Assessing the positive and negative social impacts of protected areas is no easy task, but it can be done with relatively simple, low cost methodologies. Designed for this purpose, the Social Assessment of Protected Areas (SAPA) methodology can be applied to any protected area (PA), regardless of its management category and governance type, and to related conservation and development activities that are designed to support PA conservation. At the heart of the SAPA methodology is a multi-stakeholder process that enhances accuracy and credibility, and ensures that the assessment addresses the information needs not only of PA managers, but also of other key actors in government, civil society and the private sector. This working paper describes both the development of the SAPA methodology (work in progress), and some preliminary results that illustrate the type of information generated and the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology.
Capacity development is the process of developing the capacities of individuals and institutions and shaping the joint learning processes, such that they are enabled to achieve sustainable results within their own system of reference. Capacity development facilitates change among people, in three dimensions: knowledge, skills and values/attitudes. As conservation of coastal and marine biodiversity along with managing marine protected areas is extremely challenging, the need for a combination of traditional and innovative capacity development measures is essentially required to deliver the knowledge products. This call for greater exchange of experiences and expertise among the training institutions within the environment sector and also with the other key sectors such as fi sheries and media. There are, however, not enough platforms to facilitate such an exchange among the training institutions and also to share information on training courses to the potential trainees.
Facilitating capacity development of individuals and institutions relevant to coastal and marine biodiversity conservation in India, through networking, trainings, and other measures and instruments, is one of the objectives of the ‘Conservation and Sustainable Management of Existing and Potential Coastal and Marine Protected Areas’ (CMPA) project under the Indo-German Biodiversity Programme. This project is being supported by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB), Government of Germany, and implemented by GIZ India, in partnership with the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC), Government of India.
To develop this Compendium, the CMPA project has partnered with the Wildlife Institute of India (WII), having a mandate to train Indian Forest Service officers, State Forest Service officers, as well as, other key stakeholders such as the Coast Guards and Customs etc.
This Compendium is intended to bring together, on one platform, the information on expertise and experience available at the training organisations based in different parts of India, on the theme of coastal and marine biodiversity. We congratulate the editors of this Compendium and all those institutions who have contributed to the development of this Compendium, and look forward to its effective use as a tool for networking among the training organisations.
The spatial coverage of marine and coastal protected areas worldwide has shown a rapid increase in recent years. Over 32% of the world’s coral reefs and over 36% of the world’s mangrove forests now fall within protected areas. However, simple measures of extent are insufficient for assessing progress toward achieving global targets. Notably, the CBD Aichi Target 11 calls for ‘at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water areas, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services’ to be protected. There is, therefore, an urgent need to assess how well protected areas cover these areas of importance for ecosystem services.
The Protected Planet Report 2014 follows the recommendation of the Protected Planet Report 2012 to provide a more complete overview of each of these elements of Aichi Biodiversity Target 11. Chapters summarise current knowledge and progress towards achieving each element of the target, and provide further guidance for implementation, based on data from the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA), a review of published literature, and expert review.
- With the drive for greater numbers and areas of MPAs to be put in place to meet national and international targets, challenges have emerged in both the establishment and development of sustainable governance of the networks of sites that are emerging.
- Using 12 presentations given in a workshop on ‘Improving participation for better governance of MPAs’ at the 3rd International Marine Protected Areas Congress in October 2013, this paper reviews a range of top-down, bottom-up and collaborative approaches to governance, looking at all phases in the process from design of an MPA network to its implementation, as well as considering individual MPAs.
- Designation of MPA networks requires significant investment of resources to engage local stakeholders in discussions over potential site location and management measures.
- Scaling-up from individual MPAs to networks of MPAs will often also require a scaling-up of governance approaches, including top-down approaches.
- Balancing the need to provide for the participation of local users in each constituent MPA with the need to address a variety of challenges, whilst achieving wider-scale objectives through the inclusion of top-down governance approaches is an important but neglected challenge in discussions concerning MPA networks.
- These case studies indicate that there are various ways in which this challenge can be addressed in different contexts and point to potential ‘good practice’ for other MPAs in similar scenarios.
Marine renewable energy developments (MREDs) are an increasing feature of the marine environment. Owing to the relatively small number of existing developments and the early stage of their associated environmental monitoring programmes, the effects of MREDs on seabirds are not fully known. Our ability to fully predict potential effects is limited by a lack of knowledge regarding movements of seabirds at sea. We used GPS tracking to improve our understanding of the movements at sea of a protected seabird species breeding in Scotland, the great skua (Stercorarius skua), to better predict how this species may be affected by MREDs. We found that the overlap of great skuas with leased and proposed MREDs was low; particularly with offshore wind sites, which are predicted to present a greater risk to great skuas than wave or tidal-stream developments. Failed breeders overlapped with larger areas of MREDs than breeding birds but the overall overlap with core areas used remained low. Overlap with wave energy development sites was greater than for offshore wind and tidal-stream sites. Comparison of 2011 data with historical data indicates that distances travelled by great skuas have likely increased over recent decades. This suggests that basing marine spatial planning decisions on short-term tracking data could be less informative than longer-term data.
Since 2009, there has been a shift in UK marine governance with the Marine and Coastal Access Act in which a core mechanism is marine planning, designed to replace a fragmented, ad hoc, and bureaucratic process of marine management with a strategic, integrated, and centralised system. This shift has been justified by the UK government as a more efficient procedure for delivering sustainable development (SD), which is the overarching objective of UK environmental policy. This article, which is based on data from key informant interviews and secondary sources, analyses the shift to understand its aspirations and the challenges facing it. The issues focused on include its holistic approach; its centralising tendencies; its streamlining processes; and its implicit commitment to renewable energy. In these four issues there are tensions between aspirations and challenges, and the conclusion is that the success of the new mode of marine governance depends on satisfactorily resolving these tensions.
California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) off the coast of Southern California are known to damage both commercial and recreational fishing activities, causing decreases to fish catch and damage to gear. Their increasing population has intensified the potential for conflict between sea lions and anglers, likely requiring changes to current legislation. The recreational fishing community in Southern California is a valuable and largely underutilized source for information and potential solutions to management and legislative problems. This recreational fishing survey-based study conducted in 2013 utilized personal interviews, conducted in the field with recreational anglers and commercial passenger fishing vessel (CPFV) crews in Southern California, to gather data on: (a) the occurrence and impact of sea lion depredation on the local fishing, (b) angler awareness and opinions on current legislation, and (c) the conflict between fishing activities and conservation efforts. Results show that surveyed CPFV operators and private boaters had the most conflict with sea lions and perceive them as more of a problem than anglers on piers, jetties or kayaks. The conflict was also reportedly more prevalent in San Diego County compared to the other counties surveyed (Orange, Los Angeles and Ventura). Participating CPFV operators were overwhelmingly in support of a government culling program for sea lions, while recreational angler respondents did not feel that a control program was necessary. These CPFV operators reported more money lost, and were willing to pay more for an effective deterrent device. There was also a consensus among respondents that fish catch is declining, yet anglers were unsatisfied with the effectiveness of current legislation designed to increase fish stocks. These data will provide a better understanding of California sea lion depredation in Southern California and its effect on recreational anglers in order to aid future mitigation efforts. Additionally, these results provide stakeholder feedback on local marine protected areas and other fisheries management legislation, and build a foundation for future conservation and education programs.
The study explores the environmental input–output (EIO) model as a decision-support tool for marine spatial planning at the regional level. Using empirical data, an EIO model is developed to examine the economic and environmental impacts associated with two leading ocean industries in Xiamen. Results of the study show that, under select economic and environmental scenarios, waterfront tourism is generally preferable to marine transportation in terms of unit environmental and resource effects. Thus, it is more beneficial for the region to promote the growth of the waterfront tourism sector.
Recent international policy developments require states to conserve at least 10% of coastal and marine areas by creating effectively managed and ecologically coherent networks of protected areas in the marine environment. In the framework of the PANACHE project, the current status of designation, management and monitoring of the network of marine protected areas (MPAs) of an important environmental, social and economic marine area: the English Channel (the Channel) was examined. Currently 224 MPAs exist belonging to 12 different designation categories and covering 17 440 km2, or approximately 20.3% of the project area in the Channel. International protection targets in the marine environment are thus met at this regional scale, although the individual contributions of the UK and France are considerably different, with French MPAs accounting for nearly 80% of the total area protected. Differences between countries are also found regarding MPA designation categories (11 in France, 6 in the UK, 1 in the Channel Islands) and management structures (with more actors involved in the UK) and approach, whereas the monitoring techniques used are similar, although more standardised in the UK. Pending challenges include greater within-country and cross-country MPA designation, monitoring and management simplicity, integration and coordination as well as the assessment of management effectiveness and ecological coherence of the Channel network of MPAs.
There are two aims in this work: one is to contribute to the promotion of one of the most interesting experiments of integrated coastal zone management which has taken place in Latin America: the Ecoplata Programme in Uruguay. The other is to make an evaluation of the planning and implementation of the programme, i.e. that of a long-term Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) process which is full of both challenges and opportunities. Indeed, although there have been numerous ICZM experiments, on varying scales, which have been put into practice throughout the world in the last two decades, very few of them have involved an evaluation to check their levels of achievement.
A crucial factor in the success of protected areas and conservation efforts in general is the support amongst the adjacent community. It is thought to be especially crucial for the success of small MPAs. Whilst the importance of community support has been highlighted in a number of studies, it has not yet been clearly defined or explicitly studied. Questionnaires were carried out (N=166) at three different villages within the Visayas region of the Philippines to determine individuals׳ support towards adjacent MPAs and individual characteristics that have previously been hypothesised to influence support. Multiple regressions analysis determined: (1) Which individual-level factors predict attitude towards MPAs, (2) whether attitudes of individuals are related to actions that benefit the adjacent MPA and (3) whether individual or community-level factors are better predictors of individual support for local community-based MPAs. Knowledge of MPA objectives, perceived participation in decision making, trust towards other fishers and differences between villages all significantly predicted attitudes towards MPAs. Weak relationships were found between attitudes and certain MPA related actions due to contextual factors. Village was not the only significant predictor of both attitudes and MPA related actions; individual characteristics irrespective of differences between villages, were also important in predicting support for the MPA. This study highlights the importance in distinguishing between attitudes and actions of individuals and suggests specific individual characteristics can be vital in influencing support towards MPAs.
Coastal-marine systems in small island developing states of the Caribbean are highly vulnerable to both current and future climate change. Societies navigate these changes in part through processes of governance and the institutions through which governance takes place. The concept of institutional adaptive capacity is used to explore how governance processes and institutional arrangements can be adapted to match the scale and extent of climate change in a case study of the Soufriere Marine Management Area, St. Lucia. Institutional adaptive capacity is analyzed based on the following factors: institutional variety, analytical deliberation and nesting and networks. The analysis is based on 36 semi-structured interviews conducted with key informants from NGOs, cooperatives, management authorities and government agencies. The findings suggest that governance to address climate change in the case study is contingent upon developing holistic, integrated management systems, improving flexibility in existing collaborative decision making processes, augmenting the capacity of local management authorities with support from higher-level government, exploring opportunities for private–social partnerships, and developing adequate social–environmental monitoring programs. These findings have potential implications and lessons for similar settings throughout the Caribbean.
In environmental management there is often discussion on the allocation of responsibilities. Such discussions can continue for a long time and can form an obstacle for effective action. In this article twelve normative principles for the allocation of responsibilities are identified, coming from three different sources: the arguments used in discussions on responsibilities, Dutch and European law, and the environmental management literature. The principles are (1) capacity, (2) lowest social costs, (3) causation, (4) interest, (5) scale, (6) subsidiarity, (7) structural integration, (8) separation, (9) solidarity, (10) transparency, (11) stability (but not standstill), and (12) acquired rights. These principles point to fundamental tensions in environmental management and sometimes conflict with each other. At the same time they may help to resolve conflicts by providing common points of reference that are independent from the often conflicting interests of the discussants.
In this chapter, the issue of sustainable decision making for successful coastal flood management is examined. In this setting, a key concept is sustainable development, defined as a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only today, but also for future generations. Sustainability for a given coastal system requires: (1) efficient protection to life and goods, and preserving socioeconomic development and opportunities of coastal areas; (2) maintenance of the environmental assets; and (3) short-, medium-, and long-term scenarios accounting for climate change effects. Different tools for sustainable decision making are presented. Design should be aimed at providing “continuity of daily life”—before, during, and after a flood, to avoid the detrimental social and economic impact that would otherwise result. A development that intrinsically provides flood resilience, through an adequate defense planning strategy, should give insurers and financiers the confidence to offer affordable, long-term policies, and investments. While planning coastal risk management strategies, coastal managers need to assess risk across a range of spatial and temporal scales. geographic information systems–based tools are one efficient way to support them in the decision-making process through a scenarios analysis starting from social, economic, and environmental information integrated into a common platform.
Nonstructural coastal risk mitigation options that deal with society-centered instruments have the potential to contribute jointly to coastal settlement safety through vulnerability reduction and resilience enhancement. The paradigmatic characteristics of vulnerability reduction approaches and resilience enhancement approaches are described. Thereafter, vulnerability reduction measures associated with the use of insurance-based, land use planning-based, business recovery plan-based, communication plan-based, postflood management-based, and evacuation plan-based approaches are presented in terms of guidelines for implementation. Resiliency analysis of these approaches is conducted in parallel. This analysis leads to additional recommendations for implementing specific risk-reducing measures. The authors conclude by stressing the importance of three overarching characteristics of nonstructural mitigation options. The first element that is central to all options lies in the need to adopt approaches that mobilize stakeholders in the implementation process. The second element that is central to all nonstructural mitigation options is the fact that they increase safety through a direct reduction in the consequences of flooding. A third element that nonstructural mitigation options share is the obvious fact that they interact strongly, showing the potential to transcend the sum of their individual contributions.
Natural coastal habitats play an important role in protecting coastal areas from sea water flooding caused by storm surge events. Many of these habitats, however, have been lost completely or degraded, reducing their ability to function as a natural flood defense. Once degraded, natural habitats can potently be destroyed by storm events, further threatening these systems. Much of the loss of coastal habitats is caused by increased human activity in coastal areas and through land claimed for urban, industrial, or agricultural use. As a result, some coastal habitats have become rare and threatened across much of Europe and the world. An associated problem is that of sea level rise, which has the combined impact of both increasing the risk of flooding in coastal ecosystems and increasing the severity of storm surge events. This chapter addresses two key topics: (1) the use of natural habitats as a form of coastal defense focusing on the required management and how to restore and/or create them and (2) ecological considerations in the design of hard coastal defense structures. The habitats that play a role in coastal deface and considered here are: (1) saltmarshes, (2) sand dunes, (3) seagrass meadows, and (4) biogenic reefs, including Sabellaria reefs, oyster beds, and mussel beds. As part of coastal habitat restoration and management, the process of saltmarsh creation, either through seaward extension or managed realignment is discussed focusing on potential benefits. Finally, key cumulative stressors that can hinder ecological approaches to coastal risk mitigation are reviewed.
It is increasingly recognized that a comprehensive understanding of the existing flood system is necessary to effectively manage coastal flood risk. This involves consideration of the social and ecological dimensions in addition to the hydrological aspects that have been the traditional focus of flood analysis. Social aspects are important, as they represent both the reason for flood management and the growth in exposure, as well as providing the context within which any decision will be made. Coastal species and habitats are inherently important for the flood management ecosystem services that they provide for flood management. The flood flow, depth, and extent determine the potential for flood damage. The conceptual model adopted here for coastal risk assessment is based on the Source-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence model, which is a simple linear conceptual model for representing flood systems and processes that lead to a particular flooding consequence. This approach is being used to evaluate how the Sources (waves, tides, storm surge, mean sea level, river discharge, run-off), through the Pathways (including coastal defenses), affect the Receptors (inland system), generating economic, social, and environmental Consequences. Collectively, this more holistic analysis of the flood system can identify likely trends in flood risk and the wide range of potential mitigation options embracing engineering, ecological, or socioeconomic measures, including hybrid combined approaches.
Protected area management agencies are increasingly using management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) to better understand, learn from and improve conservation efforts around the globe. Outcome assessment is the final stage of MEE, where conservation outcomes are measured to determine whether management objectives are being achieved. When quantitative monitoring data are available, best-practice examples of outcome assessments demonstrate that data should be assessed against quantitative condition categories. Such assessments enable more transparent and repeatable integration of monitoring data into MEE, which can promote evidence-based management and improve public accountability and reporting. We interviewed key informants from marine protected area (MPA) management agencies to investigate how scientific data sources, especially long-term biological monitoring data, are currently informing conservation management. Our study revealed that even when long-term monitoring results are available, management agencies are not using them for quantitative condition assessment in MEE. Instead, many agencies conduct qualitative condition assessments, where monitoring results are interpreted using expert judgment only. Whilst we found substantial evidence for the use of long-term monitoring data in the evidence-based management of MPAs, MEE is rarely the sole mechanism that facilitates the knowledge transfer of scientific evidence to management action. This suggests that the first goal of MEE (to enable environmental accountability and reporting) is being achieved, but the second and arguably more important goal of facilitating evidence-based management is not. Given that many MEE approaches are in their infancy, recommendations are made to assist management agencies realize the full potential of long-term quantitative monitoring data for protected area evaluation and evidence-based management.
Stochastic variability of biological processes and uncertainty of stock properties compel fisheries managers to look for tools to improve control over the stock. Inspired by animals exploiting hidden prey, we have taken a biomimetic approach combining catch and effort in a concept of Bayesian regulation (BR). The BR provides a real-time Bayesian stock estimate, and can operate without separate stock assessment. We compared the performance of BR with catch-only regulation (CR), alternatively operating with N-target (the stock size giving maximum sustainable yield, MSY) and F-target (the fishing mortality giving MSY) on a stock model of Baltic Sea herring. N-targeted BR gave 3% higher yields than F-targeted BR and CR, and 7% higher yields than N-targeted CR. The BRs reduced coefficient of variance (CV) in fishing mortality compared to CR by 99.6% (from 25.2 to 0.1) when operated with F-target, and by about 80% (from 158.4 to 68.4/70.1 depending on how the prior is set) in stock size when operated with N-target. Even though F-targeted fishery reduced CV in pre-harvest stock size by 19–22%, it increased the dominant period length of population fluctuations from 20 to 60–80 years. In contrast, N-targeted BR made the periodic variation more similar to white noise. We discuss the conditions when BRs can be suitable tools to achieve sustainable yields while minimizing undesirable fluctuations in stock size or fishing effort.