Literature Library

Currently indexing 10429 titles

A baseline assessment of beach macrolitter and microplastics along northeastern Atlantic shores

Velez N, Zardi GI, Savio RLo, McQuaid CD, Valbusa U, Sabour B, Nicastro KR. A baseline assessment of beach macrolitter and microplastics along northeastern Atlantic shores. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2019 ;149:110649. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0025326X19307970
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Marine litter is widely dispersed throughout coastal environments. Assessing the distribution and accumulation of such contaminants is crucial to understand their environmental impacts. This study presents a baseline for the monitoring of litter and microplastics in intertidal sediments along the Atlantic shores of southern Portugal and Morocco and identifies potential sources of contamination. Although variable, distribution and composition of both litter and microplastics did not follow a latitudinal pattern. Most of the litter had an undifferentiated source. Within the identifiable sources of litter, food packaging, fishing and tobacco were the most abundant, with variable contributions among sites. Over 97% of marine litter retrieved was plastic. Fragments and filaments were the most abundant categories of plastics at sites with the highest and lowest microplastic abundance respectively. Filaments were mainly made of Polypropylene (PP,50%) and Polyethylene terephthalate (PET,29%) while the predominant polymers for fragments were Polyethene (PE, 75%) and PP (25%).

Synthetic microfibers in marine sediments and surface seawater from the Argentinean continental shelf and a Marine Protected Area

Ronda AC, Arias AH, Oliva AL, Marcovecchio JE. Synthetic microfibers in marine sediments and surface seawater from the Argentinean continental shelf and a Marine Protected Area. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2019 ;149:110618. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0025326X19307660
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

In this work, samples were collected from the Argentinean continental shelf –including a Marine Protected Area (MPA) - to assess the occurrence and distribution of synthetic microfibers (MFs), a widespread type of microplastic. MFs were present at 100% of the samples showing an average concentration of 182.85 ± 115.14 particles per Kg of dry sediment and 0.14 ± 0.08 items per m3 of marine water. MFs less than 1 mm were the most abundant (56.4% and 63%, for sediment and surface seawater respectively), followed by 1–2 mm and then 2–3 mm. In regards to the colour, both sediments and water had the major percentage of black MFs (25.6% and 28%, respectively) and the lowest one of green MFs (2.5% and 3%, respectively). Finally, MFs content in sediments was inversely correlated with depth (r = -0.93, p < 0.05). These findings provide the first evidence of microplastic contamination at the Argentinean continental shelf.

The issue of microplastics in marine ecosystems: A bibliometric network analysis

Pauna VH, Buonocore E, Renzi M, Russo GF, Franzese PP. The issue of microplastics in marine ecosystems: A bibliometric network analysis. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2019 ;149:110612. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0025326X1930760X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Human activities lead to several impacts on marine ecosystems, among which a massive input of plastic entering the marine environment. This scenario has the potential to threaten ecosystem health and integrity, also reducing the ability of marine ecosystems to provide good and services on which human well-being relies. In this study, the global scientific literature on marine microplastics was explored by combining social network analysis and bibliometrics. Network maps displayed the relationships among keywords, authors, countries, and journals dealing with the issue of microplastics in marine ecosystems. The citation analysis of journals showed that “Marine Pollution Bulletin” resulted the first among the scientific journals publishing articles on this subject. The results also highlighted that most research on the subject is focused on toxicology and environmental chemistry, while ecological studies focusing on the impact of microplastics at ecosystem level are still limited.

Where did this refuse come from? Marine anthropogenic litter on a remote island of the Colombian Caribbean sea

Rangel-Buitrago N, C. AGracia, Velez-Mendoza A, Carvajal-Florián A, Mojica-Martinez L, Neal WJ. Where did this refuse come from? Marine anthropogenic litter on a remote island of the Colombian Caribbean sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2019 ;149:110611. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0025326X19307593
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

On the Colombian continental shelf, 12 km SW of the municipality of Galerazamba, Department of Bolívar, is the northern-most island of the Colombian Caribbean: Isla Arena. Despite being remote and uninhabited, this island is being affected by one of the most persistent problems in the marine environment: Marine Anthropogenic Litter (MAL). In this first Colombian insular MAL study, a total of 1436 MAL items were collected along Isla Arena, equivalent to an average abundance of 2.87 items/m2. MAL items belong to 54 categories that are grouped in nine material typologies. These typologies include plastic (36 categories), metal (6), glass (3), medical waste (3), machined wood (2), pottery (1), sanitary waste (1), rubber (1) and cloth (1). Isla Arena now is considered as an “Extremely dirty” site in terms of the Clean Coast Index. Hazardous litter items (sharp and toxic) occur in percentages as high as 10.2% (146 items, Avg: 0.29 items/m2). Along the island, current MAL amounts are so elevated that simple clean-up operations are an insufficient solution, and restoration measures are needed. MAL mainly comes from land-based sources, primarily generated by activities in the adjacent mainland river basins and coastal urban developments, particularly in the area of beaches. Marine anthropogenic litter found on Isla Arena reflects a strong influence from longshore-current transport. Management solutions need to begin at the same litter sources, and must include analytics, policy reforms and enforcement, and private and public investments.

Gaps in Protection of Important Ocean Areas: A Spatial Meta-Analysis of Ten Global Mapping Initiatives

Gownaris NJ, Santora CM, Davis JB, Pikitch EK. Gaps in Protection of Important Ocean Areas: A Spatial Meta-Analysis of Ten Global Mapping Initiatives. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmars.2019.00650/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

To safeguard biodiversity effectively, marine protected areas (MPAs) should be sited using the best available science. There are numerous ongoing United Nations and non-governmental initiatives to map globally important marine areas. The criteria used by these initiatives vary, resulting in contradictions in the areas identified as important. Our analysis is the first to overlay these initiatives, quantify consensus, and conduct gap analyses at the global scale. We found that 55% of the ocean has been identified as important by one or more initiatives, and that individual areas have been identified by as many as seven overlapping initiatives. Using our overlay map and data on current MPA coverage, we highlight gaps in protection of important areas of the ocean. We considered any area identified by two to four initiatives to be of moderate consensus. Over 14% of the ocean fell under this category and most of this area (88%) is not yet protected. The largest concentrations of medium-consensus areas without protection were found in the Caribbean Sea, Madagascar and the southern tip of Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Coral Triangle. Areas of high consensus (identified by five to seven initiatives) were almost always within MPAs, but their no-take status was often unreported. We found that nearly every marine province and nearly every exclusive economic zone contained area that has been identified as important but is not yet protected. Much of the identified area lies within contiguous stretches of >100,000 km2; it is unrealistic to expect that all this area be protected. Nonetheless, our results on areas of consensus provide initial insight into opportunities for further ocean protection.

Variable effects of local management on coral defenses against a thermally regulated bleaching pathogen

Beatty DS, Valayil JMathew, Clements CS, Ritchie KB, Stewart FJ, Hay ME. Variable effects of local management on coral defenses against a thermally regulated bleaching pathogen. Science Advances [Internet]. 2019 ;5(10):eaay1048. Available from: http://advances.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/sciadv.aay1048
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Bleaching and disease are decimating coral reefs especially when warming promotes bleaching pathogens, such as Vibrio coralliilyticus. We demonstrate that sterilized washes from three common corals suppress V. coralliilyticus but that this defense is compromised when assays are run at higher temperatures. For a coral within the ecologically critical genus Acropora, inhibition was 75 to 154% greater among colonies from coral-dominated marine protected areas versus adjacent fished areas that were macroalgae-dominated. Acropora microbiomes were more variable within fished areas, suggesting that reef degradation may also perturb coral microbial communities. Defenses of a robust poritid coral and a weedy pocilloporid coral were not affected by reef degradation, and microbiomes were unaltered for these species. For some ecologically critical, but bleaching-susceptible, corals such as Acropora, local management to improve reef state may bolster coral resistance to global change, such as bacteria-induced coral bleaching during warming events.

Climate-driven regime shifts in a mangrove–salt marsh ecotone over the past 250 years

Cavanaugh KC, Dangremond EM, Doughty CL, A. Williams P, Parker JD, Hayes MA, Rodriguez W, Feller IC. Climate-driven regime shifts in a mangrove–salt marsh ecotone over the past 250 years. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2019 ;116(43):21602 - 21608. Available from: http://www.pnas.org/lookup/doi/10.1073/pnas.1902181116
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Climate change is driving the tropicalization of temperate ecosystems by shifting the range edges of numerous species poleward. Over the past few decades, mangroves have rapidly displaced salt marshes near multiple poleward mangrove range limits, including in northeast Florida. It is uncertain whether such mangrove expansions are due to anthropogenic climate change or natural climate variability. We combined historical accounts from books, personal journals, scientific articles, logbooks, photographs, and maps with climate data to show that the current ecotone between mangroves and salt marshes in northeast Florida has shifted between mangrove and salt marsh dominance at least 6 times between the late 1700s and 2017 due to decadal-scale fluctuations in the frequency and intensity of extreme cold events. Model projections of daily minimum temperature from 2000 through 2100 indicate an increase in annual minimum temperature by 0.5 °C/decade. Thus, although recent mangrove range expansion should indeed be placed into a broader historical context of an oscillating system, climate projections suggest that the recent trend may represent a more permanent regime shift due to the effects of climate change.

The importance of migratory connectivity for global ocean policy

Dunn DC, Harrison A-L, Curtice C, DeLand S, Donnelly B, Fujioka E, Heywood E, Kot CY, Poulin S, Whitten M, et al. The importance of migratory connectivity for global ocean policy. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences [Internet]. 2019 ;286(1911):20191472. Available from: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.1472
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The distributions of migratory species in the ocean span local, national and international jurisdictions. Across these ecologically interconnected regions, migratory marine species interact with anthropogenic stressors throughout their lives. Migratory connectivity, the geographical linking of individuals and populations throughout their migratory cycles, influences how spatial and temporal dynamics of stressors affect migratory animals and scale up to influence population abundance, distribution and species persistence. Population declines of many migratory marine species have led to calls for connectivity knowledge, especially insights from animal tracking studies, to be more systematically and synthetically incorporated into decision-making. Inclusion of migratory connectivity in the design of conservation and management measures is critical to ensure they are appropriate for the level of risk associated with various degrees of connectivity. Three mechanisms exist to incorporate migratory connectivity into international marine policy which guides conservation implementation: site-selection criteria, network design criteria and policy recommendations. Here, we review the concept of migratory connectivity and its use in international policy, and describe the Migratory Connectivity in the Ocean system, a migratory connectivity evidence-base for the ocean. We propose that without such collaboration focused on migratory connectivity, efforts to effectively conserve these critical species across jurisdictions will have limited effect.

Expanded consumer niche widths may signal an early response to spatial protection

Olson AM, Trebilco R, Salomon AK. Expanded consumer niche widths may signal an early response to spatial protection Patterson HM. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(10):e0223748. Available from: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223748
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine management interventions are increasingly being implemented with the explicit goal of rebuilding ocean ecosystems, but early responses may begin with alterations in ecological interactions preceding detectable changes in population-level characteristics. To establish a baseline from which to monitor the effects of spatial protection on reef fish trophic ecology and track future ecosystem-level changes, we quantified temperate reef fish densities, size, biomass, diets and isotopic signatures at nine sites nested within two fished and one five-year old marine protected area (MPA) on the northwest coast of Canada. We calculated rockfish (Sebastes spp.) community and species-specific niche breadth for fished and protected areas based on δ13C and δ15N values. We found that rockfish community niche width was greater inside the MPA relative to adjacent fished reefs due to an expanded nitrogen range, possibly reflecting early changes in trophic interactions following five years of spatial protection. Our data also demonstrated that the MPA had a positive effect on the δ15N signature of rockfish (i.e., trophic position), but the effect of rockfish length on its own was not well-supported. In addition, we found a positive interaction between rockfish length and δ15N signature, such that δ15N signatures of rockfish caught within the MPA increased more rapidly with body size than those caught in fished areas. Differences in rockfish size structure and biomass among fished and unfished areas were not clearly evident. Species of rockfish and lingcod varied in trophic and size responses, indicating that life-history traits play an important role in predicting MPA effects. These results may suggest early changes in trophic behavior of slow-growing rockfish due to predation risk by faster growing higher trophic level predators such as lingcod inside MPAs established on temperate reefs. Consequently, spatial protection may restore both the trophic and behavioral roles of previously fished consumers earlier and in measurable ways sooner than observable changes in abundance and size.

Effect of reef morphology and depth on fish community and trophic structure in the northcentral Gulf of Mexico

Garner SB, Boswell KM, Lewis JP, Tarnecki JH, Patterson WF. Effect of reef morphology and depth on fish community and trophic structure in the northcentral Gulf of Mexico. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science [Internet]. In Press :106423. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272771419306584
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Reef fish resources provide numerous ecosystem services in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) large marine ecosystem. Artificial reefs (ARs) have been distributed across the nGOM in attempts to enhance reef fish habitat and increase fishery productivity, but few data exist to distinguish ecological from fishery functions of ARs compared to natural reefs (NRs), particularly at the regional scale. Therefore, we conducted remotely operated vehicle surveys of reef fish communities at 47 reef sites within a ∼20,000 km2 area of the nGOM shelf and tested the effect of reef type (NR versus AR), depth (≤35 or >35 m), relief (≤2 m or >2 m), and complexity (low or high) on fish diversity and community structure as well as trophic guild- and species-specific densities. Twenty-one species were present at >20%, nine at >50%, and three at >75% of study reefs. Fishery species (i.e., Lutjanus campechanusSeriola dumerili, and Rhomboplites aurorubens) and invasive Pterois volitans were frequently observed (>50% of sites) or numerically dominant, especially at ARs. Main effects did not significantly affect the presence of specific species or trophic guilds, but interactions among factors significantly affected species- and trophic guild-specific densities. Our results indicate that effects of habitat characteristics on fish communities are more nuanced than previously described. Fish communities are moderately similar at the majority of sites but specific habitat characteristics can interact to dramatically affect densities of some species, particularly those that depend on complex structures for refuge. Simple ARs tend to concentrate high densities of a few important fishery species with low densities of other small demersal reef fishes. Complex NRs with high relief also support high densities of planktivorous fishery species but greatly increase densities of small, demersal, non-fishery species that directly utilize complex reef structure for refuge.

Quantifying the geomorphologic and urbanization influence on coastal retreat under sea level rise

Forgiarini APaula Piaz, de Figueiredo SAmaral, Calliari LJúlio, Goulart ESiqueira, Marques W, Trombetta TBeloti, Oleinik PHaron, Guimarães RCardoso, Arigony-Neto J, Salame C. Quantifying the geomorphologic and urbanization influence on coastal retreat under sea level rise. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science [Internet]. In Press :106437. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272771419301143
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

In response to increasing greenhouse gases emissions, the global climate is undoubtedly changing. As a consequence of rising temperatures, mean sea level also shows an increasing tendency globally, still, uncertainties in relation to its regional specific trends can be identified. Besides that, uncertainties also remain regarding regional and local coastal response to sea level rise. Coastal geomorphology (topography, bathymetry, and sediment texture) plays a relevant role, especially in defining how sediment exchanges occur in the active zone, thus inducing different morphodynamic readjustments. In this context, this study is focused on projecting the future coastline position for the years 2040 and 2100 along three sectors at Hermenegildo Beach, and on investigating the influence of site-specific geomorphological characteristics, urbanization and the presence of hard coastal protection structures on the coastal response under accelerated rates of sea level rise using a stochastic morpho-kinematic model, the Random Shoreface Translation Model. Model outputs as coastal recession distances were submitted to a Kruskal-Wallis test to verify if there were significant differences in coastal recession 1) amongst the three sectors (standard own topography and bathymetry); 2) due to changes in dune topography only; and 3) due to the presence or absence of hard coastal protection structures at the urbanized sector. Overall, the results indicate that the urbanized area presented the highest recession distance amongst the sectors. Differences in dune heights between the northern and southern dune field sectors at Hermenegildo Beach do not significantly influence the mean coastal retreat. On analyzing mean coastal recession results for the urbanized sector, with and without hard coastal protection structures, we conclude that the presence of urbanization and hard structures on the active dune and beach contributed to a maximum increase of 13.52% in mean coastal recession distance and that it significantly (P < 0.01) affects coastline recession in comparison to that in the case of a non-structured dune field for both the time horizons considered (2040, 2100). The results presented here provide a basis for future planning and management at the area, pointing out to the increased erosion risk caused by the existence of an artificially structured shoreline.

Artisanal longline fishing the Galapagos Islands –effects on vulnerable megafauna in a UNESCO World Heritage site

Cerutti-Pereyra F, Moity N, Dureuil M, Ramirez-González J, Reyes H, Budd K, Jarrín JMarín, Salinas-de-León P. Artisanal longline fishing the Galapagos Islands –effects on vulnerable megafauna in a UNESCO World Heritage site. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. In Press :104995. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0964569119301243
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Marine megafauna (elasmobranchs, marine mammals, turtles, and seabirds) are important ecologically and economically because many species often occupy upper trophic levels as adults and are essential for marine-based tourism in many areas of the world. This group of species is also heavily impacted by fishing because most have late sexual maturity, longevity, and low reproductive output, which affects their ability to recover from depletion. In Galapagos, marine megafauna species are protected from fishing throughout the marine reserve and are the main attraction for marine-based tourism, helping generate millions of dollars in revenue annually. Despite their importance in the archipelago, these species are being caught as bycatch in the multiple artisanal longlining projects that have been carried out since the implementation of the reserve in 1998. Longlining was originally proposed as a way of redirecting fishing effort from the severely depleted coastal-demersal species to pelagic fish such as yellowfin tuna and swordfish. Although all these projects have resulted in high bycatch of megafauna, longline fishing projects have continued without independent scientific studies to evaluate their impact, largely due to poor objective definition, data collection, and enforcement. To fill in this knowledge gap, we analyzed data of the fifth experimental longline fishing project undertaken in 2012–2013 to describe the fishery, identify variables affecting the composition and quantity of bycatch, and suggest mitigation strategies. This experimental project had twelve vessels, which deployed 42,007 hooks catching 4893 individuals of 33 species, mostly yellowfin tuna and swordfish. Of those, 16 species were protected megafauna, particularly blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) and oceanic manta (Mobula birostris). These species were regularly captured during the two seasons and in the three bioregions that occur in the archipelago, suggesting little potential to mitigate their catch. As an alternative, we identified 14 hotspots where yellowfin tuna and swordfish could be harvested in large numbers sustainably through more selective fishing techniques such as pole fishing, a method that is also more economical for artisanal fishers. In an archipelago where the main economic activity is marine wildlife tourism, the implementation of an extractive and unselective activity such as pelagic longing fishing should be avoided to ensure the sustainability of the Galapagos marine ecosystem and its booming tourism industry.

Coastal Ecosystems of the Tropics - Adaptive Management

Ayyam V, Palanivel S, Chandrakasan S, Ayyam V, Palanivel S, Chandrakasan S. Coastal Ecosystems of the Tropics - Adaptive Management. Singapore: Springer Singapore; 2019 pp. 3 - 20. Available from: https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-981-13-8926-9
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $109.00
Type: Book

Tropical coastal environment represents one of the most dynamic and vital interfaces on Earth, at the boundary between land and sea. It encompasses some of the most diverse and productive habitats. These habitats include natural ecosystems, managed ecosystems besides major urban centres. The existence of these ecosystems is dependent on the land-sea interconnection and dynamic flow of energy and matter. At the same time, the coastal region has long been under stress from over-exploitation and mismanagement. The increasing pace of human population and developmental activities in the tropical coastal region has altered the functionality of coastal ecosystems and endangered several flora and fauna that threaten the livelihood of people who depend on them. In addition, the looming spectre of sea level rise associated with the effect of global warming presents a new and potentially far more dangerous threat to this region. This necessitates suitable coastal zone management plan to conserve and derive sustainable benefit from the coastal ecosystems. With this background an overview of tropical coastal countries, its demographic features, natural resources, coastal ecosystems, and its services to the human society are discussed in this chapter. Brief account on effect of human activities and climate change on coastal region sourced from different literatures provides useful information to the researchers, students, and policymakers.

Effects of diesel oil spill on macrobenthic assemblages at the intertidal zone: A mesocosm experiment in situ

Zhou Z, Li X, Chen L, Li B, Wang C, Guo J, Shi P, Yang L, Liu B, Song B. Effects of diesel oil spill on macrobenthic assemblages at the intertidal zone: A mesocosm experiment in situ. Marine Environmental Research [Internet]. In Press :104823. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0141113619303903?dgcid=raven_sd_search_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

The oil spill accidents may drastically impact the environment and ecosystem at intertidal zones. The spilled oil will penetrate the sediments and accumulate to cause lethal or sublethal effects on the benthic invertebrates. An M-BACI experiment was manipulated in situ to assess the ecological responses of benthic macrofauna to different degrees of diesel oil spill. Both biotic and abiotic parameters were studied for 126 days, subjected to both “pulse” and “press” oil contaminations. The content of aliphatic hydrocarbons (displayed as ratios of n-C17/Pr and n-C18/Ph) slightly dropped then continuously existed in the sediment during the experiment time. The macrofaunal assemblage structures were dramatically altered in species number, abundance and biomass. In general, it takes longer time for the macrofauna assemblages to recover under high concentration oil spill than that under low concentration. Our results highlight the diversified strategies for survival and recolonization among dominant species, which distinguish themselves between: i) tolerant species, ii) opportunistic species, and iii) equilibrium species.

Mobile phone network data reveal nationwide economic value of coastal tourism under climate change

Kubo T, Uryu S, Yamano H, Tsuge T, Yamakita T, Shirayama Y. Mobile phone network data reveal nationwide economic value of coastal tourism under climate change. Tourism Management [Internet]. 2020 ;77:104010. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517719302080
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The technology-driven application of big data is expected to assist policymaking towards sustainable development; however, the relevant literature has not addressed human welfare under climate change, which limits the understanding of climate change impacts on human societies. We present the first application of unique mobile phone network data to evaluate the current nation-wide human welfare of coastal tourism at Japanese beaches and project the value change using the four climate change scenarios. The results show that the projected national economic value loss rates are more significant than the projected national physical beach loss rates. Our findings demonstrate regional differences in recreational values: most southern beaches with larger current values would disappear, while the current small values of the northern beaches would remain. These changes imply that the ranks of the beaches, based on economic values, would enable policymakers to discuss management priorities under climate change.

Plastic debris accumulation in the seabed derived from coastal fish farming

Krüger L, Casado-Coy N, Valle C, Ramos M, Sánchez-Jerez P, Gago J, Carretero O, Beltrán-Sanahuja A, Sanz-Lazaro C. Plastic debris accumulation in the seabed derived from coastal fish farming. Environmental Pollution [Internet]. In Press :113336. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749119330222
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

In this study, we assessed plastic accumulation in marine sediments due to finfish aquaculture using floating net-pens. We studied plastic concentrations around three fish farms located at the Mediterranean coastline of Spain. The macroplastic categories and abundances were determined by video monitoring, detecting the majority of elements (78%), including ropes, nets and fibres, a basket trap and a cable tie, close to the facilities, which were not exclusively linked to fish farming but also to fishing activities. Concentrations of microplastics (<5 mm) ranged from 0 to 213 particles/kg dry weight sediment with higher values in sites directly under the influence of the fish farms. Most particles (27.8%) were within the size fraction from 1.1 to 2.0 mm and fibre was the most common shape with 62.2%. The Infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that PE and PP were the predominant types of polymers analysed. In addition, changes in the enthalpy of melting (ΔHm (J/g)) and the degree of crystallinity indicate degradation of the microplastics analysed. This study shows that, in the studied fish farms, levels of microplastic pollution can be one order of magnitude lower compared to other areas suffering other anthropogenic pressures from the same or similar regions. Nevertheless, more research effort is needed to get concluding results.

A decision-making framework to reduce the risk of collisions between ships and whales

Sèbe M, Kontovas CA, Pendleton L. A decision-making framework to reduce the risk of collisions between ships and whales. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;109:103697. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19304567
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Ship strikes are one of the main human-induced threats to whale survival. A variety of measures have been used or proposed to reduce collisions and subsequent mortality of whales. These include operational measures, such as mandatory speed reduction, or technical ones, such as detection tools. There is, however, a lack of a systematic approach to assessing the various measures that can mitigate the risk of ship collisions with whales. In this paper, a holistic approach is proposed to evaluate mitigation measures based on a risk assessment framework that has been adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), namely the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA). Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) is “a rational and systematic process for assessing the risk related to maritime safety and the protection of the marine environment and for evaluating the costs and benefits of IMO's options for reducing these risks”. The paper conceptualizes the use of a systematic risk assessment methodology, namely the FSA, to assess measures to reduce the risk of collisions between ships and whales.

Contrasting attitudes and perceptions of California sea lions by recreational anglers and the media

Schakner Z, Purdy C, Blumstein DT. Contrasting attitudes and perceptions of California sea lions by recreational anglers and the media. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;109:103710. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18309138
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The recovery of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) populations is an environmental success story, but it has created new challenges given their interactions with sport fisherman. Economic losses to the Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel (CPFV) stems both from the loss of fish, as well as the costs of fuel and time spent traveling to new fishing areas to avoid pinnipeds. Management solutions require a firm understanding of the public's perceptions of an issue. To address this shortcoming, we surveyed recreational anglers' perceptions of California sea lions and conducted a content analysis of media coverage of California sea lions in Southern Californian newspapers. We found that as anglers' knowledge of California sea lions increased, their subjective knowledge of the Marine Mammal Protection Act increased as well and they were less likely to advocate the use of lethal removal to manage sea lion issues. Avid fishers were more likely to consider shooting all sea lions as acceptable, and less likely to view controls to restrict human activity from sea lion areas as favorable. Anglers that expressed negative sentiments after an interaction with sea lions while fishing were more likely to view punishing the sea lion favorably, but less likely to view exposing the sea lions to pain as favorable. Our content analysis showed that most articles were about tourism and entertainment and the majority of articles focused on negative effects to sea lions. The media's framing might obscure the successful recovery of California sea lions and flame growing management concerns with stakeholders like anglers, dock workers, and marina occupants. Our survey showed that among stakeholders, increased understanding of the animals increased understanding of the regulatory context of their recovery and repellents as a socially acceptable means of managing the conflict. Thus, we have shown that knowledge among the public and stakeholders will enhance management efforts. Conservation management professionals can influence public attitudes by interacting with the media as well as using communications strategies that highlight the ecological mechanisms behind the conflict as well as the management actions.

Reef condition and protection of coral diversity and evolutionary history in the marine protected areas of Southeastern Dominican Republic

Cortés-Useche C, Muñiz-Castillo AIsrael, Calle-Triviño J, Yathiraj R, Arias-González JErnesto. Reef condition and protection of coral diversity and evolutionary history in the marine protected areas of Southeastern Dominican Republic. Regional Studies in Marine Science [Internet]. In Press :100893. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352485519301239
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Journal Article

Changes in structure and function of coral reefs are increasingly significant and few sites in the Caribbean can tolerate local and global stress factors. Therefore, we assessed coral reef condition indicators in reefs within and outside of MPAs in the southeastern Dominican Republic, considering benthic cover as well as the composition, diversity, recruitment, mortality, bleaching, the conservation status and evolutionary distinctiveness of coral species. In general, we found that reef condition indicators (coral and benthic cover, recruitment, bleaching, and mortality) within the MPAs showed better conditions than in the unprotected area (Boca Chica). Although the comparison between the Boca Chica area and the MPAs may present some spatial imbalance, these zones were chosen for the purpose of making a comparison with a previous baseline presented. In actuality these indicators found in the MPAs have improved when compared to results from previous reports (2001) in the same reefs and others in the Caribbean. Additionally, we found no evidence of massive bleaching during the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 2015. Reef-building species belonging to Orbicella species complex dominate MPAs, while small colonies of Pseudodiploria strigosa and Siderastrea siderea with low structural complexity dominate the unprotected sites. Key findings include the potential offered by MPAs as a network; our results show that a combination of MPAs protect the variation in diversity and promote the conservation of coral while maintaining historical evolution traits. This study offers an evaluation framework that considers multiple aspects of relevance in the conservation of Caribbean coral reefs, presenting a baseline of ecological indicators in the southeastern region of the Dominican Republic. It also recognizes some protected reefs in this region that can be designated as places of hope, with excellent conditions in the coral community.

Applying Unoccupied Aircraft Systems to Study Human Behavior in Marine Science and Conservation Programs

Nowlin MB, Roady SE, Newton E, Johnston DW. Applying Unoccupied Aircraft Systems to Study Human Behavior in Marine Science and Conservation Programs. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00567/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The declining costs of Unoccupied Aircraft Systems (UAS, aka drones), their ease of use, and their ability to collect high resolution data from a variety of sensors has resulted in an explosion of applications across the globe. Scientists working in the marine environment are increasingly using UAS to study a variety of topics, from counting wildlife populations in remote locations to estimating the effects of storms and sea level rise on shorelines. UAS also provide transformative potential to study the ways in which humans interact with and affect marine and coastal ecosystems, but doing so presents unique ethical and legal challenges. Human subjects have property rights that must be respected and they have rights to privacy, as well as expectations of privacy and security that may extend beyond actual legal rights. Using two case studies to illustrate these challenges, we outline the legal and regulatory landscapes that scientists confront when people are their primary study subjects, and conclude with an initial set of legal best practices to guide researchers in their efforts to study human interactions with natural resources in the marine environment.

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