Literature Library

Currently indexing 7753 titles

Ecosystem services and Antarctica: The time has come?

Verbitsky J. Ecosystem services and Antarctica: The time has come?. Ecosystem Services [Internet]. In Press . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041617306939
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Journal Article

Antarctica's status as a unparalleled place of international scientific collaboration was entrenched in the Antarctic Treaty 1959, and its designation as a “natural reserve, devoted to peace and science” formally referenced in the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (PEPAT) 1991 (PEPAT 1991, Article 2). The continent's importance for maintenance of the global ecosphere has more recently been confirmed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Anisimov et al., 2007). However, the expanded scale and scope of commercial tourism in Antarctica over the last quarter century raises issues about whether the laissez-faire approach to tourism management that has been taken under the auspices of Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) governance is sufficient to protect the Antarctic environment and its “wilderness” values from the negative impacts of tourism (PEPAT, Article 3(1)). This is an subject that has occupied a number of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (ATCPs), who form the decision-making group within the ATS, and resulted in a recent question by The Netherlands to fellow ATCPs as to whether “a system of obligatory or voluntary payments by individual tourists or tourist organizations (as a payment for ‘ecosystem services’)?” should be established within the ATS (The Netherlands, ATCM XI, 2012).

This paper considers the Dutch question about payment for ecosystem services in Antarctica as a potential tourism regulatory tool. It also examines the legal and related political issues that a proposal for introduction of ecosystem services would generate in an area of the earth which, de facto, is treated as an international commons, but is also the site of continuing contestation and challenge over abeyant claims to sovereignty by seven states within the ATCP group. Issues canvassed in this context include: the different political-philosophical approaches to tourism and the environment evinced by the ATCPs; the limited number of states signatory to the Treaty and the increase in non-state actor activity in the Southern Ocean and Antarctic waters, and concomitant difficulties of monitoring and compliance in a geographically expansive and remote area of the earth; and the potential of ecosystem services in Antarctica to help realise some of the United Nations’ post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals.

Diversity and composition of catches and discards in a recreational charter fishery

Gray CA, Kennelly SJ. Diversity and composition of catches and discards in a recreational charter fishery. Fisheries Research [Internet]. 2018 ;199:44 - 52. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783617303296
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

A spatially and temporally stratified scientific observer program was used to examine variation in the diversity and composition of retained and discarded catches in a coastal charter-vessel line fishery. The 181 observed trips yielded 126 species and 13,357 individuals. Overall, 88 and 92 species were retained and discarded, respectively, with 34 and 38 species either solely retained or discarded. The 10 most numerous species accounted for 75% of total individuals, with 40 species encountered only once. Regional-scale differences in retained and discarded catch compositions and diversity were consistent across seasons, with species diversity being greatest in the northern region that encompassed the convergence zone of tropical and temperate waters. Within-region port-related differences in catch compositions were driven by particular species being captured in different quantities and frequencies from vessels at one port compared to the other, and together with the high level of trip-to-trip variation in catches, were the result of localised and often vessel-specific differences in fishing practices, grounds and habitats fished, and client/operator preferences. Habitat-related differences in catch compositions were greatest between bare sand and structured reef and reef/gravel substrata. Discarding patterns varied among regions, with 25–52% of individuals with a prescribed legal length limit, and 14–72% of individuals with no length limit, being discarded. Discarding was due to a combination of compliance with length-based and no-take regulations, as well as client and operator preferences for particular species and sizes, and not the result of catch quotas. The results show that assessments and management of charter fisheries need to consider the human dimensions, as well as the ecological, aspects of catch variation.

Poorly-designed goals and objectives in resource management plans: Assessing their impact for an Ecosystem-Based Approach to Marine Spatial Planning

Domínguez-Tejo E, Metternicht G. Poorly-designed goals and objectives in resource management plans: Assessing their impact for an Ecosystem-Based Approach to Marine Spatial Planning. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2018 ;88:122 - 131. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17302361
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Planning frameworks such as Ecosystem-Based Marine Spatial Planning are based on socio-ecological systems and require effective design of management goals and objectives, a task often overlooked in conservation and resource planning. This paper discusses research undertaken in a coastal council of Australia, to assess the significance of well-defined goals and objectives as drivers of management plans. SMART criteria and Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation approaches were integrated into a framework to examine management scope of existing plans; assess the quality of stated goals and objectives; analyse the use of natural and socio-economic targets; and provide recommendations for the development of future plans. Findings provided no indication of organizational learning through revision of previous plans, revealing an ongoing planning cycle with ad-hoc reviews frequently driven by policy changes. Main weaknesses identified included linguistics ambiguity; unclear planning hierarchy; lack of clear time-frames; and adoption of highly ambitious plans. The absence of measurable and time-bounded goals and objectives was noted. Additionally, poor definition of targets resulted in goals not meeting the impact-oriented criteria, and objectives were not outcome-oriented. Recommendations drawn in support of mainstreaming the Ecosystem Based Approach in future coastal and marine plans include: explicit definition of societal values; developing complementary cross-realm management goals and objectives; increasing commitment to produce ‘on-the-ground’ outcomes progressively within each planning period; a greater use of pro-active management measures; and providing an economic context to the plans, fostering alignment of financial resources and future investments with the vision developed by the council.

Increased information and marketing to specific individuals could shift conservation support to less popular species

Curtin P, Papworth S. Increased information and marketing to specific individuals could shift conservation support to less popular species. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2018 ;88:101 - 107. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17305572
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Flagship species are widely used in conservation to raise awareness and funds, and recent observational research suggests that less popular species can be marketed to increase support for their conservation. Using two species groups, sharks and dolphins, this paper experimentally investigates whether stated conservation preferences can shift from more charismatic species to those not typically considered as flagship species. Although universal appeal is considered a desirable trait for flagship species, there are individual differences in preferences for species. Therefore, this paper also investigates the role of individual demographic and attitudinal differences on choices, as these may impact the success of conservation marketing. Using discrete choice experiments, six forced choice sets of two species were presented to 168 participants, with species shown and the amount of information presented about each one varied. Demographic differences between participants was found to affect donating behavior: individuals with more positive attitudes to sharks were more likely to donate to shark conservation, as are individuals with a biology background. However, it was found that individual choices can also be shifted through the provision of additional information. Participants chose to conserve species with more information, whether the two species in the choice set were both sharks, both dolphins, or a shark and a dolphin. When equal amounts of information were provided about two species, potential donors preferred the more endangered species. This research suggests that by selecting appropriate populations to target for marketing, even less charismatic species can be used as flagship species and attract potential donors.

Sea-level rise and archaeological site destruction: An example from the southeastern United States using DINAA (Digital Index of North American Archaeology)

Anderson DG, Bissett TG, Yerka SJ, Wells JJ, Kansa EC, Kansa SW, Myers KNoack, R. DeMuth C, White DA. Sea-level rise and archaeological site destruction: An example from the southeastern United States using DINAA (Digital Index of North American Archaeology). PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2017 ;12(11):e0188142. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0188142
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The impact of changing climate on terrestrial and underwater archaeological sites, historic buildings, and cultural landscapes can be examined through quantitatively-based analyses encompassing large data samples and broad geographic and temporal scales. The Digital Index of North American Archaeology (DINAA) is a multi-institutional collaboration that allows researchers online access to linked heritage data from multiple sources and data sets. The effects of sea-level rise and concomitant human population relocation is examined using a sample from nine states encompassing much of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of the southeastern United States. A 1 m rise in sea-level will result in the loss of over >13,000 recorded historic and prehistoric archaeological sites, as well as over 1000 locations currently eligible for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), encompassing archaeological sites, standing structures, and other cultural properties. These numbers increase substantially with each additional 1 m rise in sea level, with >32,000 archaeological sites and >2400 NRHP properties lost should a 5 m rise occur. Many more unrecorded archaeological and historic sites will also be lost as large areas of the landscape are flooded. The displacement of millions of people due to rising seas will cause additional impacts where these populations resettle. Sea level rise will thus result in the loss of much of the record of human habitation of the coastal margin in the Southeast within the next one to two centuries, and the numbers indicate the magnitude of the impact on the archaeological record globally. Construction of large linked data sets is essential to developing procedures for sampling, triage, and mitigation of these impacts.

Sustainable use of marine resources through offshore wind and mussel farm co-location

Di Tullio GR, Mariani P, Benassai G, Di Luccio D, Grieco L. Sustainable use of marine resources through offshore wind and mussel farm co-location. Ecological Modelling [Internet]. 2018 ;367:34 - 41. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304380017302338?via%3Dihub
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) can offer significant benefits in terms of economic conservation strategies, optimizing spatial planning and minimizing the impact on the environment. In this paper, we focused on the application of multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) technique for co-locating offshore wind farms and open-water mussel cultivation. An index of co-location sustainability (SI) was developed based on the application of MCE technique constructed with physical and biological parameters on the basis of remote sensing data. The relevant physical factors considered were wind velocity, depth range, concerning the site location for energy production, and sea surface temperature anomaly. The biological variables used were Chlorofill-a (as a measurement of the productivity) and Particle Organic Carbon (POC) concentration, in order to assess their influence on the probable benefits and complete the requirements of this management framework. This SI can be easily implemented to do a first order selection of the most promising areas to be more specifically studied in a second order approach based on local field data

Assessment and Promotion of the Great Barrier Reef's Human Dimensions Through Collaboration

Gooch M, Curnock M, Dale A, Gibson J, Hill R, Marshall N, Molloy F, Vella K. Assessment and Promotion of the Great Barrier Reef's Human Dimensions Through Collaboration. Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;45(6):519 - 537. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08920753.2017.1373455?journalCode=ucmg20
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $50.00
Type: Journal Article

Increasingly, natural resource managers see the marine protected areas that they are responsible for as linked social-ecological systems. This requires an equal focus on managing for both natural and human dimensions of the protected estate. Consequently, identification of indicators that represent the human dimensions of Large Scale Marine Protected Areas (LSMPAs) such as the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is critical if these values are to be properly considered as part of standard management practice. Assessment and monitoring of the human dimensions of LSMPAs requires a replicable, collaborative process, rolled out at local scales but comparable across vast, socially and geographically diverse areas. This paper explores the application of a process for the development, assessment, and monitoring of the GBR's human dimensions. The process includes (a) development of a conceptual framework that links indicator sets to the desired state of the GBR's human dimensions; and (b) a collaborative approach including ten practical steps to implement assessment, monitoring, and benchmarking of the human dimensions of an LSMPA. We conclude with examination of challenges and opportunities for implementing this process in the GBR context, specifically with respect to the targets and objectives of the Reef 2050 Long-Term Sustainability Plan.

The Dependency of People on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

Marshall NA, Curnock MI, Goldberg J, Gooch M, Marshall PA, Pert PL, Tobin RC. The Dependency of People on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;45(6):505 - 518. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08920753.2017.1373454?journalCode=ucmg20
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $50.00
Type: Journal Article

Understanding how people are dependent on Large Scale Marine Protected Areas (LSMPAs) is important for understanding how people might be sensitive to changes that affect these seascapes. We review how resource dependency is conceptualized and propose that it be broadened to include cultural values such as pride in resource status, scientific heritage, appreciation of aesthetics, biodiversity, and lifestyle opportunities. We provide an overview of how local residents (n = 3,181 face-to-face surveys), commercial fishers (n = 210, telephone surveys), and tourism operators (n = 119 telephone surveys) are potentially dependent on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), a region currently experiencing significant environmental, social, and economic change. We found that commercial fishers and tourism operators were dependent not only financially on the GBR, but also because of their age, years in the industry and region, lack of education, and the number of dependents. These stakeholders lacked flexibility to secure alternative employment. All stakeholder groups, regardless of economic imperatives, were dependent on the GBR because of their cultural connections. We propose that resource dependency also provides an umbrella concept to describe the cultural services provided by an ecosystem, which can be described through place-based dependence and place-identity.

Exploring Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument

Kotowicz DM, Richmond L, Hospital J. Exploring Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. Coastal Management [Internet]. 2017 ;45(6):452 - 469. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08920753.2017.1373451
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

With the increase in development of large marine protected areas (LMPAs) worldwide, there have been calls from social scientists to gather better empirical information about the human dimensions of LMPAs. Of the social research done on LMPAs to date, most has focused on the perceptions of stakeholders closely connected to their implementation, and little research has explored the general public's response. This paper presents the results of a phone survey conducted in the US territories of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands to assess residents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument—a LMPA designated offshore in 2009. The survey was administered in 2012 to 500 randomly-selected residents from each territory. Findings suggest: (1) public awareness of the Monument prior to the survey was low; (2) residents generally supported designation of the Monument; (3) most residents did not believe that the Monument would affect them or their community; and (4) knowledge and perceptions of the Monument varied between fishing and non-fishing households. This research illustrates that awareness and views differ between stakeholders and those of the general public, which should be used to inform social research on LMPAs and outreach for LMPA managers.

Connectivity and systemic resilience of the Great Barrier Reef

Hock K, Wolff NH, Ortiz JC, Condie SA, Anthony KRN, Blackwell PG, Mumby PJ. Connectivity and systemic resilience of the Great Barrier Reef Côté I. PLOS Biology [Internet]. 2017 ;15(11):e2003355. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2003355
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Australia’s iconic Great Barrier Reef (GBR) continues to suffer from repeated impacts of cyclones, coral bleaching, and outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS), losing much of its coral cover in the process. This raises the question of the ecosystem’s systemic resilience and its ability to rebound after large-scale population loss. Here, we reveal that around 100 reefs of the GBR, or around 3%, have the ideal properties to facilitate recovery of disturbed areas, thereby imparting a level of systemic resilience and aiding its continued recovery. These reefs (1) are highly connected by ocean currents to the wider reef network, (2) have a relatively low risk of exposure to disturbances so that they are likely to provide replenishment when other reefs are depleted, and (3) have an ability to promote recovery of desirable species but are unlikely to either experience or spread COTS outbreaks. The great replenishment potential of these ‘robust source reefs’, which may supply 47% of the ecosystem in a single dispersal event, emerges from the interaction between oceanographic conditions and geographic location, a process that is likely to be repeated in other reef systems. Such natural resilience of reef systems will become increasingly important as the frequency of disturbances accelerates under climate change.

Unintended changes of artisanal fisheries métiers upon implementation of an MPA

Mallol S, Goñi R. Unintended changes of artisanal fisheries métiers upon implementation of an MPA. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2017 . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X16306583
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Establishing marine protected areas (MPAs) is one of the most significant measures governments can take to halt the degradation of marine ecosystems and fisheries overexploitation. Although MPAs can be created with the support of current stakeholders, mainly fishers, implementation of spatial restrictions and of no-take zones in particular, force adjustments to the existing fisheries in the area. The Llevant de Mallorca-Cala Rajada MPA (Spain, Western Mediterranean) was created in 2007 under the patronage of the artisanal fishermen association of Cala Rajada. This study uses onboard observer data of the existing artisanal fisheries practices (métiers), their seasonality and spatial distribution of effort in the area before (2003–2007) and after (2008–2012) MPA designation, to illustrate how fishing restrictions and regulations have changed the structure and dynamics of local fishery métiers, with inshore fishing effort partially reallocated to offshore fishing grounds farther from port. Unforeseen effects of MPA restrictions concerned coastal artisanal métiers – impinging on the smaller boats and the oldest and most knowledgeable fishers – and the expansion of métiers that use newer boats and manned by younger, less experienced fishermen. Studies like this are needed to inform the design of future fisheries spatial management measures for Mediterranean artisanal fisheries that take into account foreseeable socio-economic outcomes and loss of knowledge.

Public attitudes and decision making in environmental resource planning — a perception gap

Alexander KA, Freeman S, Angel DL. Public attitudes and decision making in environmental resource planning — a perception gap. Environmental Science & Policy [Internet]. 2018 ;80:38 - 43. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901117306342
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Recent research has suggested that decision makers may misunderstand public attitudes regarding natural resource use. Using research on Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) in six European countries, we illustrate one case in which this is true. We describe two studies: one revealing stakeholders’ beliefs about the environmental sustainability of IMTA in addition to their beliefs regarding public perceptions of the same; and a second investigating perceptions held by the public. In comparing the studies, we identified a gap between what decision-makers believe the public perceives and what the public actually perceives. There is reason to believe that this phenomenon is not sector-specific because policy and planning mechanisms for incorporating the views of stakeholders and the larger public tend to be the similar, regardless of sector. This may cause a dilemma for developing natural-resource based industries, as well as public policy. For this reason, we suggest, as an alternative to over-reliance on citizens’ initiative, making greater use of mechanisms that actively elicit opinions, such as deliberative consultation/engagement models that both inform and elicit pReferences

Measuring the extent of overlaps in protected area designations

Deguignet M, Arnell A, Juffe-Bignoli D, Shi Y, Bingham H, Macsharry B, Kingston N. Measuring the extent of overlaps in protected area designations. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2017 ;12(11):e0188681. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0188681
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Over the past decades, a number of national policies and international conventions have been implemented to promote the expansion of the world’s protected area network, leading to a diversification of protected area strategies, types and designations. As a result, many areas are protected by more than one convention, legal instrument, or other effective means which may result in a lack of clarity around the governance and management regimes of particular locations. We assess the degree to which different designations overlap at global, regional and national levels to understand the extent of this phenomenon at different scales. We then compare the distribution and coverage of these multi-designated areas in the terrestrial and marine realms at the global level and among different regions, and we present the percentage of each county’s protected area extent that is under more than one designation. Our findings show that almost a quarter of the world’s protected area network is protected through more than one designation. In fact, we have documented up to eight overlapping designations. These overlaps in protected area designations occur in every region of the world, both in the terrestrial and marine realms, but are more common in the terrestrial realm and in some regions, notably Europe. In the terrestrial realm, the most common overlap is between one national and one international designation. In the marine realm, the most common overlap is between any two national designations. Multi-designations are therefore a widespread phenomenon but its implications are not well understood. This analysis identifies, for the first time, multi-designated areas across all designation types. This is a key step to understand how these areas are managed and governed to then move towards integrated and collaborative approaches that consider the different management and conservation objectives of each designation.

Reliable estimation of IUU fishing catch amounts in the northwestern Pacific adjacent to the Japanese EEZ: Potential for usage of satellite remote sensing images

Oozeki Y, Inagake D, Saito T, Okazaki M, Fusejima I, Hotai M, Watanabe T, Sugisaki H, Miyahara M. Reliable estimation of IUU fishing catch amounts in the northwestern Pacific adjacent to the Japanese EEZ: Potential for usage of satellite remote sensing images. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2018 ;88:64 - 74. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X17303998
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $55.20
Type: Journal Article

To establish an estimation procedure for reliable catch amount of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, light-gathering fishing operations in the northwestern Pacific were analyzed based on the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) day/night band (DNB) data provided by the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite. The estimated fishing activities were compared with the navigation tracks of vessels obtained from the automatic identification system (AIS). As a model case, the fishing activities of Chinese fishing boats using fish aggregation lights outside the Japanese EEZ in the northwestern Pacific were analyzed from mid-June to early-September 2016. Integration analyses of VIIRS DNB data and AIS information provided reliable data for estimating the fishing activities of Chinese fishing boats and suggested the importance of estimating fish carrier ship movements. The total amount of the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) catch during this period was independently estimated from three angles: 1) the fishing capacity of the fishing boats, 2) the freezing capacity of refrigeration factory ships ;and 3) the fish hold capacity of the fish carrier ships, based on information obtained from interviews with Chinese fisheries companies. These estimates indicated that the total amount of mackerel catch by Chinese fisheries was more than 80% of the allowable biological catch (ABC) of Japan in this area in 2016. This suggests that Pacific high seas fishing has a significant impact on the future of fish abundance. Our proposed procedure raises the possibility of evaluating the fishing impact of some forms of IUU fisheries independently from conventional statistical reports.

Community-level facilitation by macroalgal foundation species peaks at an intermediate level of environmental stress

Scrosati RA. Community-level facilitation by macroalgal foundation species peaks at an intermediate level of environmental stress. ALGAE [Internet]. 2017 ;32(1):41 - 46. Available from: https://www.e-algae.org/journal/view.php?doi=10.4490/algae.2017.32.2.20
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In rocky intertidal habitats, abiotic stress due to desiccation and thermal extremes increases with elevation because of tides. A study in Atlantic Canada showed that, at low elevations where conditions are benign due to the brief low tides, fucoid algal canopies (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus spp.) do not affect the structure of benthic communities. However, at middle and high elevations, where low tides last longer, fucoid canopies limit abiotic extremes and increase the richness (number of invertebrate and algal species, except fucoids) of benthic communities. Using the data from that study, this paper compares the intensity of facilitation and its importance (relative to all other sources of variation in richness) between middle and high elevations, which represent intermediate and high stress, respectively. Facilitation intensity was calculated as the percent increase in benthic richness between quadrats with low and high canopy cover, while the importance of facilitation was calculated as the percentage of variation in richness explained by canopy cover. Data for 689 quadrats spanning 350 km of coastline were used. Both the intensity and importance of facilitation were greater at middle elevations than at high elevations. As canopies do not affect benthic communities at low elevations, this study suggests that the facilitation-stress relationship at the community level is unimodal for this marine system. Such a pattern was found for some terrestrial systems dominated by canopy-forming plants. Thus, it might be ubiquitous in nature and, as further studies refine it, it might help to predict community-level facilitation depending on environmental stress.

Unimodal relationship between small-scale barnacle recruitment and the density of pre-existing barnacle adults

Scrosati RA, Ellrich JA. Unimodal relationship between small-scale barnacle recruitment and the density of pre-existing barnacle adults. PeerJ [Internet]. 2017 ;5:e3444. Available from: https://peerj.com/articles/3444/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Recruitment is a key demographic process for population persistence. This paper focuses on barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) recruitment. In rocky intertidal habitats from the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast of Nova Scotia (Canada), ice scour is common during the winter. At the onset of intertidal barnacle recruitment in early May (after sea ice has fully melted), mostly only adult barnacles and bare substrate are visible at high elevations in wave-exposed habitats. We conducted a multiannual study to investigate if small-scale barnacle recruitment could be predicted from the density of pre-existing adult barnacles. In a year that exhibited a wide adult density range (ca. 0–130 individuals dm−2), the relationship between adult density and recruit density (scaled to the available area for recruitment, which excluded adult barnacles) was unimodal. In years that exhibited a lower adult density range (ca. 0–40/50 individuals dm−2), the relationship between adult and recruit density was positive and resembled the lower half of the unimodal relationship. Overall, adult barnacle density was able to explain 26–40% of the observed variation in recruit density. The unimodal adult–recruit relationship is consistent with previously documented intraspecific interactions. Between low and intermediate adult densities, the positive nature of the relationship relates to the previously documented fact that settlement-seeking larvae are chemically and visually attracted to adults, which might be important for local population persistence. Between intermediate and high adult densities, where population persistence may be less compromised and the abundant adults may limit recruit growth and survival, the negative nature of the relationship suggests that adult barnacles at increasingly high densities stimulate larvae to settle elsewhere. The unimodal pattern may be especially common on shores with moderate rates of larval supply to the shore, because high rates of larval supply may swamp the coast with settlers, decoupling recruit density from local adult abundance.

A 12-year record of intertidal barnacle recruitment in Atlantic Canada (2005-2016): relationships with sea surface temperature and phytoplankton abundance

Scrosati RA, Ellrich JA. A 12-year record of intertidal barnacle recruitment in Atlantic Canada (2005-2016): relationships with sea surface temperature and phytoplankton abundance. PeerJ [Internet]. 2016 ;4:e2623. Available from: https://peerj.com/articles/2623/
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

On the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast of Nova Scotia (Canada), recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides occurs in May and June. Every year in June between 2005 and 2016, we recorded recruit density for this barnacle at the same wave-exposed rocky intertidal location on this coast. During these 12 years, mean recruit density was lowest in 2015 (198 recruits dm−2) and highest in 2007 (969 recruits dm−2). The highest recruit density observed in a single quadrat was 1,457 recruits dm−2 (in 2011) and the lowest was 34 recruits dm−2 (in 2015). Most barnacle recruits appear during May, which suggests that most pelagic larvae (which develop over 5–6 weeks before benthic settlement) are in the water column in April. An AICc-based model selection approach identified sea surface temperature (SST) in April and the abundance of phytoplankton (food for barnacle larvae, measured as chlorophyll-a concentration –Chl-a–) in April as good explanatory variables. Together, April SST and April Chl-a explained 51% of the observed interannual variation in recruit density, with an overall positive influence. April SST was positively related to March–April air temperature (AT). April Chl-a was negatively related to the April ratio between the number of days with onshore winds (which blow from phytoplankton-limited offshore waters) and the number of days with alongshore winds (phytoplankton is more abundant on coastal waters). Therefore, this study suggests that climatic processes affecting April SST and April Chl-a indirectly influence intertidal barnacle recruitment by influencing larval performance.

Jellyfish on the menu: mtDNA assay reveals scyphozoan predation in the Irish Sea

Lamb PD, Hunter E, Pinnegar JK, Creer S, Davies RG, Taylor MI. Jellyfish on the menu: mtDNA assay reveals scyphozoan predation in the Irish Sea. Royal Society Open Science [Internet]. 2017 ;4(11):171421. Available from: http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/4/11/171421
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Localized outbreaks of jellyfish, known as blooms, cause a variety of adverse ecological and economic effects. However, fundamental aspects of their ecology remain unknown. Notably, there is scant information on the role jellyfish occupy in food webs: in many ecosystems, few or no predators are known. To identify jellyfish consumers in the Irish Sea, we conducted a molecular gut content assessment of 50 potential predators using cnidarian-specific mtDNA primers and sequencing. We show that jellyfish predation may be more common than previously acknowledged: uncovering many previously unknown jellyfish predators. A substantial proportion of herring and whiting were found to have consumed jellyfish. Rare ingestion was also detected in a variety of other species. Given the phenology of jellyfish in the region, we suggest that the predation was probably targeting juvenile stages of the jellyfish life cycle.

Lack of evidence that governance structures provide real ecological benefits in marine protected areas

Stafford R. Lack of evidence that governance structures provide real ecological benefits in marine protected areas. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2018 ;152:57 - 61. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569117307433
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has set targets for the total area of marine protected areas (MPAs), as well as targets to encourage a participatory approach to governance with equitable sharing of benefits of these areas to multiple stakeholders. These targets have contributed to a considerable volume of research in MPA governance, and in the ecological effectiveness of MPAs. However, examining the literature demonstrates there is very little joined up research to show that any particular governance approach results in improved ecological indices of fish stocks or biodiversity. Indeed, some of the well-cited examples of participatory governance implying improved ecological metrics are either incorrect (as data do not relate to MPAs under participatory governance systems), or do not provide any ecological data other than opinions of fishers to back up the claims. Evidence suggests that participatory governance approaches with equitable sharing of benefits can help the establishment and management of MPAs, and as such, there should be urgent further work assessing the ecological benefits that arise as a result of the establishment of MPAs with participatory and equitable governance approaches.

Evidence of molting and the function of “rock-nosing” behavior in bowhead whales in the eastern Canadian Arctic

Fortune SME, Koski WR, Higdon JW, Trites AW, Baumgartner MF, Ferguson SH. Evidence of molting and the function of “rock-nosing” behavior in bowhead whales in the eastern Canadian Arctic Li S. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2017 ;12(11):15p. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0186156
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) have a nearly circumpolar distribution, and occasionally occupy warmer shallow coastal areas during summertime that may facilitate molting. However, relatively little is known about the occurrence of molting and associated behaviors in bowhead whales. We opportunistically observed whales in Cumberland Sound, Nunavut, Canada with skin irregularities consistent with molting during August 2014, and collected a skin sample from a biopsied whale that revealed loose epidermis and sloughing. During August 2016, we flew a small unmanned aerial system (sUAS) over whales to take video and still images to: 1) determine unique individuals; 2) estimate the proportion of the body of unique individuals that exhibited sloughing skin; 3) determine the presence or absence of superficial lines representative of rock-rubbing behavior; and 4) measure body lengths to infer age-class. The still images revealed that all individuals (n = 81 whales) were sloughing skin, and that nearly 40% of them had mottled skin over more than two-thirds of their bodies. The video images captured bowhead whales rubbing on large rocks in shallow, coastal areas—likely to facilitate molting. Molting and rock rubbing appears to be pervasive during late summer for whales in the eastern Canadian Arctic.

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