystems, the effects of climate change can be quantified, and the effectiveness of specific refugia attributes established. This information may then be used to underpin the recognition of potential coral refugia elsewhere, and to guide MPA designation and management decisions to enhance their effectiveness.
As oceans continue to warm under climate change, understanding the differential growth responses of corals is increasingly important. Scleractinian corals exhibit a broad range of life-history strategies, yet few studies have explored interspecific variation in long-term growth rates under a changing climate. Here we studied growth records of two coral species with different growth forms, namely branching Isopora palifera and massive Porites spp. at an offshore reef (Myrmidon Reef) of the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Skeletal growth chronologies were constructed using a combination of X-radiographs, gamma densitometry, and trace element (Sr/Ca) analysis. General additive mixed-effect models (GAMMs) revealed that skeletal density of I. palifera declined linearly and significantly at a rate of 1.2% yr−1 between 2002 and 2012. Calcification was stable between 2002 and 2009, yet declined significantly at a rate of 12% yr−1 between 2009 and 2012 following anomalously high sea surface temperatures (SST). Skeletal density of massive Porites exhibited a significant non-linear response over the 11-year study period (2002−2012) in that density was temporarily reduced during the 2009–2010 anomalously hot years, while linear extension and calcification showed no significant trends. Linear extension, density and calcification rates of I. palifera increased to maximum growth of 26.7–26.9 °C, beyond which they declined. In contrast, calcification and linear extension of Porites exhibited no response to SST, but exhibited a significant linear decline in skeletal density with increasing SST. Our results reveal significant differences in coral growth patterns among coral growth forms, and highlight both the resistant nature of massive Porites and sensitivity of branching I. palifera. Future research should target a broad range of coral taxa within similar environments to provide a community-level response of ocean warming on coral reef communities.