Along Mediterranean coastlines, beach tourism represents one of the main economic resources of coastal regions. In the context of increase of coastal hazards, large management projects are currently undertaken and the evaluation of beach use is an important parameter coastal managers have to take into account in their strategies to reduce risk and maintain the recreational capacity of the beach. This contribution proposes an automatic tool to evaluate beach attendance and beach users behavior. After validating the results, an analysis of the beach attendance at the Lido of Sete Beach, on the French Mediterranean coast, is performed. Both temporal and spatial patterns are obtained and analyzed together with environmental, meteorological, social parameters of the site. Results indicate that beach attendance and beach user locations are mostly driven by meteorological conditions, while the density indicates that most of the beach users are locals or excursionists, rather than tourists. The results of the total beach attendance during the year 2012 clearly evidence an important increase of the frequentation since the large costal management project that was implemented during the last years. Given the large number of images and video available at many coastlines, the developed methodology and tool would be useful in many coastal management applications around the world.
The biological success of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) depends to a large extent on their social acceptability, sometimes referred to as a social licence. Local resistance has slowed international progress towards a global network of MPAs. The causes of local resistance and limited social acceptability are poorly known, which constrains the development of new planning paradigms that could address these issues. Two case studies in New South Wales, Australia determined the factors that influenced community attitudes towards MPAs. The Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park (PSGLMP) and Batemans Marine Park (BMP) underwent virtually identical and concurrent planning processes, however resistance to the BMP was more intense and sustained. Differences in the demographics, history, local media coverage and social impacts of each marine park contributed to these different community responses. The BMP demonstrated the ‘perfect storm’ of opposition triggers – a community struggling in the transition away from a primary production economy, a highly politicised media dominated by powerful elites with ideological objections to the park, and social impacts sufficiently profound to motivate local citizens to support an active campaign against the park. These impacts included loss of access, identity and increased competition for resources. This research points to the importance of developing a deeper understanding of the social, cultural and political landscape of the communities in which MPAs are proposed and a rethink of planning processes to better incorporate community objectives and knowledge.
Drawing on a case study in Germany, this contribution explores the practical application of offshore aquaculture within offshore wind farms in view of the different stakeholders involved. Using a transdisciplinary research approach, an understanding of the rationalities and interests among the different involved stakeholder groups was explored. Offshore wind energy is high on the political agenda in Germany. The vast spatial requirements however inherit potential user conflicts with competing, and under current legislation excluded users such as fishermen. Solutions for combining sustainable uses of the same ocean space have thus seen increasing interest within the research community in Germany and in Europe over the past years. This paper was inspired by and presents the outcomes of a stakeholder analysis and in particular a stakeholder workshop. Central focus was placed on academics and private as well as public stakeholders engaged in current research efforts of combining offshore wind farms and aquaculture in the German North Sea. The paper identifies the overall acceptance of such a multi-use scenario in society, opportunities and constraints as perceived by the stakeholders, and key research gaps. The results confirm the assumption that there is a clear need, and also willingness on behalf of the policy makers and the research community, to find sustainable, resource- and space-efficient solutions for combined ocean use.
In the present study, the species composition, geographical and seasonal patterns of strandings, bycatches and injuries of aquatic mammals reported in Chinese mainland waters, from 2000 to 2006, were analyzed based on national official documents. A total of 97 strandings, 66 bycatches and 30 injuries, involving at least 18 species (possibly 20) in eight families of Cetacea and two families of Carnivora, were recorded. Finless porpoises (Neophocaena spp.), spotted seal (Phoca largha) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.) were the most common species in all three categories, in total comprising 59.8% of strandings, 97.0% of bycatches and 86.7% of injuries. Strandings occurred throughout the year, but records of both bycatches and injuries peaked in spring (March to May), corresponding to the major fishing season and may reflect the negative impacts of fishing activities. The highest species diversity found in Fujian Province may be linked to upwelling and high production in the Strait of Taiwan. Serious difficulties were encountered in overall data interpretation and between-provinces comparability, mainly due to a lack of quantified observer effort and variable expertise levels. Hence the establishment of a coordinated nationwide network is recommended, providing a mechanism for the instant reporting of aquatic mammal events, as well as the adoption of a standardised data recording system including necropsy protocols. Better-quality data should allow quantitative analyses leading to an improved understanding of anthropogenic threats in China׳s aquatic mammal populations. The need to upgrade reserve management, such as the Dalian protected area in Liaoning, is also stressed.
Different seafood products based on Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) fisheries and freshwater aquaculture of trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and black pacu (Colossoma macropomum), contribute at different scales to the socio-economic development, environmental degradation and nutrition of the Peruvian population. Various indicators have been used in the literature to assess the performance of these industries regarding different aspects of sustainability, notably their socio-economic performance. In this study, a novel set of indicators is proposed to evaluate the sustainability performance of these industries in Peru, based on life cycle assessment (LCA) and nutritional profiling, as well as on energy and socio-economic assessment approaches. The emphasis is put on the potential of different products to contribute to improving the nutrition of the Peruvian population in an energy-efficient, environmentally friendly and socio-economically sound way. The set of indicators includes biotic resource use (BRU), cumulative energy demand (CED), energy return on investment (EROI), production costs, gross profit generation, added value, and nutritional profile in terms of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids; as well as a number of life cycle impact assessment indicators commonly used in seafood studies, and some recently proposed indicators of resource status (measuring the impacts of fish biomass removal at the species and ecosystem levels). Results suggest that more energy-intensive/highly processed products (cured and canned anchoveta products) represent a higher burden, in terms of environmental impact, than less energy-intensive products (salted and frozen anchoveta products, semi-intensive aquaculture products). This result is confirmed when comparing all products regarding their industrial-to-nutritional energy ratio. Regarding the other attributes analysed, the scoring shows that salted and frozen anchoveta products generate fewer jobs and lower gross profit than canned and cured, while aquaculture products maximise them. Overall, it was concluded that less energy-intensive industries (anchoveta freezing and salting) are the least environmentally impacting but also the least economically interesting products, yet delivering higher nutritional value. Aquaculture products maximise gross profit and job creation, with lower energy efficiency and nutritional values. The proposed set of sustainability indicators fulfilled its goal in providing a multi-criteria assessment of anchoveta direct human consumption and freshwater aquaculture products. As often the case, there is no ideal product and the best trade-off must be sought when making decision regarding fisheries and seafood policy. No threshold for performance of the different indicators is offered, because the goal of the comparison is to contrast the relative performance among products, not of products against reference values.