Literature Library

Currently indexing 10165 titles

Ecosystem-based fisheries management requires broader performance indicators for the human dimension

Hornborg S, van Putten I, Novaglio C, Fulton EA, Blanchard JL, Plagányi É, Bulman C, Sainsbury K. Ecosystem-based fisheries management requires broader performance indicators for the human dimension. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;108:103639. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18309126
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) is a globally mandated approach with the intention to jointly address ecological and human (social-cultural, economic and institutional) dimensions. Indicators to measure performance against objectives have been suggested, tested, and refined but with a strong bias towards ecological indicators. In this paper, current use and application of indicators related to the human dimension in EBFM research and ecosystem models are analysed. It is found that compared to ecological counterparts, few indicators related to the human dimension are commonly associated with EBFM, and they mainly report on economic objectives related to fisheries. Similarly, in the most common ecosystem models, economic indicators are the most frequently used related to the human dimension, both in terms of model outputs and inputs. The prospect is small that indicators mainly related to profitable fishing economy are able to report on meeting the broad range of EBFM objectives and to successfully evaluate progress in achieving EBFM goals. To fully conform with EBFM principles, it is necessary to recognise that ecological and human indicators are inter-dependent. Moreover, the end-to-end ecosystem models used in EBFM will need to be further developed to allow a fuller spectrum of social-cultural, institutional, and economic objectives to be reported against.

Marine Observing Applications Using AIS: Automatic Identification System

Wright D, Janzen C, Bochenek R, Austin J, Page E. Marine Observing Applications Using AIS: Automatic Identification System. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00537/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a real-time network of transmitters and receivers that allow vessel movements to be broadcast, tracked, and recorded. Though traditionally used for real-time maritime applications related to keeping track of vessel traffic for collision avoidance, there is increasing interest in using AIS data and the AIS platform for maritime safety planning, resource management, and weather forecasting. AIS data are being made tractable for alternative non-real-time applications like determining trends and patterns in vessel traffic and helping to prioritize where modern bathymetric surveys are needed to ensure safe maritime transit. The AIS is also being used for widespread transmission of critical environmental conditions information, such as sea state and weather, to mariners, forecasters, and emergency response providers. Several pilot projects are underway that demonstrate the capacity and promise of AIS data and the AIS platform to serve multiple purposes, providing overall maritime domain awareness while maintaining its most important objective of tracking vessels to aid safe, secure, efficient and environmentally sound maritime operations.

Observational Needs of Sea Surface Temperature

O’Carroll AG, Armstrong EM, Beggs HM, Bouali M, Casey KS, Corlett GK, Dash P, Donlon CJ, Gentemann CL, Høyer JL, et al. Observational Needs of Sea Surface Temperature. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00420/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Sea surface temperature (SST) is a fundamental physical variable for understanding, quantifying and predicting complex interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. Such processes determine how heat from the sun is redistributed across the global oceans, directly impacting large- and small-scale weather and climate patterns. The provision of daily maps of global SST for operational systems, climate modeling and the broader scientific community is now a mature and sustained service coordinated by the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) and the CEOS SST Virtual Constellation (CEOS SST-VC). Data streams are shared, indexed, processed, quality controlled, analyzed, and documented within a Regional/Global Task Sharing (R/GTS) framework, which is implemented internationally in a distributed manner. Products rely on a combination of low-Earth orbit infrared and microwave satellite imagery, geostationary orbit infrared satellite imagery, and in situ data from moored and drifting buoys, Argo floats, and a suite of independent, fully characterized and traceable in situ measurements for product validation (Fiducial Reference Measurements, FRM). Research and development continues to tackle problems such as instrument calibration, algorithm development, diurnal variability, derivation of high-quality skin and depth temperatures, and areas of specific interest such as the high latitudes and coastal areas. In this white paper, we review progress versus the challenges we set out 10 years ago in a previous paper, highlight remaining and new research and development challenges for the next 10 years (such as the need for sustained continuity of passive microwave SST using a 6.9 GHz channel), and conclude with needs to achieve an integrated global high-resolution SST observing system, with focus on satellite observations exploited in conjunction with in situSSTs. The paper directly relates to the theme of Data Information Systems and also contributes to Ocean Observing Governance and Ocean Technology and Networks within the OceanObs2019 objectives. Applications of SST contribute to all the seven societal benefits, covering Discovery; Ecosystem Health & Biodiversity; Climate Variability & Change; Water, Food, & Energy Security; Pollution & Human Health; Hazards and Maritime Safety; and the Blue Economy.

Ocean Climate Monitoring

Cole R, Kinder J, Yu W, Ning CLin, Wang F, Chao Y. Ocean Climate Monitoring. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00503/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Measuring ocean physics and atmospheric conditions at the sea-surface has been taking place for decades in our world’s oceans. Enhancing R&D technologies developed in Federal and academic institutions and laboratories such as WHOI’s Vector Averaging Current Meter (VACM, 1970s) and NOAA – PMEL’s: Autonomous Temperature Line Acquisition System (ATLAS, 1980s) as example, in situ ocean measurements and real-time telemetry for data processing and dissemination from remote areas of oceans and seas are now common place. A transition of this “ocean monitoring” technology has occurred with additional support from individual and group innovative efforts in the field of ocean instrumentation. As a result, long-term monitoring of ocean processes and changes has become more accessible to the research community at large. Here; we discuss a “Hybrid” air-sea interaction deep-sea monitoring system that has been developed in the private sector to mirror ocean-climate community data streams and has been successfully deployed on three basin-scaled programs in the Indian Ocean (RAMA, First Institute of Oceanography, FIO, China), the Andaman Sea (MOMSEI, Monsoon Onset Monitoring, FIO) and the Pacific Ocean (China’s Institute of Oceanology, Academy of Sciences (IOCAS) research in the western tropical Pacific). This application is a base to build upon as new sensors are developed and increased sampling at higher resolutions is required. Surface vehicles measure the surface, with some profiling available. Water column density sampling is still a much-needed measurement within the Ocean Climate Monitoring community. The “Hybrid” is a multidisciplinary tool to integrate new biological and biogeochemical sensors for continued interaction studies of the physical processes of our oceans. This application can also be used at FLUX sites to enhance the Argo Program, telemetry applications and docking stations for autonomous vehicles such as sail-drones, gliders and wave riders for enhancement and contribution to the Global Tropical Moored Buoy Array (GTMBA), Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), and the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOS).

What We Have Learned From the Framework for Ocean Observing: Evolution of the Global Ocean Observing System

Tanhua T, McCurdy A, Fischer A, Appeltans W, Bax N, Currie K, deYoung B, Dunn D, Heslop E, Glover LK, et al. What We Have Learned From the Framework for Ocean Observing: Evolution of the Global Ocean Observing System. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00471/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and its partners have worked together over the past decade to break down barriers between open-ocean and coastal observing, between scientific disciplines, and between operational and research institutions. Here we discuss some GOOS successes and challenges from the past decade, and present ideas for moving forward, including highlights of the GOOS 2030 Strategy, published in 2019. The OceanObs’09 meeting in Venice in 2009 resulted in a remarkable consensus on the need for a common set of guidelines for the global ocean observing community. Work following the meeting led to development of the Framework for Ocean Observing (FOO) published in 2012 and adopted by GOOS as a foundational document that same year. The FOO provides guidelines for the setting of requirements, assessing technology readiness, and assessing the usefulness of data and products for users. Here we evaluate successes and challenges in FOO implementation and consider ways to ensure broader use of the FOO principles. The proliferation of ocean observing activities around the world is extremely diverse and not managed, or even overseen by, any one entity. The lack of coherent governance has resulted in duplication and varying degrees of clarity, responsibility, coordination and data sharing. GOOS has had considerable success over the past decade in encouraging voluntary collaboration across much of this broad community, including increased use of the FOO guidelines and partly effective governance, but much remains to be done. Here we outline and discuss several approaches for GOOS to deliver more effective governance to achieve our collective vision of fully meeting society’s needs. What would a more effective and well-structured governance arrangement look like? Can the existing system be modified? Do we need to rebuild it from scratch? We consider the case for evolution versus revolution. Community-wide consideration of these governance issues will be timely and important before, during and following the OceanObs’19 meeting in September 2019.

Biodiversity and Species Change in the Arctic Ocean: A View Through the Lens of Nares Strait

Kalenitchenko D, Joli N, Potvin M, Tremblay J-É, Lovejoy C. Biodiversity and Species Change in the Arctic Ocean: A View Through the Lens of Nares Strait. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00479/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Nares Strait is the northern most outflow gateway of the Arctic Ocean, with a direct connection to the remaining multi-year ice covered central Arctic Ocean. Nares Strait itself flows into the historically highly productive North Water Polynya (Pikialasorsuaq). Satellite data show that Nares Strait ice is retreating earlier in the season. The early season surface chlorophyll signal, which was a characteristic of the North Water, has also moved north into Nares Strait. However, given the vast differences in the hydrography and physical oceanographic structure of the North Water and Nares Strait there is no a priori reason to assume that the species assemblages and overall productivity of this region between Greenland and Canada will be maintained in the face of ongoing sea ice decline. The North Water’s high marine mammal and bird populations are dependent on seasonally persistent diatom dominated phytoplankton productivity, and although there have been several studies on North Water phytoplankton, virtually nothing is known about the communities in Nares Strait. Here we investigated the microbial eukaryotes, including phytoplankton in Nares Strait using high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Samples were collected from Kennedy Channel below the northern ice edge of Nares Strait through the Kane Basin and into the northern limit of the North Water. The physical oceanographic structure and initial community rapidly changed between the faster flowing Kennedy Channel and the comparatively wider shallower Kane Basin. The community changes were evident in both the upper euphotic zone and the deeper aphotic zone. Heterotrophic taxa were found in the deeper waters along with ice algae that would have originated further to the north following release from the ice. Although there was a high proportion of pan-Arctic species throughout, the Nares Strait system showed little in common with the Northern North Water station, suggesting a lack of connectivity. We surmise that a direct displacement of the rich North Water ecosystem is not likely to occur. Overall our study supported the notion that the microbial eukaryotic community, which supports ecosystem function and secondary productivity is shaped by a balance of historic and current processes, which differed by seascape.

Coral Translocation as a Method to Restore Impacted Deep-Sea Coral Communities

Boch CA, DeVogelaere A, Burton E, King C, Lord J, Lovera C, Litvin SY, Kuhnz L, Barry JP. Coral Translocation as a Method to Restore Impacted Deep-Sea Coral Communities. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00540/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Corals and sponges in rocky deep-sea environments are foundation species postulated to enhance local diversity by increasing biogenic habitat heterogeneity and enriching local carbon cycling. These key groups are highly vulnerable to disturbances (e.g., trawling, mining, and pollution) and are threatened by expansive changes in ocean conditions linked to climate change (acidification, warming, and deoxygenation). Once damaged by trawling or other disturbances, recolonization and regrowth may require centuries or longer, highlighting the need for stewardship of these deep-sea coral and sponge communities (DSCSCs). To this end, the sustainability of DSCSCs may be enhanced not only by protecting existing communities, but also repopulating disturbed areas using active restoration methods. Here, we report one of the first studies to explore methods to restore deep-sea coral populations by translocating coral fragments of multiple coral species. Branches of deep-sea corals were collected by ROV from 800 to 1300 m depth off central California and propagated into multiple fragments once at the surface. These fragments were then attached to “coral pots” using two different methods and placed in the same habitat to assess their survivorship (n = 113 total fragments, n = 7 taxa, n = 7 deployment groups). Mean survivorship for all translocated coral fragments observed within the first 365 days was ∼52%, with the highest mortality occurring in the first 3 months. In addition to an initial temporal sensitivity, survival of coral fragments varied by attachment method and among species. All coral fragments attached to coral pots using zip ties died, while those attached by cement resulted in differential survivorship over time. The latter method resulted in 80–100% fragment survivorship after 1 year for Corallium sp., Lillipathes sp., and Swiftia kofoidi, 12–50% for the bamboo corals Keratoisissp. and Isidella tentaculum, and 0–50% for the bubblegum corals Paragorgia arborea and Sibogagorgia cauliflora. These initial results indicate differences in sensitivities to transplanting methods among coral species, but also suggest that repopulation efforts may accelerate the recovery of disturbed DSCSCs.

Lessons From Placing an Observer on Commercial Cargo Ships Off the U.S. West Coast: Utility as an Observation Platform and Insight Into Ship Strike Vulnerability

Flynn KRegina, Calambokidis J. Lessons From Placing an Observer on Commercial Cargo Ships Off the U.S. West Coast: Utility as an Observation Platform and Insight Into Ship Strike Vulnerability. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00501/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Ship strikes of whales are a growing concern around the world and especially along the U.S. West Coast, home to some of busiest ports in the world and where ship strikes on a number of species including blue, fin, and humpback whales have been documented. This trial program examined the feasibility, logistics, industry cooperation, and effectiveness of placing an observer on board a commercial ship. An experienced marine mammal observer went on five voyages, spanning over 8 days on ships operating between U.S. West Coast ports. Daylight observations were conducted over 68 h and covered over 1300 nm as ships transited between three ports [Seattle, Oakland, and LA/Long Beach (LA/LB)]. Sightings of large whales were reported on all (n = 42), totaling an estimated 57 individuals that included humpback, blue, fin, and beaked whales. Close encounters of large whales occurred (on one occasion a near miss, estimated at 40 m, of two humpbacks), and on another, a ship chose to alter course to avoid whale sightings in its path identified by the observer. All ships personnel cooperated and voluntarily aided in the observations even after initial skepticism by some crew about the program. While most effort on mitigating ship strikes along the U.S. West Coast has focused on shipping lanes, the vast majority of these sightings occurred outside these lanes and on the transit routes, emphasizing the need for added attention to these areas. This experiment demonstrates the effectiveness and promise of observations from ships providing critical information on whale locations at risk to ship strikes.

Tracing Coral Reefs: A Citizen Science Approach in Mapping Coral Reefs to Enhance Marine Park Management Strategies

Lau CMing, Kee-Alfian AAdzis, Affendi YAmri, Hyde J, Chelliah A, Leong YSing, Low YLee, Yusop PAsma Megat, Leong VThye, A. Halimi M, et al. Tracing Coral Reefs: A Citizen Science Approach in Mapping Coral Reefs to Enhance Marine Park Management Strategies. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00539/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Effective marine park management and protection of coral reefs can only happen if managers have adequate knowledge of reef health and area. However, obtaining such information is labor intensive and difficult with limited funding and time. Reef Check Malaysia was engaged by Department of Marine Parks Malaysia to map the coral reefs surrounding Tioman Island Marine Park and document health status and site specific threats. To achieve this, we utilized the Reef Check survey method, a simple, rapid and holistic standardized reef monitoring protocol based on scientific principles. This method is suitable where funds and time are limited. A total of 95 sites surrounding Tioman Island were surveyed with the assistance of certified Reef Check EcoDiver volunteers and representatives from local stakeholders. This citizen science approach proved successful and generated a baseline map revealing a difference in the health of coral reefs between the west and east sides of Tioman Island, where the West had <25% live coral cover as compared to >50% on the East. Combined with data on indicator fish and invertebrates, as well as human and natural impacts, the results suggest that Tioman Island should be separated into three distinctive conservation priority zones to enhance management strategies of this marine park. This is an example of an innovative way to engage and involve local stakeholders in planning conservation and management strategies.

High-seas fish biodiversity is slipping through the governance net

Crespo GOrtuño, Dunn DC, Gianni M, Gjerde K, Wright G, Halpin PN. High-seas fish biodiversity is slipping through the governance net. Nature Ecology & Evolution [Internet]. 2019 ;3(9):1273 - 1276. Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-019-0981-4
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

States at the United Nations have begun negotiating a new treaty to strengthen the legal regime for marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Failure to ensure the full scope of fish biodiversity is covered could result in thousands of species continuing to slip through the cracks of a fragmented global ocean governance framework.

Over the past 70 years, commercial fisheries have expanded farther and deeper into the open ocean1,2,3,4, impacting many forms of marine biodiversity that exist in areas beyond national jurisdictions (ABNJ; generally, the area beyond 200 nautical miles from shore)5,6. The growth of other industries, such as shipping, has further expanded the presence of humans in the open ocean, while new activities, such as seabed mining, are on the horizon1. These impacts are compounded by the effects of a changing climate, deoxygenation and ocean acidification7,8,9.

In 2017, after more than a decade of informal discussions at the United Nations (UN) regarding gaps in the legal framework for the conservation and management of marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (known as the BBNJ process), states agreed to convene an intergovernmental conference for the negotiation of an legally binding instrument under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) (an ‘implementing agreement’)10.

The agreement to launch the negotiations was partly achieved by the consensus that any new instrument “should not undermine existing legal instruments and frameworks and relevant global, regional and sectoral bodies”10. This has generally been assumed to mean that the new instrument should complement and strengthen the existing framework and prevent the adoption of weaker or dissonant management measures. However, a small number of states wish to see commercial fisheries (including all forms of fish biodiversity, which they group as a commercial resource whether or not it is harvested) excluded from a new agreement and are concerned that any new provisions will inevitably undermine existing fisheries management bodies. However, there is a significant difference between the number of fish species subject to management and the number of fish species in ABNJ that may be impacted by commercial fishing activities. As fish are a major component of marine biodiversity in ABNJ and have a major role in marine ecosystem functioning, it is important to understand what regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs) are in fact responsible for monitoring and managing. Here, we contrast fish biodiversity estimates in ABNJ with a comprehensive database of existing fish population assessments to help delineate the current competencies of RFMOs and identify areas of improvement that could be addressed both through the new agreement as well as by strengthening the mandates and actions taken by such bodies.

We first describe the overarching legal framework for high-seas fisheries, then enumerate how many fish species are either targeted, affected or simply unstudied and potentially at risk of slipping through the cracks of the current management arrangements. The final section analyses how these gaps are relevant to ongoing negotiations at the UN for a new treaty and concludes with specific recommendations.

The fisheries of Africa: Exploitation, policy, and maritime security trends

Belhabib D, U. Sumaila R, Le Billon P. The fisheries of Africa: Exploitation, policy, and maritime security trends. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;101:80 - 92. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18305773?dgcid=raven_sd_recommender_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

African maritime countries take the majority of their animal protein from fish. Bound with tradition and a promise of food and other values, African fisheries also provide a source of livelihood for over 35 million coastal fishers. Yet, as in many other regions of the world, the fishing sector is plagued with policy failures, and illegal activities. This paper summarizes the key points in the evolution of African fisheries in terms of exploitation, policy, and maritime security trends. It addresses how access to fishing by the small-scale sector is increasingly hindered by the increasing power and scope of an industrial fleet often involved in Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) fishing. It also discusses the impacts of ineffective enforcement against overexploitation and illegal fishing, piracy, human smuggling and climate-change risks for coastal communities, as well as policy measures and initiatives to reverse the existing trends.

Survey of mislabelling across finfish supply chain reveals mislabelling both outside and within Canada

Shehata HR, Bourque D, Steinke D, Chen S, Hanner R. Survey of mislabelling across finfish supply chain reveals mislabelling both outside and within Canada. Food Research International [Internet]. 2019 ;121:723 - 729. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996918309943?dgcid=raven_sd_recommender_email
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Seafood has become one of the most heavily traded food commodities in the era of globalization. International seafood supply chains are complex and contend with many difficulties in bringing an enormous variety of products to market. A major challenge involves accurately labelling products such that they comply with a diverse set of regulatory frameworks, ranging from country-of-origin through to the final point of consumer sale. Thanks to DNA barcoding, seafood mislabelling is now recognized as a global problem, with potentially negative impacts on human health, economy and the environment. Mislabelling can result from species misidentification, use of inappropriate common names, incomplete and/or out-dated regulatory frameworks, or through market substitution. While prior studies have focused primarily on retail and food service establishments, this study used barcoding to assess rates of finfish mislabelling at multiple points in the supply chain within Ontario, Canada. A total of 203 specimens from 12 key targeted species were collected from varied importers, registered processing plants and retailers in Southern Ontario and identified using DNA barcoding. Species identity of samples was used to assess conformity of labelling against the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA) Fish List, which revealed an overall mislabelling rate of 32.3% among targeted species. The mislabelling rate was significantly different between samples collected from importers and retailers. Among the mislabelled samples were seven samples that originated from US and were properly labelled according to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Seafood List. This study evaluated the integrity of chain of custody documents and identified discrepancies in 43 samples (21.4%). Implementing seafood traceability throughout the supply chain and harmonizing labelling regulations between countries can help to ensure industry compliance in a globalized market, while sampling at multiple points in the supply chain can help to reveal causes.

Aquaculture of marine ornamental fish: overview of the production trends and the role of academia in research progress

Pouil S, Tlusty MF, Rhyne AL, Metian M. Aquaculture of marine ornamental fish: overview of the production trends and the role of academia in research progress. Reviews in Aquaculture [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/raq.12381
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $42.00
Type: Journal Article

The marine ornamental fish trade is expanding and still largely relies on wild fish from tropical coral reef ecosystems. There are unknowns in the wild harvest so that the sustainability of marine ornamental fish trade can therefore be questioned with aquaculture being perceived as a responsible alternative for the procurement of these ornamental marine fish. However, there are still many technical constraints that hinder its development. These blocks require additional coordination with the outcome being an accelerated development of ornamental marine fish production. The main objective of this review was to better identify, understand and discuss the role and the impacts of academic research in the production of marine ornamental fish through qualitative and quantitative approaches. To do so, 222 selected scientific publications (including peer‐reviewed articles, conferences articles, thesis and reports) from the literature available to date were analysed and outcomes were framed in perspective of the total number of captive‐bred species. Results of the meta‐analyses indicate that academic research has led to significant advances in the breeding of some of the more difficult to breed species. While it has a leading role in conservation, its advance of techniques still lags behind private companies and hobbyists. Partnerships promoting synergistic activities between academic research institutes and the private sector (aquaculture farms and public aquariums) are important to optimize future ornamental marine fish production.

Gear-based characterization of the Gizo, Solomon Islands, inshore commercial finfish fishery

Rhodes KL, Tua P, Sulu R, Pitakaka P, Kekete P, Uti M, Funu F, Masu R. Gear-based characterization of the Gizo, Solomon Islands, inshore commercial finfish fishery. Regional Studies in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;32:100807. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352485519300143
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $31.50
Type: Journal Article

In 2015–2016, a gear-specific assessment of the Gizo, Solomon Islands, commercial inshore fishery was conducted to assist management decision making. The survey identified at least 260 species and 25 families among over 14,000 individual catch- and gear-specific fish photos taken using a digital image capture system. Seventy-nine fishers provided 175 catches during surveys and more than 1,600 fisher and vendor interviews were conducted. More than 75% of all individual fish sampled belonged to nine families that included groupers (Epinephelidae) with 29 species and snappers (Lutjanidae) with 28 species. Groupers, snappers and emperors (Lethrinidae) dominated line-caught fish, while speared catch was composed primarily of parrotfish (Scaridae) and surgeonfish and unicornfish (Acanthuridae). Catch-per-unit effort (CPUE) was 3.9 ± 0.1 kg hr−1 fisher−1 overall, with the highest CPUE for line fishing at 4.5 ± 1.6 kg hr−1 and lowest CPUE for nighttime spearfishing (2.1 ± 0.4 kg hr−1). Gear-specific size distributions and species targeted varied widely, with juveniles dominating most catches for speared fish. Between line-caught and speared catch, only two species were common within the top 25 species. At the time of the study there were no enacted national regulations related to finfish in the inshore fishery in Solomon Islands. Community-based management approaches have been endorsed by government and non-government entities in Solomon Islands, however a greater level of community engagement and voluntary fisher compliance is needed in concert with government enforcement to control potential overfishing, particularly nighttime spearfishing. Ongoing support for precautionary, adaptive management is a recommended course of action to limit the potential for overfishing in Gizo and other coastal areas of high human population density that rely heavily on marine resources.

Methods for Optical Monitoring of Oil Pollution of Sea Water Basins Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Bukin OA, D. Proschenko Y, Chekhlenok AA, Korovetskiy DA. Methods for Optical Monitoring of Oil Pollution of Sea Water Basins Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics [Internet]. 2019 ;32(4):459 - 463. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S102485601904002X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

We present the results of devising new techniques and technical means for utilizing small-sized unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in ecological monitoring of marine water basins in compliance with the MARPOL 73/78 international convention. The development of a hardware-software complex is described for the system of recognizing oil spills using elements of artificial intelligence. The laboratory experiments on identifying oil spills by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) methods are presented, as well as the methods of recording the spectrum of upward solar radiation.

Spatial distribution of flow currents and habitats in artificial buffer zones for ecosystem-based coastal engineering

Xu Y, Cai Y, Peng J, Qu J, Yang Z. Spatial distribution of flow currents and habitats in artificial buffer zones for ecosystem-based coastal engineering. Global Ecology and Conservation [Internet]. In Press ;20:e00764. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351989419303518
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

As the process of urbanization progresses, coastal engineering are posing serious threat to the local ecosystems. The poorly designed coastal engineering will have irreversible effects on local ecosystems, such as the biodiversity declination, the connectivity destruction and the ecosystems deterioration. Therefore, it is very necessary to improve the concept of ecosystem-based coastal engineering design. In strict accordance with the notion of eco-seawall, in this research, the hydrodynamic change in 20 engineering scenarios was discussed and determined the spatial distribution of suitable habitats for aquatic species, which defined as the niche of aquatic organisms in the dimension of hydrodynamic. This research was conducted by carrying out pilot-scale experiment with an aim to enhance the traditional coastal engineering in terms of (a) measuring the intensity of hydrodynamic variations by adding artificial beach or buffer zone (b) determining the overtopping risks in varying working conditions (c) visualizing the distribution of optimal habitat areas with hydrodynamic parameters as eco-niche dimension. As revealed by the results, four working conditions pose low overtopping risk and exhibit uniform distribution of flow (No.1, No.2, No.8 and No.14). Additionally, the suitable habitats distribution have been visualized for 4 types of working condition with safety structure. A conclusion can be drawn that there are significantly fewer unsuitable habitat areas in the No.14 scenario as compared to other schemes. In general, this research is conducive to improving the development of ecosystem-based coastal engineering.

Ocean acidification impact on ascidian Ciona robusta spermatozoa: New evidence for stress resilience

Gallo A, Boni R, Buia MCristina, Monfrecola V, Esposito MConsiglia, Tosti E. Ocean acidification impact on ascidian Ciona robusta spermatozoa: New evidence for stress resilience. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2019 ;697:134100. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004896971934077X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Rising atmospheric CO2 is causing a progressive decrease of seawater pH, termed ocean acidification. Predicting its impact on marine invertebrate reproduction is essential to anticipate the consequences of future climate change on species fitness and survival. Ocean acidification may affect reproductive success either in terms of gamete or progeny quality threating species survival. Despite an increasing number of studies focusing on the effects of ocean acidification on the early life history of marine organisms, very few have investigated the effects on invertebrate gamete quality. In this study, we set up two experimental approaches simulating the ocean conditions predicted for the end of this century, in situ transplant experiments at a naturally acidified volcanic vent area along the Ischia island coast and microcosm experiments, to evaluate the short-term effects of the predicted near-future levels of ocean acidification on sperm quality of the ascidian Ciona robusta after parental exposure. In the first days of exposure to acidified conditions, we detected alteration of sperm motility, morphology and physiology, followed by a rapid recovery of physiological conditions that provide a new evidence of resilience of ascidian spermatozoa in response to ocean acidification. Overall, the short-term tolerance to adverse conditions opens a new scenario on the marine species capacity to continue to reproduce and persist in changing oceans.

Global environmental losses of plastics across their value chains

Ryberg MW, Hauschild MZ, Wang F, Averous-Monnery S, Laurent A. Global environmental losses of plastics across their value chains. Resources, Conservation and Recycling [Internet]. 2019 ;151:104459. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344919303659
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

With the increasing focus on marine plastic pollution, quantification of the environmental losses of plastics in the world, with differentiation into geographic regions, polymers and loss occurrences along the plastics value chains, is required. In this study, we make a global estimation of the losses of plastics to the environment across the entire plastic value chain, using existing literature and databases coupled with improved and additional methodological modelling of the losses. The resulting loss estimates are unprecedented in their detailed differentiations between polymers (23), plastic applications (13), geographical regions (11), and plastic value chain stages. Comprehensive sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also conducted to identify key drivers in terms of plastic losses. We overall found that approximately 6.2 Mt (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.0–20.4 Mt) of macroplastics and 3.0 Mt (CI: 1.5–5.2 Mt) of microplastics were lost to the environment in 2015. The major macroplastic loss source was identified as the mismanaged municipal solid waste (MSW) management in low-income and lower-middle income countries (4.1 Mt). For microplastics, the major sources were abrasion of tyre rubbers, abrasion of road markings and plastics contributing to city dust generation. To curb marine plastic pollution, such quantified mapping as ours are needed to evaluate the magnitude of the plastics losses to environment from different sources and locations, and enable a further assessment of their environmental damage. Through our uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, we highlight plastics sources that should be prioritized in further research works to obtain a more comprehensive and accurate representation of global plastics losses.

Microplastics in the crustaceans Nephrops norvegicus and Aristeus antennatus: Flagship species for deep-sea environments?

Cau A, Avio CGiacomo, Dessì C, Follesa MCristina, Moccia D, Regoli F, Pusceddu A. Microplastics in the crustaceans Nephrops norvegicus and Aristeus antennatus: Flagship species for deep-sea environments?. Environmental Pollution [Internet]. In Press :113107. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S026974911933341X
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Ingestion of microplastics (MPs) has been documented in several marine organisms, but their occurrence in deep-sea species remains almost unknown. In this study, MPs were investigated in two economically and ecologically key crustaceans of the Mediterranean Sea, the Norwegian lobster Nephrops norvegicus and the shrimp Aristeus antennatus. Both the species were collected from 14 sites around Sardinia Island, at depths comprised between 270 and 660 m. A total of 89 and 63 stomachs were analysed for N. norvegicus and A. antennatus respectively, and more than 2,000 MPs-like particles were extracted and sorted for identification and characterization by μFT-IR. In N. norvegicus, 83% of the specimens contained MPs, with an average abundance of 5.5 ± 0.8 MPs individual−1, while A. antennatus showed a lower frequency of ingestion (67%) and a lower mean number of MPs (1.66 ± 0.1 MPs individual−1). Composition and size of particles differed significantly between the two species. The non-selective feeding strategy of N. norvegicus could explain the 3–5 folds higher numbers of MPs in its stomach, which were mostly composed of films and fragments derived by polyethylene and polypropylene single-use plastic items. Contrarily, most MPs in the stomachs of A. antennatus were polyester filaments. The MPs abundance observed in N. norvegicus is among the highest detected in Mediterranean species considering both fish and invertebrates species, and provides novel insights on MPs bioavailability in deep-sea habitats. The overall results suggest that both N. norvegicus and A. antennatus, easily available in common fishery markets, could be valuable bioindicators and flagship species for plastic contamination in the deep-sea.

More landings for higher profit? Inverse demand analysis of the bluefin tuna auction price in Japan and economic incentives in global bluefin tuna fisheries management

Sun C-H, Chiang F-S, Squires D, Rogers A, Jan M-S. More landings for higher profit? Inverse demand analysis of the bluefin tuna auction price in Japan and economic incentives in global bluefin tuna fisheries management Toribio RJiménez. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(8):e0221147. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221147
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

This paper estimates the price changes in global bluefin tuna (BFT) markets in response to shifts in regional and global landings to evaluate the conservation and economic incentives from changes in the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) managed by all three Regional Fisheries Management Organizations. A fisherman’s income, and thus the financial incentive to accept management measures controlling catch levels, depends in part on how responsive price is to overall catch. Individual fisherman, with their own best interest in mind, used to wish to increase their individual landings and create an incentive to ask to increase the TAC for the industry, without realizing the possible revenue loss due to the resulting falling prices. To protect the value of all stakeholders’ property rights, a consensus to avoid abruptly raising the TAC, without first considering the potential loss due to market response, is needed. Alternatively, if revenue increases with lower TAC, a positive economic incentive for conservation is created if price increasing proportionately more than the lower supply, with harvest profits boosted by lower costs of production. To capture the complexity of substituting across various sources of supply and product form, a general synthetic inverse demand system is estimated to identify the impact of overall landings on BFT prices. This system estimates price flexibilities of both fresh and frozen longline-caught sashimi-grade tunas (Pacific, Atlantic and southern bluefins, and bigeye) at the Tokyo Center Market in Japan, including the Tsukiji Market, the world’s largest fish auction market that served as the single global price leader for BFT. The resulting estimation shows that own-quantity price flexibilities of every type of fresh and frozen BFTs are less than unity and inflexible in their own consumption. This creates poor individual producer incentives for fishermen to reduce wild or farmed BFT supply, as there is a chance to increase their own revenue, under the unlikely condition that the total supply is fixed. However, by observing the rapid increases in the TAC of Eastern Atlantic bluefin tuna (EABFT) in the coming years, suppliers may not be better off as price will drop proportionally faster and total revenue if the estimated scale flexibility is greater than one. Based on the estimated scale flexibility of frozen BFT, which is slightly less than unity, the frozen subsector of EABFT suppliers is the only winner under the supply increases. Suppliers of frozen BFT in other regions, fresh BFT (in the Atlantic and elsewhere), and southern BFT and bigeye tuna will all be harmed through lower revenue by the supply increases. Additionally, while total revenue might stay the same for frozen BFT suppliers, fishermen will potentially receive lower profits due to higher operating costs associated with increased landings when the supply of EABFT increases. Given the number of sectors that ultimately lose financially in the short term and given the ecological (and production) risks accompanying an abrupt increase in fishing pressure in the long term, the global economic losses resulting from an increase in the allowable catch of Atlantic bluefin tuna will outweigh any potential increases to revenue.

Pages

Subscribe to OpenChannels Literature Library