Literature Library

Currently indexing 9358 titles

Not just a sandy beach. The multi-service value of Mediterranean coastal dunes

Drius M, Jones L, Marzialetti F, de Francesco MCarla, Stanisci A, Carranza MLaura. Not just a sandy beach. The multi-service value of Mediterranean coastal dunes. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719308721
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Coastal sand dunes are complex transitional systems hosting high levels of biodiversity and providing important benefits to society. In this paper we aimed to evaluate the multi-service nature of ecosystem services (ES) supply in the dunes of the Italian Adriatic coast within Natura 2000 (N2K) sites. We i) identified ES indicators and assessed the supply capacity (Climate regulation, Protection from wind and aerosol, Erosion regulation, Recreation and Tourism and Existence value of biodiversity) of natural dune ecosystems of European conservation concern; ii) upscaled this data to create an inventory of ES supply for all dune N2K sites in the study area; iii) explored the trade-offs among ES; and iv) summarized and spatially compared the overall multi-service value of the N2K sites.

The study provides a method for quantifying the role of N2K sites in supplying benefits for our society. We found that the multi-service capacity of coastal dunes is uneven within sites and within administrative regions. This variability is related to both ecological (e.g. distribution, ecological integrity, extent and conservation status of dune habitats) and administrative (e.g. local implementation of the Habitats Directive) characteristics of the analysed area. ES are not coupled as several sites with high values for one ES show very low values for others.

The results suggest that conservation actions should favour restoration of the natural dune zonation, since this underpins multi-service ES supply. The approach can distinguish regions with high ES values and regions where the paucity of protected areas represents a gap in ES supply, fact that offers an incentive to enhance the protection strategy but also suggests an urgent need to improve the N2K network by enlarging existent sites and including new ones.

Nudging the Arctic Ocean to quantify sea ice feedbacks

Dekker E, Bintanja R, Severijns C. Nudging the Arctic Ocean to quantify sea ice feedbacks. Journal of Climate [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0321.1
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.00
Type: Journal Article

With Arctic summer sea ice potentially disappearing halfway through this century, the surface albedo and insulating effects of Arctic sea ice will decrease considerably. The ongoing Arctic sea ice retreat also affects the strength of the Planck, lapse-rate, cloud and surface albedo feedbacks together with changes in the heat exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, but their combined effect on climate sensitivity has not been quantified. This study presents an estimate of all Arctic sea ice related climate feedbacks combined. We use a new method to keep Arctic sea ice at its present day (PD) distribution under a changing climate in a 50-year CO2 doubling simulation, using a fully coupled global climate model (EC-Earth V2.3). We nudge the Arctic Ocean to the (monthly-dependent) year 2000 mean temperature and minimum salinity fields on a mask representing PD sea ice cover. We are able to preserve about 95% of the PD mean March and 77% of the September PD Arctic sea ice extent by applying this method. Using simulations with and without nudging, we estimate the climate response associated with Arctic sea ice changes. The Arctic sea ice feedback globally equals 0.28 ± 0.15 Wm−2K−1. The total sea ice feedback thus amplifies the climate response for a doubling of CO2, in line with earlier findings. Our estimate of the Arctic sea ice feedback agrees reasonably well with earlier CMIP5 global climate feedback estimates and shows that the Arctic sea ice exerts a considerable effect on the Arctic and global climate sensitivity.

Challenges Ahead of Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Environmentally Sensitive Islands: A Case Study

Zarifsanayei AR, Sanayei HRZarif, S. Zand M. Challenges Ahead of Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Environmentally Sensitive Islands: A Case Study. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution [Internet]. 2018 ;15(4):69 - 80. Available from: https://content.iospress.com/articles/asian-journal-of-water-environment-and-pollution/ajw180059
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $27.50
Type: Journal Article

Small islands around the world encounter special challenges due to vulnerability to acute climates, human-induced activities and pollution. The challenges even become more intricate where the island is located in environmentally sensitive regions. In order to address the problems in coastal areas, Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) whose concept was born in 1992 during the Earth Summit of Rio de Janeiro, has been recommended by United Nations. This paper focuses on challenges ahead of ICZM in environmentally sensitive islands through Interaction-Stakeholder and Option Matrices. Kish Island is a beautiful small island located in Persian Gulf. With regard to environmental sensitivities and susceptibilities of the island, its ICZM plan requires special attention. The method utilized in this article combines the perception of stakeholders’ need and coastal issues with the effects of management interventions. The method developed for Kish’s ICZM plan can provide comprehensible tools for decision makers in order to find the sources of conflicts and problems. According to the results, most of the interactions belong to “coastal environment” and “tourism” and also many groups of primary stakeholders are involved by many changes. The results of Option Matrix imply that “environmental legislation and mandatory EIA for any project and any discharge” and also “allocation of some regions to national park” interact with various components of the matrix and many primary stakeholders engage. Finally, some of the obstacles are scrutinized in this study such as: environmental legislation, lack of local environmental standards, lack of enough incentive among primary and secondary stakeholders, etc.

Shipping routes through core habitat of endangered sperm whales along the Hellenic Trench, Greece: Can we reduce collision risks?

Frantzis A, Leaper R, Alexiadou P, Prospathopoulos A, Lekkas D. Shipping routes through core habitat of endangered sperm whales along the Hellenic Trench, Greece: Can we reduce collision risks? Tsikliras AC. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(2):e0212016. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212016
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Mediterranean sperm whale population is listed as ‘Endangered”. The Hellenic Trench is the core habitat of the eastern Mediterranean sperm whale sub-population that numbers two to three hundred individuals. Major shipping routes running on or very close to the 1000 m depth contour along the Hellenic Trench are causing an unsustainable number of ship-strikes with sperm whales reviewed in this paper. Sperm whale sighting and density data were combined with specific information on the vessel traffic in the area (e.g., types of vessels, traffic patterns, speed and traffic density), in order to estimate the risk of a whale/ship interaction. Routing options to significantly reduce ship strike risk by a small offshore shift in shipping routes were identified. The overall collision risk for sperm whales in the study area would be reduced by around 70%, while a maximum of 11 nautical miles would be added to major routes and only around 5 nautical miles for the majority of ships. No negative impacts were associated with re-routing by shipping away from sperm whale habitat and there would be additional shipping safety and environmental benefits. A significant contribution to the overall conservation status of the marine Natura2000 sites in the area and very important population units of threatened species such as Cuvier’s beaked whales, monk seals and loggerhead turtles would be achieved, by the reduction of shipping noise and reduced risk of any oil spills reaching the coasts, which are also important touristic destinations in Greece.

Cross and long-shore variations in reef fish assemblage structure and implications for biodiversity management

Bach LL, Saunders BJ, Newman SJ, Holmes TH, Harvey ES. Cross and long-shore variations in reef fish assemblage structure and implications for biodiversity management. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science [Internet]. 2019 ;218:246 - 257. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272771418302282
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Fish communities are an important cultural, recreational and commercial resource that also have an important role in the functioning of marine ecosystems. Around the world fish assemblages are experiencing pressures from anthropogenic activities, and marine spatial planning is being established to mitigate these impacts and assist with biodiversity conservation. Information about how fish assemblages are structured across a range of spatial scales which encompass variations in physical, biotic and environmental parameters will assist marine spatial planning and management. We investigated differences in reef fish assemblage composition over three reef lines across an inshore to offshore gradient (3-23 m depth) at two marine reserves (70 km apart) in the Perth metropolitan region, Western Australia. There were significant increases in the number of individuals, species richness, and relative abundance of fish species across the shallow shelf depth gradient in the two locations. There were distinct fish assemblages associated with each reef line, correlated to depth and distance from shore. The differences across the shelf gradient, even over this small depth range, were greater than the differences between the two locations. These findings have implications for marine spatial management and the design of marine reserves that aim to conserve biodiversity. It may be most appropriate for such marine reserves to encompass a wide depth gradient, rather than a large longshore area. At the very least, cross and longshore patterns in fish assemblages should be taken into consideration and used to guide spatial management plans for biodiversity conservation.

A quantitative analysis linking seabird mortality and marine debris ingestion

Roman L, Hardesty BDenise, Hindell MA, Wilcox C. A quantitative analysis linking seabird mortality and marine debris ingestion. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2019 ;9(1). Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-36585-9
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Procellariiformes are the most threatened bird group globally, and the group with the highest frequency of marine debris ingestion. Marine debris ingestion is a globally recognized threat to marine biodiversity, yet the relationship between how much debris a bird ingests and mortality remains poorly understood. Using cause of death data from 1733 seabirds of 51 species, we demonstrate a signifcant relationship between ingested debris and a debris-ingestion cause of death (dose-response). There is a 20.4% chance of lifetime mortality from ingesting a single debris item, rising to 100% after consuming 93 items. Obstruction of the gastro-intestinal tract is the leading cause of death. Overall, balloons are the highest-risk debris item; 32 times more likely to result in death than ingesting hard plastic. These fndings have signifcant implications for quantifying seabird mortality due to debris ingestion, and provide identifable policy targets aimed to reduce mortality for threatened species worldwide.

Environmental processes and ecological effects of microplastics in the ocean

Wang R, Liu X. Environmental processes and ecological effects of microplastics in the ocean. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2019 ;227:052047. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/227/5/052047
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

There are no doubts that plastics problem in the ocean environment has become an increasingly worldwide focus in past several decades. A number of experts regard the plastic wastes as one of the hardest anthropogenic threats. The degraded items of large individual plastics lead to millions of microplstics (MPs) ultimately. As a result, the new pollution has appeared in the ocean. The ever-growing MPs have been detected in subtotal sea products, such as sea food and table salts. The MPs can bring potential health risk to people by enrichment in sea products. Furthermore, the economic development of offshore fishery and the marine tourism have been inhibited badly. This article will make a brief review on present studies about MPs in the ocean.

A state-of-the-art model for spatial and stochastic oil spill risk assessment: A case study of oil spill from a shipwreck

Amir-Heidari P, Arneborg L, J. Lindgren F, Lindhe A, Rosén L, Raie M, Axell L, Hassellöv I-M. A state-of-the-art model for spatial and stochastic oil spill risk assessment: A case study of oil spill from a shipwreck. Environment International [Internet]. 2019 ;126:309 - 320. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412018324061
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Oil spills are serious environmental issues that potentially can cause adverse effects on marine ecosystems. In some marine areas, like the Baltic Sea, there is a large number of wrecks from the first half of the 20th century, and recent monitoring and field work have revealed release of oil from some of these wrecks. The risk posed by a wreck is governed by its condition, hazardous substances contained in the wreck and the state of the surrounding environment. Therefore, there is a need for a common standard method for estimating the risks associated with different wrecks. In this work a state-of-the-art model is presented for spatial and stochastic risk assessment of oil spills from wrecks, enabling a structured approach to include the complex factors affecting the risk values. A unique feature of this model is its specific focus on uncertainty, facilitating probabilistic calculation of the total risk as the integral expected sum of many possible consequences. A case study is performed in Kattegat at the entrance region to the Baltic Sea to map the risk from a wreck near Sweden. The developed model can be used for oil spill risk assessment in the marine environment all over the world.

Spatial Economic Benefit Analysis: Facing integration challenges in maritime spatial planning

Weig B, Schultz-Zehden A. Spatial Economic Benefit Analysis: Facing integration challenges in maritime spatial planning. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2019 ;173:65 - 76. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569118306380
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Maritime spatial planning (MSP) is a complex endeavour that faces multiple integration challenges: different forms of knowledge, various stakeholders, policies and sectors need to be taken into account as well as different scales, national borders and the interface of land and sea. MSP already integrates different views such as ecological and jurisdictional. However, there is room for improvement in integrating economic, social and cultural perspectives. Tools to analyse the economic effects of planning decisions are, admittedly, rare. To close this gap, the Spatial Economic Benefit Analysis (SEBA) tool has been developed. The method identifies and maps the spatial distribution of benefits associated with certain maritime uses. Given that statistical data on maritime sectors is not available at the necessary level of detail, the SEBA tool takes a rather unconventional approach. Instead of directly assessing monetary benefits, it identifies beneficiaries and analyses their geographical distribution. In this way, the tool enables MSP practitioners to respond to current and future integration challenges. For the sectors of shipping and offshore wind energy, the tool has been tested on the case of the German Baltic Sea region. The case study reveals strengths and weaknesses in applying the SEBA method in general, as well as with regard to the various integration challenges in MSP.

Spatio-temporal monitoring of coastal floating marine debris in the Balearic Islands from sea-cleaning boats

Compa M, March D, Deudero S. Spatio-temporal monitoring of coastal floating marine debris in the Balearic Islands from sea-cleaning boats. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2019 ;141:205 - 214. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X1930116X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Mismanaged waste is accumulating at an alarming rate in the marine environment. Its presence has caused local authorities in the Balearic Islands to develop a coastal sea-cleaning boat service covering the region, identifying the floating marine debris, and removing it from the coastal areas. This study considered daily monitoring from May to October spanning from 2005 to 2015. Plastic marine debris composed over 54% of all floating marine debris removed daily across the Balearic Islands. The spatio-temporal patterns indicate a heterogeneous distribution of plastic in the coastal areas, with higher concentrations in the north-western and south-eastern regions of the islands and debris peaking during the month of August. Furthermore, floating marine debris was more easily collected during calm seas as well as using an integrated monitoring approach to facilitate its removal. Overall, sea-cleaning boats are highly effective in removing coastal floating marine debris.

The current application of ecological connectivity in the design of marine protected areas

Balbar AC, Metaxas A. The current application of ecological connectivity in the design of marine protected areas. Global Ecology and Conservation [Internet]. In Press :e00569. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351989418304347
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an area-based conservation strategy commonly used to safeguard marine biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecological connectivity governs the exchange of individuals among spatially fragmented habitats and is often highlighted as an important element in the design of MPAs. However, the degree to which measured or modelled representations of connectivity are applied to marine management decisions worldwide remains unclear. We reviewed the scientific and management literature to explore the application of connectivity in MPAs located in six countries or regions with advanced marine spatial planning. Only 11% of the 746 MPAs we examined considered connectivity as an ecological criterion, increasingly so since 2007. Landscape measures such as habitat linkages were used most frequently by managers and genetic and modelling approaches by scientists. Of the MPAs that considered connectivity, 71% were for state marine conservation areas or reserves in California and commonwealth marine reserves in Australia. This pattern indicates substantial geographic bias. We propose that the incorporation of connectivity in conservation planning needs to become more accessible to practitioners and provide four recommendations that together will allow scientists and managers to bridge this gap: 1. determine whether to prioritize connectivity as an ecological criterion, 2. identify the role of an MPA in supporting connectivity, 3. identify the appropriate spatial and temporal scale of connectivity, and 4. improve regional knowledge of connectivity patterns. We also propose a framework to facilitate the communication of metrics and patterns of connectivity between scientists and practitioners to apply the best available information in the design and adaptive management of MPAs and networks of MPAs.

Feeding and respiration by giant barrel sponges across a gradient of food abundance in the Red Sea

Wooster MK, McMurray SE, Pawlik JR, Morán XAG, Berumen ML. Feeding and respiration by giant barrel sponges across a gradient of food abundance in the Red Sea. Limnology and Oceanography [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://aslopubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/lno.11151
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

While sponges are well‐known to be suspension feeders, consumption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has recently been highlighted as a mechanism whereby sponges may avoid food limitation. Further, the sponge‐loop hypothesis proposes that sponges consume DOC and then release shed cellular detritus back to the reef benthos. We examined the carbon flux mediated by the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia testudinaria, on reefs in the Red Sea across an inshore–offshore gradient that had previously been proposed to affect sponge nutrition in other parts of the tropics. Seawater samples were collected from the incurrent and excurrent flow of 35 sponges. Concentrations of total organic carbon and its components, DOC, live particulate organic carbon (LPOC), and detritus, were all significantly higher in incurrent seawater on inshore than offshore reefs. The diet of X. testudinaria was comprised primarily of DOC and detritus, with mean values across all reef sites of 61.5% DOC, 34.6% detritus, and 3.9% LPOC. Across the inshore–offshore gradient, there was evidence (1) of a threshold concentration of DOC (≈ 79 μmol C Lseawater−1) below which sponges ceased to be net consumers of DOC, and (2) that sponges on offshore reefs were food limited, with a mean carbon deficit relative to sponges on inshore reef sites. Sponges on offshore reef sites exhibited higher pumping rates, perhaps indicating optimal foraging for POC. As previously demonstrated for Xestospongia muta, and contrary to the sponge‐loop hypothesis, there was no evidence that X. testudinaria returned DOC to the benthos in the form of detritus.

Climate change impacts on fisheries

Plagányi É. Climate change impacts on fisheries. Science [Internet]. 2019 ;363(6430):930 - 931. Available from: http://www.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aaw5824
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $15.00
Type: Journal Article

Food security, climate change, and their complex and uncertain interactions are a major challenge for societies and ecologies (1). Global assessments of predicted changes in crop yield under climate change, combined with international trade dynamics, suggest that disparities between nations in production and food availability will escalate (2). But climate change has already affected productivity. For example, weather-related factors caused declines in global maize and wheat production of 3.8% and 5.5%, respectively, between 1980 and 2008 (3). On page 979 of this issue, Free et al. (4) report a comprehensive analysis that indicates a 4.1% decline between 1930 and 2010 in the global productivity of marine fisheries , with some of the largest fish-producing ecoregions experiencing losses of up to 35%. Their spatial mapping can help to inform future planning and adaptation strategies.

Stopping overexploitation of living resources on the high seas

Hofman RJ. Stopping overexploitation of living resources on the high seas. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;103:91 - 100. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18302938
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This paper reviews the provisions and efforts to implement the 1946 International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW) and the 1980 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). It illustrates progress and continuing challenges to stopping the overexploitation of living resources in high seas areas beyond national jurisdictions. Progress includes recognition that living organisms interact with each other and the environment in complex ways and that single-species management to attain maximum sustainable yield (MSY) fails to account for these interactions. Continuing challenges include data limitations that allow differing views concerning the adequacy and interpretation of the available data, and decision-makingthat allows a minority of the decision-makers to block adoption of regulatory measures that the majority believe necessary to meet the intent and provisions of the regulatory agreements. The provisions and continuing challenges to meeting the objectives of these two conventions should be considered in the formulation of future international high seas regulatory agreements such as the regime to govern fisheries in the central Arctic Ocean as envisioned in the 16 year ban on commercial fishing there agreed in October 2018 by Canada, Denmark (for Greenland), Iceland, Russia, Norway, the United States, the European Union, Japan, China, and South Korea.

More than maps: Providing an alternative for fisheries and fishers in marine spatial planning.

Trouillet B, Bellanger-Husi L, Ghaziri AEl, Lamberts C, Plissonneau E, Rollo N. More than maps: Providing an alternative for fisheries and fishers in marine spatial planning. Ocean & Coastal Management [Internet]. 2019 ;173:90 - 103. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569118304368
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Although a necessary approach in many cases, implementing Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) reveals discrepancies between theory and practice. These discrepancies include the major importance given to technical issues along with the role and meaning ascribed to the “spatial” dimension at the expense of the “strategic” one. This gives rise to questions especially from the point of view of fisheries that invite to develop a more in-depth critical analysis of MSP. Far from considering the technical and political dimensions in opposition, the goal is to find out whether the reasoning used can be turned around, or in other words, whether the potential of a mapping instrument can be used to give greater importance and more visibility to strategic questions in MSP processes. Our reflection is based on methods used to map fisheries. It is also enhanced by notions such as empowerment and asserting the value of non-scientific knowledge in-situ. To test the strengths and shortcomings of this idea, it was applied in the context of an ongoing 2010 experiment between scientists (geographers and statisticians), fishers and fishers' representatives in metropolitan France. They have been working together for several years and have gradually expanded their scope to now include almost three-quarters of French metropolitan fleets (around 3250 vessels). This experiment shows that fishers and their representatives are not only able to generate spatial data using robust methods (almost 6000 surveys have already been conducted), but more importantly that they are also able to draw on this knowledge and participate in debates in a more effective manner, taking on the role of “real actors”. This has enabled a more political alternative to take shape, full of promise and giving rise to new questions.

Fishing for nutrients – economic effects of fisheries management targeting eutrophication in the Baltic Sea

Nielsen R, Hoff A, Waldo S, Hammarlund C, Virtanen J. Fishing for nutrients – economic effects of fisheries management targeting eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Ecological Economics [Internet]. 2019 ;160:156 - 167. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800918308760
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

The Baltic Sea is one of the most eutrophied seas in the world, facing challenges with both hypoxia and algae blooms. In this study we analyse the effect of using different fishery policy instruments to reduce nutrient loads by removing fish biomass from the ecosystem. The study covers Danish, Finnish and Swedish pelagic fisheries. We distinguish between a private optimum maximising the net present value from fishing and a social optimum including the positive externality of removing nutrients. A dynamic bio-economic model, FishRent, is used to estimate the effect of three policy scenarios: Fisheries regulation using individual transferable quotas (ITQ); Economic compensation provided to fishers for reducing nutrients; and Environmental regulation maximising sustainable catches. The results show that the highest social welfare gain is achieved by maximising catch volumes while having a flexible system for quota trade within the fishing sector. The social welfare gain from the positive externality of the extra fish landed in this case outweighs the private loss of not fishing at the optimal individual level (maximum economic yield).

Multiscale spatio-temporal patterns of boat noise on U.S. Virgin Island coral reefs

Dinh JP, Suca JJ, Lillis A, Apprill A, Llopiz JK, T. Mooney A. Multiscale spatio-temporal patterns of boat noise on U.S. Virgin Island coral reefs. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2018 ;136:282 - 290. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X18306489
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Sound-sensitive organisms are abundant on coral reefs. Accordingly, experiments suggest that boat noise could elicit adverse effects on coral reef organisms. Yet, there are few data quantifying boat noise prevalence on coral reefs. We use long-term passive acoustic recordings at nine coral reefs and one sandy comparison site in a marine protected area to quantify spatio-temporal variation in boat noise and its effect on the soundscape. Boat noise was most common at reefs with high coral cover and fish density, and temporal patterns reflected patterns of human activity. Boat noise significantly increased low-frequency sound levels at the monitored sites. With boat noise present, the peak frequencies of the natural soundscape shifted from higher frequencies to the lower frequencies frequently used in fish communication. Taken together, the spectral overlap between boat noise and fish communication and the elevated boat detections on reefs with biological densities raises concern for coral reef organisms.

A conceptual model to improve links between science, policy and practice in coastal management

Dale P, Sporne I, Knight J, Sheaves M, Eslami-Andergoli L, Dwyer P. A conceptual model to improve links between science, policy and practice in coastal management. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;103:42 - 49. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X1830383X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

The literature has identified significant barriers to sustainable management of coastal resources due to lack of integration between science, policy and practice. The social and biophysical sciences are an important information source but are often neglected in policy and practice. The literature has identified the science, policy practice gaps as significant barriers to sustainable management of coastal resources. However, there is lack of research specifically covering the interactions between the three domains. This paper aims to: a) review the literature to identify gaps and related factors or themes contributing to the science-policy-practice disconnect; and b) propose a conceptual integrated model to address those gaps and to increase the uptake of science into policy and practice in coastal systems. The results confirm that there are gaps in the two way-links between science and policy and practice. Most research (64%) is published in the science to policy area, 32% in the policy and practice area, and only four % of the research is published in the science-policy-practice area. Effective integration is inhibited by issues of knowledge, uncertainty, communication, political and cultural issues and institutions or rules and a clear mechanism for linking science, policy and practice is needed. Frameworks may help alleviate the problem but may not be holistic or flexible enough to facilitate interactions across science-policy-practice. There needs to be a clear mechanism for integrating science, policy and practice. To address this a conceptual model of the interactions between science and policy and practice is proposed. The model includes two-way connections between science-policy-practice, mediated by both internal and external factors including key drivers, facilitators, inhibitors and barriers. The model is applied to three case studies, namely: implementing international level blue carbon policy at a local level; an historical perspective on mangrove damage and restoration at an Australian state level; and an Australian example of long-term interactions between science, policy and practice, illustrating how multiple connections and interactions can occur as projects proceed.

Integrated assessment of ecosystem health using multiple indicator species

Zhao C, Shao N, Yang S, Ren H, Ge Y, Zhang Z, Zhao Y, Yin X. Integrated assessment of ecosystem health using multiple indicator species. Ecological Engineering [Internet]. 2019 ;130:157 - 168. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0925857419300679
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Healthy river ecosystems can provide fundamental ecological services for human survival and social development. However, previous studies that have sought to assess river ecosystem health have primarily focused on individual biological communities rather than on all aquatic communities and have been based on a single-index assessment method, thereby leading to large uncertainties in the results. In this study, we developed a new framework for the integrated assessment of aquatic ecosystem health based on the principal communities of fish, zoobenthos, phytoplankton, and zooplankton in rivers. An index of biotic integrity was used to evaluate the health of fish and zoobenthos communities, and a diversity index was used to evaluate the health of zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. To integrate the health assessment results from these four communities, a quantile normalization method was developed, where uncertainties in assessments obtained using the diversity index were well compensated for by the assessments obtained using the biotic integrity index. The framework was then applied to a pilot city, which is being constructed as a civilized freshwater ecological city in China. The results were then compared with those previously obtained based on the single-community method. Using this new framework, we found that the aquatic ecosystem health changed regularly in space and over time. Large differences were detected among the assessments of the four individual communities based on the single-community method, with the health score determined using phytoplankton being the highest, followed by that of zoobenthos, zooplankton, and fish, which made it difficult to reach a definitive conclusion regarding aquatic health status. The integrated assessment framework presented in this study successfully overcame the narrow perspective of the single-community method, thereby reducing uncertainties in the assessments based only on a single diversity index, and instead provides a comprehensive view of the status of aquatic ecosystem health. Thus, this integrated framework could assist river managers and stakeholders in developing comprehensive strategies for ecological restoration and water resource management and could become a key research tool for the health assessment and rehabilitation of aquatic ecosystems globally.

Socio-economic impacts of marine conservation efforts in three Indonesian fishing communities

Eriksson B, Johansson F, Blicharska M. Socio-economic impacts of marine conservation efforts in three Indonesian fishing communities. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;103:59 - 67. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18304810
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Numerous conservation initiatives have been undertaken to protect large marine animals by legal protection and implementing marine protected areas (MPAs). Despite these efforts, many marine animals are still threatened, partly due to lack of compliance with conservation regulations. Meanwhile, research suggests that conservation efforts which also take socio-economic factors such as fishermen's livelihoods into account during planning and implementation are more likely to succeed. This study examined the compliance and socio-economic situation of local fishing communities at three sites in Indonesia (Nusa Penida, Tanjung Luar and Komodo National Park) where shark and manta ray conservation efforts have been implemented. 59 local residents were interviewed. The results showed that 49% of those residents had experienced a deterioration and 37% an improvement in their economic situation since conservation efforts in the form of species protection or MPAs were implemented in their area. The economic situation of the residents was associated with their access to alternative livelihoods, access to information on conservation rules, and relationship with conservation authorities. Particularly, interviewees with easier access to alternative income and a positive relationship with conservation authorities also experienced an increase in their economy. In addition, compliance with conservation efforts was positively related to improved economic situation, access to alternative livelihoods and information on conservation rules. These factors all differed among the three study sites, leading to different compliance levels between sites. The results of this study indicate the importance of considering socio-economic factors and of involving local communities when planning and implementing conservation efforts.

Pages

Subscribe to OpenChannels Literature Library