For decades, marine scientists have known that fisheries throughout the world result in mortality for cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises). Incidental catch (also known as by-catch) in fisheries is considered the biggest threat to the survival of cetaceans globally. Migratory species such as cetaceans are exposed to various threats because they are nomadic. From a conservation and management perspective, the level of protection given to cetaceans differs according to their geographical location. This study was conducted to determine the extent of by-catchin the study area and identify measures taken by fishers to minimize by-catch. During a 20-day period, 222 fishers were interviewed in six locations - East Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, Ternate, Morotai, Seram, and Biak - to identify the interaction between marine mammals and tuna fishing activities, particularly related with the usage of different fishing gear and fishing practices. Twenty cetacean species from by-catchwere identified by respondents including three species of baleen whales and 17 species of toothed whales (including dolphins). Results from this survey indicated that interactions between marine mammals and tuna fisheries in Indonesian seas are primarily due to cetacean predation on tuna (e.g., pilot whales). To manage and minimize cetacean by-catchin the Indonesian seas, one of the recommendations from the authors of this study is the development of a Marine Mammal Mitigation Plan.
The marine fisheries resources worldwide are facing depletion but traditional management methods may not be adequate to overcome this problem. A new fishery management approach which focuses on protecting the critical stages in the life cycle of the selected marine species is presented in this paper. The fisheries refugia concept focuses on temporal and a spatially defined marine or coastal area in which specific management measures are implemented to sustain the targeted species. This concept was initiated by SEAFDEC-UNEP-GEF in the South East Asia region and are participated by six member countries namely Malaysia, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines. In Malaysia, two sites were selected for this project which is the lobster refugia (Panulirus spp. and Thenus orientalis) in Tanjung Leman, Johor and the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) refugia at Kuala Baram, Miri, Sarawak. This paper discusses the activities carried out to establish these two refugia. These activities include resource surveys of lobsters and tiger prawns at different life stages (larvae, juvenile and adult) and socio-economic profiling of fishers communities at both sites. Several stakeholder consultation sessions were also held with fishers and local agencies to promote the refugia concept and gather feedbacks on the implementation of the new management approach. Two information centers were set up at Tanjung Leman and Kuala Baram, Miri with the objectives of disseminating information regarding the fisheries refugia project and its benefits to the stakeholders. Likewise, in collaboration with the local television station RTM, two fisheries refugia documentaries were produced and broadcast nationwide. The targeted outcome of this project is to have these two sites gazetted as fisheries refugia so that the wild resources of lobsters and tiger prawns are sustainably managed through spatial and seasonal closure during the critical stages of their life cycle.
Mangroves provide several important functions such as gatherings, nurseries, living areas, and eating habitats. The best management plan designed for the conservation of mangrove wetlands must be considered as well as an ecological and social facility. The purpose of this study was to analyze the sustainability of mangrove ecosystem management from the ecological, economic, social, institutional and technological dimensions using the MDS (Multi Dimension Scaling) method through the RAP-MANGROVE (Rapid Assessment for Mangrove) approach in Pangkah Wetan and Pangkah Kulon Villages, Ujungpangkah District, Gresik Regency, East Java Province. The results of the study show that the sustainability index of the mangrove ecosystem in the Pangkah Wetan Village for ecological, institutional, and technological dimensions are less sustainable, while for economic and social dimensions are sufficiently sustainable; while in the Pangkah Kulon Village for ecological, social, institutional, and technology dimensions are sufficiently sustainable, while for economic dimension is sustainable. Based on the results of leverage analysis, it shows attributes that are very sensitive to the sustainability status of mangrove ecosystems, for the ecological dimension are fauna diversity in mangrove ecosystems, and coastline changes. The sensitive attributes in the economic dimension are a type of direct use mangrove ecosystems for community, and contributions mangrove ecosystem to increasing labor; while in social dimension are mangrove ecosystems damaged by community and community access to utilize mangrove ecosystems. The sensitive attributes in the institutional dimension are involvement of community institutions regarding mangrove ecosystem management and the existence of sanctions for violating regulations in the mangrove ecosystem; while in technological dimension are processing techniques for mangrove products, and the techniques for capturing biota in mangrove ecosystems. The results of the Monte Carlo analysis show that the overall dimensions in this study are adequate and valid (indicated by the difference between MDS and Monte Carlo <5%), while the Goodness of Fit analysis shows an S-stress value of <0.25 for each dimension, so the RAP-MANGROVE model in this analysis it is a good model and can be used to analyze the accuracy of the sustainability of mangrove ecosystem management.
Mangrove forests are considered very productive ecosystems in tropical coastal areas. They consist of valuable resources which provide services in terms of physical, biological and socio-economic functions. Human intervention and development have impacted the coastal ecosystems. The research was carried out to assess the biodiversity of mangrove ecosystem for sustainable tourism in Dampier strait, Raja Ampat. The data collected in Manswar islands, Gam islands, and the southern part of Waigeo island, and Batanta islands. Mangrove sampling was carried out at 7 (seven) stations which were selected randomly. The baseline data were used to develop the model of integrated and sustainable mangrove forest management in marine protected area Raja Ampat. The maximum number of visitors to each mangrove destination in Dampier Strait MPA ranged from 376 persons per year for Pandawa Resort to 39,486 person per year for the Nature Reserve Waringkabom. Two management areas were designed for mangrove ecotourism, namely Batanta management area and Gam island, Manswar islands, and South of Waigeo management area. These areas could be assigned as mangrove ecotourism based on resort management, based on property right of local community management and local customary management, and based on partnership and collaboration management.
Climate change has detrimental impacts on the ocean such as ocean acidification, the occurrence of extreme weather, increasing frequency of storms, and sea level and temperature rise, which will threaten the marine ecosystem existence and threaten the marine economic potential. Indonesia, with 6.4 million km2 area of waters, hold enormous fisheries potential wealth and enormous potential economic value. Data from the Marine and Fisheries Ministry notes that the marine economic potential reaches IDR 3000 trillion and there only IDR 291.8 trillion of the total potency that already gained. Sustainable fisheries development must be in accordance with the development principles that benefit the present generation but still pay attention to sustainability for future generations. Blue economy policies and programs become the right and effective approach for marine development to encourage optimal and sustainable utilization and exploitation of fisheries resources. This research is a legal research by using statute approach to relevant legal materials. This study aims to integrate the blue economy principle in to marine and fisheries policies and reconstruct the existing policies. The result of this study is a proposed model of blue economy-based policy to get a sustainable national marine and fisheries management.
Marine protected area (MPA) plays important roles to achieve biodiversity conservation and fisheries management goals, and as the main tool for ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). However, the goals of the local MPA in Indonesia is faced with the legal problems due to the enactment of Law No. 23/2014 on Local Government, regulate that the district or municipality government is no longer has authority to manage shoreline area within four miles as well as local MPA. The new law implies mismanagement of the MPA due to lack of capacity provincial government to manage the additional area of authority. There is no responsible institution focus to manage the MPA yet. This study aims to analyze the deregulation of Bontang City authority to manage the MPA. This research was conducted from January to April 2019 using normative juridical methods on the legal basis of MPA management. The results of this study suggested that based on Law No. 23/2014, actually the Bontang City Government still has opportunity to manage the MPA even though this area within the authority of Provincial Government. The authority of the Bontang City is still imbedded in several local government agencies, such as the Environment Agency, Community and Village Empowerment Service, and Fisheries Service. The institutional strengthening of the local MPA Bontang is proposed in two stages, in the short term through establishment of a Working Group involving the government of East Kalimantan Provinces and the City of Bontang, while in the long term to establish a new institution of the Technical Implementation Unit is under the Provincial Marine and Fisheries Agency.
Microorganisms drive the biogeochemical cycles that link abiotic and biotic processes in the aqueous environment and are intricately associated with plastic debris. The presence of microplastics in water and sediment introduces new concerns as small particle size allows for increased pathways of microplastics in the food web and element cycles. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on microbe‐plastic interactions and summarize the potential impact of biogeochemical processes on plastic distribution, cycling, transport, and sedimentation. We explore how microbe‐plastic interactions influence the exposure of consumers to microplastics and plastic degradation products. Key methods used to elucidate biofilm development, microbial biodegradation, and microplastic detection in the aqueous environment are discussed. Finally, we comment on potential future questions and research directions needed to further define the role of microorganisms in the environmental fate of microplastics.
Marine microplastics pollution has been a new challenge to marine environmental protection. The research results have shown that microplastics exist everywhere in the ocean. However, understanding of the transport of microplastics in the ocean, including coastal zones, is not clear. This paper provides a holistic overview of the modelling of microplastic transportation. The transport processes are complex, including surface drifting, vertical mixing, beaching, and settling. Besides the dynamic conditions of oceans, the transportation of microplastics is influenced by their physical characteristics, such as size, shape, and density. For buoyant particles, a Lagrange track model is used to simulate the surface drift process, considering current, windage effect, and Stokes drift. It is difficult to observe the vertical mixing process of microplastics because of their small size (<5 mm), therefore the parameters of the vertical mixing process in the model are still less known. Large accumulation of microplastics in sediments may be a result of settlement and entrainment. Also, biofilm formation can increase their density and thus, deposition. Considering sedimentation of microplastics is somewhat different from sediment deposition, some primary parameters (e.g., diffusivity, Stokes-drift, settling rate, biofouling rate) are required in future studies to better understand the transport of marine microplastics.
Planktivorous pelagic fish are susceptible to accumulating microplastics (MP), which have the same size range as their prey and accumulate in their feeding and spawning grounds. We analyzed stomach contents of pelagic fish (European sardine, horse mackerel, anchovy, chub mackerel, Atlantic mackerel, and bogue) from Atlanto‐Iberian waters to investigate the relationship between MP ingestion, their diet composition and select a potential bioindicator. We found significant differences between diet of the studied fish species in terms of prey type and size. MP ingestion was significantly related to diet composition. Species with diets that include smaller prey (European sardine, chub mackerel, and bogue) had lower MP concentration in the stomachs than fish depending on larger mesozooplanktonic prey. Horse mackerel had the highest proportion of larger prey (> 1000 μm) and the highest MP abundance in the stomachs, and thus are a suitable bioindicator for MP monitoring in the pelagic Iberian ecosystem.
Aquaculture is one of the world’s fastest growing food production sectors and presents an opportunity for rural community development that can support coastal livelihoods. An ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA) has been recommended to facilitate socially and environmentally sustainable development, yet there remains a need to better involve people in planning and operational aspects. Community-based management may help to implement principles of the EAA; however, context-specific research is needed to understand its potential application and suitability. This research explores opportunities for community-based marine aquaculture (CBMA) for nonfinfish in the context of Nova Scotia, Canada, through a series of stakeholder interviews. Results suggest that all stakeholder groups interviewed were positive about the potential for CBMA to support sustainable aquaculture growth in the province; however, key questions around operationalizing CBMA remain. The aquaculture industry is on a continual path for growth worldwide and, therefore, it becomes increasingly important to proactively examine strategies such as CBMA that can help to facilitate EAA in a way that genuinely puts people at the centre of aquaculture development and governance.
Does humanity's future lie in the ocean? As demand for resources continues to grow and land-based sources decline, expectations for the ocean as an engine of human development are increasing. Claiming marine resources and space is not new to humanity, but the extent, intensity, and diversity of today's aspirations are unprecedented. We describe this as the blue acceleration—a race among diverse and often competing interests for ocean food, material, and space. Exploring what this new reality means for the global ocean and how to steer it in a sustainable and equitable way represents an urgent challenge.
With oceans under increasing pressure from human activities, sustainable development and conservation efforts are working to set meaningful targets for healthy oceans. Determining whether those targets are achieved requires indicators that measure status and progress. Here, I reflect upon lessons learned from a decade of developing and calculating the Ocean Health Index.
Oceans, seas, lakes and other waterbodies are increasingly suffering from too much plastic waste. Numerous sources are contributing to this plastic waste problem. Additionally, conventional fishing nets, made out of nylon, are causing environmental damage by disintegrating into microplastics. The breakdown process stops there, as these microscopic particles are non-biodegradable. Microplastics remain in waters for years causing harm to marine organisms that ingest them. Linen fishing nets are a valid alternative and more ecological production of nets. This study aims to compare the costs of these new linen nets with conventional nets. These costs can be related to the environmental benefits of these alternative nets. The research objective is to study the question under which conditions it would be optimal to choose linen nets over conventional (nylon) fishing nets. The conditions examined are economic and policy, environmental and technological. This research question is put into the wider context of microplastics. A rotation model, typically used in forest economics, is applied to analyze the optimal lengths of periods to renew both a linen and a nylon fishing net. A comparison of the costs is conducted and a subsidy-based policy instrument is determined for the fishers using linen nets.
A subsidy-based policy could be applied to make fishing enterprises in Finland use ecological fishing gear. The results suggest that the costs of such a policy would be reasonable, estimated between €1.1 and €4.5 million in this study. Importantly, an increase in the use of ecological nets would lead to a decrease in the total microplastic load in waterbodies.
The purpose of this research was to determine capture fisheries status in a sustainability perspective based on ecology, economy, social, technology and ethic dimensions. A data analysis method which used was Multidimensional Scaling with RAPFISH technique. All dimensions in this study were based on FAO's attribute and was modified based on fisheries condition in research location. Score multidimensional analysis is 45,69. These results indicate that the multidimensional sustainability status of capture fisheries on Bangka Island is in a less sustainable status. The result showed that ecology was the dimension which has the lowest score in order to support captured fisheries sustainability in Bangka Island. The result also formulated sensitive attribute in every condition and gave management recommendations for the sustainability of captured fisheries based on that attribute. This study showed the importance of dimension integration and stakeholder's teamwork multisectoral in order to manage the sustainability of captured fisheries.
In recent years, special attention has been paid to the issues of rational nature management and ecological state of the natural environment of the Arctic zone, given the important economic, social and environmental role of this region. The active industrial development of the Arctic zone unambiguously leads to a change in the living conditions of marine biological resources. The Arctic plays an important role in Russian fisheries. The paper considers the conceptual provisions of rational nature management in the conditions of industrial development of the Russian Arctic and identifies the problems and conditions for sustainable development of the Russian fisheries.
Indonesia is an archipelago country, catching fish is one of the sectors that is highly evolved in Indonesia. One of the waters in Indonesia which has great fishery potential is Pasuruan Regency in East Java. Lift net is a fishing tool that is still widely used by small-scale fishermen in Indonesia, formed rectangular which was operable in coastal waters at night by using light fishing. The purposes of this article are to investigate how to operate a lift net and to explore deeper about the management of lift net operation in Lekok Waters, Pasuruan Regency. Data collection was done by using observation, interview, active participation and documentation. This research discuss about boat and the equipment, catcher tool components, location, length time of trip, procedures of fishing, types of fish, tools maintenance and business management. Based on the analysis of Revenue Cost Ratio (R/C Ratio) proved R/C ratio is > 1, then the effort of catching fish by using lift net in Lekok Pasuruan is profitable. The value of BEP in units of the unit catchment is 1,278 kg, and the values BEP in-unit rupiah is Rp.9,064,516.
The paper reviews critical findings regarding the influence of fish marketing on local livelihoods and resources in a near shore African marine fishery. Literature search was conducted using search engines google scholar, scopus, and web of science using the key words: Fish, fish trade, global market, livelihood, marine/coastal, with the objectives of exploring the relationship between fish markets, livelihoods (at the household level) as well as the resource itself. In addition, country reports from research organizations (both published and unpublished) as well as FAO reports were consulted. The search was undertaken in November 2019. Results from literature search were analyzed thematically based on livelihood indicators including fish marketing channels, determinants of income, occupations and fish price transmission. Linkages vary with respect to fish type, species and usage type, highlighting the need for disaggregated analyses to respond to specific objectives and market factors. The review points out that not all fish types are exported/linked to the tourism industry and that even for those linked to the global market, the benefits do not trick down. A strong interaction between fish and local staple is evident, an indication that small scale fisheries are likely to have local benefits than benefits attributed to global market linkages.
The present article is based on the review of the current patent, scientific and technical sources. It indicates the main challenges of fishing industry in the North-West Russia with the Murmansk Region taken as an example. The basic fishing techniques, being employed by the local fishing companies, are considered. The article defines the main challenges of the Northern commercial fishing area resources exploration and sustainable use. It substantiates the necessity to increase the share of fishing tools with better selectivity. It is concluded that the raw-materials supply crisis is likely to set in the fish processing industry. The article analyses the existing methods of processing applied to the underutilized fishing grounds. It reveals a correlation between the intensiveness of research applied to specific fishing grounds and the consumer demand availability and scope. It is concluded that predominantly research is made with regard to the use of underutilized species for production of dietary supplements and components which alter some food properties. The article substantiates the necessity to use the non-conventional hydrobiont species for food production, based on the consumer demand data. A study of the main standards has been performed with regard to regulation of the hydrobiont catching issues. The article reviews the underutilized species of the Northern commercial fishing area which are most prospective from the production and processing point of view. It concludes with the prospects of the proposed option for the fishing industry development and its probable impact on the development of coastal infrastructure and of the whole region.
Storm surge and sea level rise (SLR) are affecting coastal communities, properties, and ecosystems. While coastal ecosystems, such as wetlands and marshes, have the capacity to reduce the impacts of storm surge and coastal flooding, the increasing rate of SLR can induce the transformation and migration of these natural habitats. In this study, we combined coastal storm surge modeling and economic analysis to evaluate the role of natural habitats in coastal flood protection. We focused on a selected cross-section of three coastal counties in New Jersey adjacent to the Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve (JCNERR) that is protected by wetlands and marshes. The coupled coastal hydrodynamic and wave models, ADCIRC+SWAN, were applied to simulate flooding from historical and synthetic storms in the Mid-Atlantic US for current and future SLR scenarios. The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was used to project the potential migration and habitat transformation in coastal marshes due to SLR in the year 2050. Furthermore, a counterfactual land cover approach, in which marshes are converted to open water in the model, was implemented for each storm scenario in the present and the future to estimate the amount of flooding that is avoided due to the presence of natural habitats and the subsequent reduction in residential property damage. The results indicate that this salt marshes can reduce up to 14% of both the flood depth and property damage during relatively low intensity storm events, demonstrating the efficacy of natural flood protection for recurrent storm events. Monetarily, this translates to the avoidance of up to $13.1 and $32.1 million in residential property damage in the selected coastal counties during the ‘50-year storm’ simulation and hurricane Sandy under current sea level conditions, and in the year ‘2050 SLR scenario’, respectively. This research suggests that protecting and preserving natural habitats can contribute to enhance coastal resilience.
High anthropogenic activity on the west coast of Karimun Besar Island contributes certain amount of wastes, especially plastics. Plastics will be degraded due to natural mechanism to smaller parts and known as microplastics. Small size and wide spread distribution has caused microplastics can be found widely in the waters and coastal areas. This study aims to determine type and abundance of microplastic in sediment on the west coast of Karimun Besar Island. Sampling of sediment for microplastic was determined based on hydrodynamic conditions by placing quadrat in the highest tidal boundary area. Sediment samples were collected in February 2019 using 4 inch PVC pipe from two different depth, i.e 0-10 and 10-20 cm. Separation of microplastic particles from sediments was carried out in Marine Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science University of Riau through several stages, namely (a) drying, (b) separation of densities and (c) sorting visually. The results of the study found only 3 types of microplastic, i.e. fragments, films and fibers. Microplastic abundance in sediments was found between 1976.67-2203.33 particles/kg of sediment with fibers being the dominant type. Fiber has the highest abundance in both depths followed by films and fragments. ANOVA and t-test analysis, showed that the quantity of microplastic between stations and between two different depths were not significantly different (p > 0,05).