Literature Library

Currently indexing 8710 titles

Influence of environmental and operational variables in commercial fishery landings: The case of pair trawlers in southeastern Brazil

Rolim FAndreoli, Ávila-da-Silva AOlinto. Influence of environmental and operational variables in commercial fishery landings: The case of pair trawlers in southeastern Brazil. Regional Studies in Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 ;24:133 - 142. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352485517304176
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Journal Article

Faced with the overexploitation reality of many of the world fish stocks and climate change, understanding the relationships between catches, fishing strategies and environmental conditions becomes crucial. In this context, this study aimed to describe the correlations between operational and environmental variables in landings of the main fish categories by pair trawl fisheries off the coast of southeastern Brazil. Catch composition varied greatly between 2003 and 2011. This change was mainly related to the shift of the fishing area to greater latitudes and variations in sea surface temperature and chlorophyll concentrations. The physical characteristics of the vessels and fishing gear did not change during the study period. Environmental variables most likely influence stock catchability, primarily by changing their distribution pattern, indicating a shift in ocean characteristics that will influence this dynamic. This draws attention to the need to maintain monitoring programs to apply adequate management measures for the protection of fish populations, consequently ensuring fishing activities in the area.

Responsible aquaculturists: The information-seeking behavior of milkfish farmers in Iloilo, Philippines

Superio DL, Nemiz ES, Oliveros MGrace H, Palcullo VErvin V, Yap-Zerrudo AMay A, Canaman JB. Responsible aquaculturists: The information-seeking behavior of milkfish farmers in Iloilo, Philippines. Information Development [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0266666918798675
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $36.00
Type: Journal Article

Compliance with a policy, law, standard or code requires understanding of its provisions. However, for someone to understand it, he must be aware of its existence and be provided access to it. A qualitative-quantitative research was conducted to determine the awareness of milkfish farmers about the Philippine Code of Practice for Aquaculture in the municipalities of Leganes and Zarraga, Iloilo Province, the Philippines and their information-seeking behaviors. Results revealed that the majority of the respondents were not aware of the existence of the Code, hence, there is a low level of compliance. When seeking everyday life information, the majority of the milkfish farmers depended on television, personal or person-to-person communication and radio, while when seeking for fish farming information, personal communication was the preferred source. None of the respondents was aware of the existence of their municipal libraries.

Ocean currents and herbivory drive macroalgae-to-coral community shift under climate warming

Kumagai NH, Molinos JGarcía, Yamano H, Takao S, Fujii M, Yamanaka Y. Ocean currents and herbivory drive macroalgae-to-coral community shift under climate warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2018 ;115(36):8990 - 8995. Available from: http://www.pnas.org/content/115/36/8990?etoc=
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $10.00
Type: Journal Article

Coral and macroalgal communities are threatened by global stressors. However, recently reported community shifts from temperate macroalgae to tropical corals offer conservation potential for corals at the expense of macroalgae under climate warming. Although such community shifts are expanding geographically, our understanding of the driving processes is still limited. Here, we reconstruct long-term climate-driven range shifts in 45 species of macroalgae, corals, and herbivorous fishes from over 60 years of records (mainly 1950–2015), stretching across 3,000 km of the Japanese archipelago from tropical to subarctic zones. Based on a revised coastal version of climate velocity trajectories, we found that prediction models combining the effects of climate and ocean currents consistently explained observed community shifts significantly better than those relying on climate alone. Corals and herbivorous fishes performed better at exploiting opportunities offered by this interaction. The contrasting range dynamics for these taxa suggest that ocean warming is promoting macroalgal-to-coral shifts both directly by increased competition from the expansion of tropical corals into the contracting temperate macroalgae, and indirectly via deforestation by the expansion of tropical herbivorous fish. Beyond individual species’ effects, our results provide evidence on the important role that the interaction between climate warming and external forces conditioning the dispersal of organisms, such as ocean currents, can have in shaping community-level responses, with concomitant changes to ecosystem structure and functioning. Furthermore, we found that community shifts from macroalgae to corals might accelerate with future climate warming, highlighting the complexity of managing these evolving communities under future climate change.

Status-quo management of marine recreational fisheries undermines angler welfare

Abbott JK, Lloyd-Smith P, Willard D, Adamowicz W. Status-quo management of marine recreational fisheries undermines angler welfare. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2018 ;115(36):8948 - 8953. Available from: http://www.pnas.org/content/115/36/8948?etoc=
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Recreational fisheries can have a significant impact on fish populations and can suffer from the same symptoms of open access as commercial fisheries. However, recreational fisheries receive little attention compared with their commercial counterparts. Regulations designed to allocate scarce fish, such as seasonal closures and bag limits, can result in significant losses of value to anglers. We provide an estimate of these foregone benefits by estimating the potential gains to implementing management reforms of the headboat portion of the recreational red snapper fishery in the US Gulf of Mexico. This fishery has suffered from a regulatory spiral of shortened seasons and lowered bag limits in spite of rebuilding stocks. We gather primary survey data of headboat anglers that elicit trip behavior and their planned number and seasonal distribution of trips under status-quo and alternative management approaches. We use these data to estimate a model of anglers’ seasonal trip demand as a function of the ability to retain red snapper, bag limits, and fees. We find that a hypothetical rights-based policy, whereby vessels with secure rights to a portion of annual catch could offer their customers year-round fishing in exchange for lower per-angler retention and increased fees, could raise the average angler’s welfare by $139/y. When placed in the global context of recreational fishing, these estimates suggest that status-quo management may deprive anglers of billions of dollars of lost economic value per year.

Implementation challenges of area-based management tools (ABMTs) for biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ)

De Santo EM. Implementation challenges of area-based management tools (ABMTs) for biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ). Marine Policy [Internet]. 2018 ;97:34 - 43. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18303166
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Area-based management tools (ABMTs), including marine protected areas (MPAs) are widely recognized as a key mechanism for conserving and restoring biodiversity. The developing international legally-binding instrument (ILBI) on biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ) is considering a range of approaches to ABMTs. While the process is still in early stages, this paper looks ahead to anticipate implementation challenges for ABMTs, given previous experiences with regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs) and high seas MPAs. Drawing on the implementation of MPAs under the OSPAR Convention and the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Living Marine Resources (CCAMLR), key suggestions revolve around: (1) improving the evidence basis for protecting BBNJ, (2) designing effective compliance and enforcement mechanisms, and (3) engaging adequately with relevant stakeholders. In addition to the case studies, which are primarily marine pollution and fishing-oriented, considerations related to mitigating the effects of deep sea mining and the harvesting of marine genetic resources are also touched upon.

The role of shark ecotourism in conservation behaviour: Evidence from Hawaii

Sutcliffe SR, Barnes ML. The role of shark ecotourism in conservation behaviour: Evidence from Hawaii. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2018 ;97:27 - 33. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18301180
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Policies to conserve sharks have generally struggled to gain broad public support. Ecotourism programs have been suggested as a way to promote support for conservation by increasing participants’ knowledge of ecology, fostering positive environmental attitudes, and driving increases in conservation behaviour. Yet the evidence is mixed, and some argue that its effectiveness is constrained by the “ceiling effect”, i.e., people attracted to ecotourism programs are already environmentally minded, thus their participation does not result in meaningful conservation gains. Surveys of 547 tour participants in a cage free shark diving ecotourism program and 488 members of the general public were conducted in Hawaii to test whether the program resulted in conservation benefits or whether it was constrained by the ceiling effect. The results show evidence of the ceiling effect, suggesting that the program is attracting more environmentally minded participants. Despite this, tour participants reported a significant increase in knowledge regarding the ecological role of sharks and improved attitudes towards sharks after the tour compared to before. Critically, once responses from tour participants and the general public were pooled and previous engagement in conservation was controlled for, participation in the tour still had a significant positive effect on intentions to engage in shark conservation in the future, suggesting that the program does result in meaningful conservation gains. The usefulness of the information provided on the tour in addition to participants’ age, gender, and satisfaction with the tour all played a role in determining its effectiveness as a conservation strategy.

Coral connectivity between equatorial eastern Pacific marine protected areas: A biophysical modeling approach

Lequeux BD, Ahumada-Sempoal M-A, López-Pérez A, Reyes-Hernández C. Coral connectivity between equatorial eastern Pacific marine protected areas: A biophysical modeling approach Patterson HM. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2018 ;13(8):e0202995. Available from: https://europepmc.org/abstract/med/30157276
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

There are many marine protected areas (MPAs) containing coral reef aggregations in the eastern Pacific region. However, the connectivity of corals between MPAs is still poorly known, especially in the Marine Conservation Corridor of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (MCCETP). Here, we assess the potential connectivity of corals across equatorial eastern Pacific MPAs through a Lagrangian particle-tracking algorithm coupled offline with an ocean-circulation numerical model. Connectivity metrics and graph theory were used to analyze the networks and highlight those MPAs that are critical for maintaining the connectivity of corals across the region. Our results show that the equatorial eastern Pacific MPAs form a relatively well-connected network, at least 40% of coral larvae released per year end up within the boundaries of an MPA. MPAs like Malpelo and Gorgona islands included in the MCCETP were found to be critical for connectivity of corals because of their high betweenness centrality and potential role as stepping-stones between coastal MPAs and offshore MPAs such as the Galapagos Islands. Two pelagic larval duration (PLD) scenarios (40 and 130 days) indicate a quasi-unidirectional larval flow from coastal MPAs toward oceanic MPAs, where the only resilient MPAs (Coiba and Malpelo islands) depend mostly on subsidiary recruitment from MPAs located along the coast of Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia. In the two PLD scenarios, Cocos Island maintains a very low resilience potential. Our results indicate the imperative need to include coastal MPAs in the MCCETP network initiative, since connectivity and resilience of coral reefs in the equatorial eastern Pacific region rely heavily on coastal MPAs.

Protecting Sensitive Coastal Areas with Exclusion Booms during Oil Spill Events

Grubesic T, Wei R, Nelson J. Protecting Sensitive Coastal Areas with Exclusion Booms during Oil Spill Events. Environmental Modeling & Assessment [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10666-018-9634-2
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Oil spills at sea remain a serious threat to coastal settlements and sensitive ecosystems. Although the impacts of spills are contingent upon a variety of environmental factors and the chemical composition of the oil itself, spill effects can be long lasting in the pelagic zone with broad impacts on sensitive bacterial, microbial, plant, and animal communities. Efforts to contain, deflect, protect, and mitigate the effects of oil are increasingly important, given the massive social, economic, and environmental fallout connected to large spills. The purpose of this paper is to provide geographic perspective for protecting coastal areas with exclusion booms during oil spill events. Specifically, we introduce a generalized, extendable, spatial optimization model that simultaneously minimizes spill effects on vulnerable shorelines and the total costs associated with dispatching booms. The multiobjective model is solved with a weighting method to produce a Pareto optimal curve that reveals how the costs and protection operations change under different priorities. A simulated tanker spill near Mobile Bay, AL, USA, is used as an illustrative example.

The blue paradox: Preemptive overfishing in marine reserves

McDermott GR, Meng KC, McDonald GG, Costello CJ. The blue paradox: Preemptive overfishing in marine reserves. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2018 :201802862. Available from: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/08/21/1802862115.short
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Most large-scale conservation policies are anticipated or announced in advance. This risks the possibility of preemptive resource extraction before the conservation intervention goes into force. We use a high-resolution dataset of satellite-based fishing activity to show that anticipation of an impending no-take marine reserve undermines the policy by triggering an unintended race-to-fish. We study one of the world’s largest marine reserves, the Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA), and find that fishers more than doubled their fishing effort once this area was earmarked for eventual protected status. The additional fishing effort resulted in an impoverished starting point for PIPA equivalent to 1.5 y of banned fishing. Extrapolating this behavior globally, we estimate that if other marine reserve announcements were to trigger similar preemptive fishing, this could temporarily increase the share of overextracted fisheries from 65% to 72%. Our findings have implications for general conservation efforts as well as the methods that scientists use to monitor and evaluate policy efficacy.

Zooplankton monitoring to contribute towards addressing global biodiversity conservation challenges

Chiba S, Batten S, Martin CS, Ivory S, Miloslavich P, Weatherdon LV. Zooplankton monitoring to contribute towards addressing global biodiversity conservation challenges. Journal of Plankton Research [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://academic.oup.com/plankt/advance-article/doi/10.1093/plankt/fby030/5079336
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Oceanographers have an increasing responsibility to ensure that the outcomes of scientific research are conveyed to the policy-making sphere to achieve conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity. Zooplankton monitoring projects have helped to increase our understanding of the processes by which marine ecosystems respond to climate change and other environmental variations, ranging from regional to global scales, and its scientific value is recognized in the contexts of fisheries, biodiversity and global change studies. Nevertheless, zooplankton data have rarely been used at policy level for conservation and management of marine ecosystems services. One way that this can be pragmatically and effectively achieved is via the development of zooplankton indicators, which could for instance contribute to filling in gaps in the suite of global indicators to track progress against the Aichi Biodiversity Targets of the United Nations Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2010–2020. This article begins by highlighting how under-represented the marine realm is within the current suite of global Aichi Target indicators. We then examine the potential to develop global indicators for relevant Aichi Targets, using existing zooplankton monitoring data, to address global biodiversity conservation challenges.

Recreational boating degrades vegetation important for fish recruitment

Hansen JP, Sundblad G, Bergström U, Austin ÅN, Donadi S, Eriksson BKlemens, Eklöf JS. Recreational boating degrades vegetation important for fish recruitment. Ambio [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13280-018-1088-x
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Recreational boating increases globally and associated moorings are often placed in vegetated habitats important for fish recruitment. Meanwhile, assessments of the effects of boating on vegetation, and potential effects on associated fish assemblages are rare. Here, we analysed (i) the effect of small-boat marinas on vegetation structure, and (ii) juvenile fish abundance in relation to vegetation cover in shallow wave-sheltered coastal inlets. We found marinas to have lower vegetation cover and height, and a different species composition, compared to control inlets. This effect became stronger with increasing berth density. Moreover, there was a clear positive relationship between vegetation cover and fish abundance. We conclude that recreational boating and related moorings are associated with reduced cover of aquatic vegetation constituting important habitats for juvenile fish. We therefore recommend that coastal constructions and associated boating should be allocated to more disturbance tolerant environments (e.g. naturally wave-exposed shores), thereby minimizing negative environmental impacts.

Why the path to polycentricity matters: evidence from fisheries governance in Palau

Carlisle KM, Gruby RL. Why the path to polycentricity matters: evidence from fisheries governance in Palau Garrick D, Heikkila T, Villamayor-Tomas S. Environmental Policy and Governance [Internet]. 2018 ;28(4):223 - 235. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/eet.1811
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

Polycentricity, a complex form of governance characterized by multiple centers of semiautonomous decision‐making, has been embraced by commons scholars for the governance of complex natural resource systems. In this context, several benefits are commonly ascribed to polycentric governance systems, including enhanced adaptive capacity, mitigation of risk and provision of good institutional fit. We examine the functioning of a polycentric governance system through a qualitative case study of the governance of small‐scale fishing in the Northern Reef region of Palau where fishery resources have been declining in recent decades. By engaging a theoretical model of a functional polycentric governance system, we identify deficiencies in institutional features that partly explain why functionality is not fully achieved. Analysis of the historical transition of the governance system from community‐based to polycentric reveals that the path to polycentricity and contextual conditions constitute additional distal explanations of deficiencies in functionality. The findings suggest that transitioning from community‐based to polycentric governance risks producing conditions conducive to crowding‐out and erosion of rule compliance where the form of polycentricity assumed entails primarily higher‐level government decision‐makers with insufficient capacity for rule implementation. The case underlines the need for more refined theory concerning the emergence and functionality of different forms polycentric governance systems in various contexts.

Right-sizing as a strategy for allocating fishing effort in a defined marine ecosystem: A Philippines case study

Armada NB, Bacalso RTherese M, Rosales RMaria P, Lazarte AT. Right-sizing as a strategy for allocating fishing effort in a defined marine ecosystem: A Philippines case study. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2018 ;165:167 - 184. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569118300449
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Over the last four decades in the Philippines, a range of management tools such as marine protected area (MPA) establishment and coastal resources management (CRM) that includes localized species-specific management, marine habitat rehabilitation, and organizing communities for increased participation in planning and decision-making have led to improvements of marine habitats and fish stocks in areas where such tools were applied. In spite of these management advances, fishers particularly in the municipal fisheries sector continue to observe declines in either the quantity or quality of their catch, and attribute this not only to the continued use of highly efficient and ecologically destructive fishing gears, but also, the unregulated numbers of fishers and gears within municipal waters. Recognizing this as a pivotal challenge, the USAID-funded Ecosystems Improved for Sustainable Fisheries (ECOFISH) Project developed a process for the right-sizing of fishing effort as a potential application of the ecosystems approach to fisheries management(EAFM) to directly address the issue of unregulated fishing effort in Philippine municipal fisheries. The objective is to determine via a participatory process a configuration of fishing effort that can be sustainably supported by the ecosystem, and at the same time, can provide adequate fish catches to support the livelihood needs of fishers in a defined marine key biodiversity area (MKBA). The ecosystem and livelihood tradeoffs are investigated using the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) modeling and simulation tool. The entire process adopts a multi-stakeholder set-up that featured highly participatory learning activities, consensus-building negotiations between local government units (LGUs), and science-based decision-making workshops. All in all, it consists of strategically tailored yet adaptive sessions to effectively engage stakeholders in understanding the concept of fishing effort right-sizing, to acquaint participants with the basic biological and ecological principles governing the fisheries, and subsequently, to raise the participants' confidence in the decision-making and negotiation processes. The consensus-based MKBA-wide fishing effort targets considered both the system-scale and the diverse localized management priority objectives of the different user representatives. Across the 8 ECOFISH MKBAs, improving equity in the access of fisheries resource benefits emerged as a principal priority objective. Improving the ecosystem structure as evidenced by large, predatory fishes and minimizing fisher displacement outweighed maximizing catch and incomes as overriding priorities in the decision-making. The project envisions that the consensus-based fishing effort allocation will ultimately serve as basis for the regulated issuance of fisheries licenses by the respective LGUs and for the right-sizing process to serve as a model for determining fishing effort allocation options in other municipal fisheries systems in the country.

Life cycle assessments of aquaculture systems: a critical review of reported findings with recommendations for policy and system development

Bohnes FAlexia, Hauschild MZwicky, Schlundt J, Laurent A. Life cycle assessments of aquaculture systems: a critical review of reported findings with recommendations for policy and system development. Reviews in Aquaculture [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/raq.12280
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $38.00
Type: Journal Article

The aquaculture sector is anticipated to be a keystone in food production systems in the coming decades. However, it is associated with potentially important environmental damages caused by its contribution to eutrophication or climate change, for example. To comprehensively quantify those impacts, life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have been conducted on several seafood farming systems for the past 15 years. But, what major findings and common trends can we draw from this pool of studies? What can we learn to provide recommendations to decision and policymakers in the aquaculture sector? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 65 LCA studies of aquaculture systems from the open literature. We conducted quantitative analyses to explore which impacts can be identified as dominating and to compare different types of aquaculture systems. Our results evidenced that the feed production is a key driver for climate change, acidification, cumulative energy use and net primary production use, while the farming process is a key driver for eutrophication. We also found that different aquaculture systems and technology components may exert considerably different environmental impacts. Based on identified patterns and comparisons, we therefore provided specific recommendations to aquaculture stakeholders for future policy and system development. Overall, the analysis of existing studies demonstrates that important insights can be gained by applying LCA to aquaculture systems, and, to move towards an environmentally sustainable aquaculture sector, we recommend its systematic use in the design of new aquaculture systems or policies, and/or in the evaluation and optimization of existing ones.

Scenario planning with linked land-sea models inform where forest conservation actions will promote coral reef resilience

Delevaux JMS, Jupiter SD, Stamoulis KA, Bremer LL, Wenger AS, Dacks R, Garrod P, Falinski KA, Ticktin T. Scenario planning with linked land-sea models inform where forest conservation actions will promote coral reef resilience. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2018 ;8(1). Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-29951-0
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

We developed a linked land-sea modeling framework based on remote sensing and empirical data, which couples sediment export and coral reef models at fine spatial resolution. This spatially-explicit (60 × 60 m) framework simultaneously tracks changes in multiple benthic and fish indicators as a function of land-use and climate change scenarios. We applied this framework in Kubulau District, Fiji, to investigate the effects of logging, agriculture expansion, and restoration on coral reef resilience. Under the deforestation scenario, models projected a 4.5-fold sediment increase (>7,000 t. yr−1) coupled with a significant decrease in benthic habitat quality across 1,940 ha and a reef fish biomass loss of 60.6 t. Under the restoration scenario, models projected a small (<30 t. yr−1) decrease in exported sediments, resulting in a significant increase in benthic habitat quality across 577 ha and a fish biomass gain of 5.7 t. The decrease in benthic habitat quality and loss of fish biomass were greater when combining climate change and deforestation scenarios. We evaluated where land-use change and bleaching scenarios would impact sediment runoff and downstream coral reefs to identify priority areas on land, where conservation or restoration could promote coral reef resilience in the face of climate change.

Protecting threatened species from coastal infrastructure upgrades: The importance of evidence-based conservation

Mamo LT, Kelaher BP, Coleman MA, Dwyer PG. Protecting threatened species from coastal infrastructure upgrades: The importance of evidence-based conservation. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2018 ;165:161 - 166. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569118302849
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Increased coastal development and rising sea levels as a result of continuing climate-change put coastal regions at risk from flooding and inundation. A common mitigation response is the construction and upgrade of hard coastal protection structures, such as breakwaters, seawalls, and groynes. The alteration of the coast, together with the introduction of novel materials into coastal waters can negatively impact adjacent habitats and associated organisms. The implementation of management plans that involve scientists, as well as a variety of other stakeholders offer an opportunity to minimise adverse effects to biodiversity or even enhance it, while still protecting infrastructure and people. This study examines the management of an Australian breakwater upgrade and the progressive design finding process, including stakeholder engagement, determination of assessment criteria, and environmental impact assessment. In the course of the latter, scientific research led to the rediscovery of a presumed extinct algal species, Nereia lophocladia, which created an additional challenge and temporarily halted the upgrade. To accommodate this, the breakwater design solution was modified to avoid any impacts on the algal population and, in order to maximise the species' survival, novel ecological engineering approaches were proposed as mitigation strategies. Our case study underpins the value of evidence-based conservation and cooperation among stakeholders as important tools for minimising ecological impacts from coastal infrastructure upgrades.

Maritime economy: Insights on corporate visions and strategies towards sustainability

Kronfeld-Goharani U. Maritime economy: Insights on corporate visions and strategies towards sustainability. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2018 ;165:126 - 140. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569118301005
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

As the ocean has moved into the focus of the political discourse on the “blue economy“, ocean industry plays a key role in shaping “blue growth” as sustainable. However, little is known about the meaning of sustainability and the status of its implementation by corporations invested in the maritime economy. The present paper addresses this gap. Drawing on the discourse theory of Laclau and Mouffe (2001 [1985]), the study explores the discourse on corporate sustainability. It was found that of 396 surveyed companies only 61 provide commitments to and reporting on the issue of sustainability. A detailed analysis of these companies showed that there has been a shift from a voluntary to a mandatory commitment to the concept as a direct consequence of being exposed to massive pressures to meet the expectations of their employees, customers and shareholders to prevent any harm to the environment, to save resources, and follow international regulations. It is argued that Laclau and Mouffe's discourse theory provides an approach to help to explain the practice of corporations in re-framing these challenges as an entrepreneurial opportunity to save costs, i.e. by avoiding fines, lawsuits, and clean-up costs, to optimize efficiency in all business sectors, to stay competitive, and to gain a better public image. The paper concludes that it is likely that the current efforts of companies with regard to the anticipated increases in the exploitation of marine resources will not be sufficient to preserve ocean health in the long run. However, there are corporate opportunities for strengthening the SDGs and contributing to a “sustainable blue growth”.

Trading Off Tourism for Fisheries

Xuan BBich, Armstrong CW. Trading Off Tourism for Fisheries. Environmental and Resource Economics [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10640-018-0281-5
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

This paper presents a deterministic bioeconomic model in which the creation of a marine protected area (MPA) is not only a fisheries management tool but also introduced in order to provide tourism amenity benefits. The theoretical model is illustrated with analysis of the Nha Trang Bay (NTB) MPA in Khanh Hoa province in Vietnam, where the anchovy purse seine fishery is considered. An amenity value function of the NTB MPA is estimated from a discrete choice experiment among national tourists. A weighting parameter is added to the bioeconomic model to allow the establishment of a tradeoff between management preferences regarding the two sectors affected by the MPA, fisheries and tourism. Both the theoretical models and the empirical application show how the added amenity values affect optimal fishing practices as well as the identification of the optimal MPA size. Our applied analysis shows that contrary to the argument in most MPA studies with multiple stakeholders, the current management practice in Khanh Hoa prioritizes the fisheries sector heavily compared to tourism, despite high economic cost.

Perceptions of multi-stresses impacting livelihoods of marine fishermen

Malakar K, Mishra T, Patwardhan A. Perceptions of multi-stresses impacting livelihoods of marine fishermen. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2018 ;97:18 - 26. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18303531
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Multiple stresses adversely affect fish catch and livelihoods of marine fishermen. Perceptions regarding these stresses in the fishing community can vary, which can consequently determine adaptation responses. However, there are limited attempts to understand these perceptions and the factors which might be influencing them. This study, first, identifies the specific stresses impacting livelihoods of the fishing community in Maharashtra (India) through the literature and Focus Group Discussions. Thereafter, a household survey is used to examine the factors influencing the perceptions of these stresses. Further, a composite stress perception index, comprising of two factors representing climatic and non-climatic or general stresses, is built. The index suggests that a majority of the community perceive greater risks from the non-climatic stresses compared to changes in temperature and rain. It is found that the perception of stresses varies significantly with the regional background. However, the relation of various other socio-economic factors is not uniform with the perceptions of different stresses. This study is one of the first to comparatively analyze climatic and non-climatic stresses in fishing, and suggests the need for effective implementation of current policy measures to reduce the stresses along with awareness generation regarding impact of climate change in the community.

Marine environmental issues in the mass media: Insights from television, newspaper and internet searches in Chile

Thompson-Saud G, Gelcich S, Barraza J. Marine environmental issues in the mass media: Insights from television, newspaper and internet searches in Chile. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2018 ;165:154 - 160. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569118303636
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Mass media is a useful way to inform the public about marine conservation, however studies about its effectiveness are lacking. This research explores the role of mass media in the diffusion of marine conservation information. Coverage of marine environmental issues in the mass media are assessed for Chile using a diversity of sources, namely, newspaper and broadcast television. In addition, public interest about conservation topics was assessed using Google Trends for Chile. Results show that there is a relatively low coverage of marine news in broadcast television and in newspapers. During the last decade, internet searches show the interest in marine conservation issues decreased and the only conservation related term, whose search increased over time, is sustainability. There is a tendency towards an increase in the number of newspaper publications related to economic and business issues. There seems to be no strategy from the environmental ministry or research institutions focused on developing a storyline related to marine conservation news in the mass media. Results stress the need to develop a long-term communications plan in order to strengthen diffusion of marine environmental impacts and conservation issues through mass media

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