Literature Library

Currently indexing 7642 titles

Strengthening of local marine protected area (MPA) in local autonomy era: Case of Bontang City East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

Solihin A, Isdahartati , Damar A, Erwiantono . Strengthening of local marine protected area (MPA) in local autonomy era: Case of Bontang City East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;414:012024. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012024
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine protected area (MPA) plays important roles to achieve biodiversity conservation and fisheries management goals, and as the main tool for ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). However, the goals of the local MPA in Indonesia is faced with the legal problems due to the enactment of Law No. 23/2014 on Local Government, regulate that the district or municipality government is no longer has authority to manage shoreline area within four miles as well as local MPA. The new law implies mismanagement of the MPA due to lack of capacity provincial government to manage the additional area of authority. There is no responsible institution focus to manage the MPA yet. This study aims to analyze the deregulation of Bontang City authority to manage the MPA. This research was conducted from January to April 2019 using normative juridical methods on the legal basis of MPA management. The results of this study suggested that based on Law No. 23/2014, actually the Bontang City Government still has opportunity to manage the MPA even though this area within the authority of Provincial Government. The authority of the Bontang City is still imbedded in several local government agencies, such as the Environment Agency, Community and Village Empowerment Service, and Fisheries Service. The institutional strengthening of the local MPA Bontang is proposed in two stages, in the short term through establishment of a Working Group involving the government of East Kalimantan Provinces and the City of Bontang, while in the long term to establish a new institution of the Technical Implementation Unit is under the Provincial Marine and Fisheries Agency.

Integrated Marine and Fisheries Center and priority for product intensification in East Sumba, Indonesia

Nababan BO, Christian Y, Afandy A, Damar A. Integrated Marine and Fisheries Center and priority for product intensification in East Sumba, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;414:012014. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012014
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The main composition of fishery's economy in Indonesia is small-scale fishery who rely on traditional capture fisheries management, likewise in East Sumba Regency. However, from the potential side, East Sumba waters have great resources besides capture fisheries. Thus, research is conducted to identify strategic products existing in East Sumba, Indonesia, and to calculate the level of economic impact for the regional economy and labour absorption. The method used in this research is a qualitative descriptive method using multiplier effect analysis and business feasibility analysis. The results of the study show that seaweed, capture fisheries, freshwater farming, salt, artemia, and tourism have the potential as economic prime-mover of small-scale fishery in East Sumba. Seaweed has the highest business feasibility, followed by capture fisheries, and freshwater farming as a third. Meanwhile, salt, artemia cultivation and marine tourism have lower business feasibility and still need further development in the trial phase. With the addition of a formal management institutional mechanism called the Integrated Marine and Fisheries Center (IMFC) by the government all of these resources can be managed integrally and efficiently, with high quality and acceleration so that the regional economy can be leveraged including the welfare of the small-scale fishers.

Participatory mapping: Assessing problems and defined marine conservation planning and zoning in Jor Bay, Indonesia

Amin MAAl, Adrianto L, Kusumastanto T, Imran Z, Kurniawan F. Participatory mapping: Assessing problems and defined marine conservation planning and zoning in Jor Bay, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;414:012001. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012001
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Jor Bay Lombok is a marine protected area (MPA) which is initiated by local communities, which have a local-driven marine management regulation called Awiq-awiq. Unfortunately, the fisheries condition has continued to decline in the past decades, where the rate of exploitation of capture fisheries in Jor Bay shows an unbalanced condition because the harvest value is still higher than the recruitments and growth. Awiq-awiq regulates all existing utilization and protection of marine resources, but yet, has not included spatial aspects, leaving a situation that leads to unsustainability for fisheries resources and other resources. Balanced zoning of ecosystems and marine resources is needed in order to ensure the sustainability of the fisheries system in Jor Bay. This paper aims to illustrate how a marine spatial planning approach in a local MPA can be built with a community-based zoning system. The integration of local systems and formal-government systems is very effective and fast in the development of MPA zoning systems by considering the optimum allocation of the existence of ecosystems that guarantee the natural metabolic processes of the fisheries system in the Bay. The implementation of the MPA zoning system is expected to be able to support the guarantee of sustainable fisheries production for the surrounding region.

Thirty years of marine debris in the Southern Ocean: Annual surveys of two island shores in the Scotia Sea

Waluda CM, Staniland IJ, Dunn MJ, Thorpe SE, Grilly E, Whitelaw M, Hughes KA. Thirty years of marine debris in the Southern Ocean: Annual surveys of two island shores in the Scotia Sea. Environment International [Internet]. 2020 ;136:105460. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412019336293
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

We report on three decades of repeat surveys of beached marine debris at two locations in the Scotia Sea, in the Southwest Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Between October 1989 and March 2019 10,112 items of beached debris were recovered from Main Bay, Bird Island, South Georgia in the northern Scotia Sea. The total mass of items (data from 1996 onwards) was 101 kg. Plastic was the most commonly recovered item (97.5% by number; 89% by mass) with the remainder made up of fabric, glass, metal, paper and rubber. Mean mass per item was 0.01 kg and the rate of accumulation was 100 items km−1 month−1. Analyses showed an increase in the number of debris items recovered (5.7 per year) but a decline in mean mass per item, suggesting a trend towards more, smaller items of debris at Bird Island. At Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, located in the southern Scotia Sea and within the Antarctic Treaty area, debris items were collected from three beaches, during the austral summer only, between 1991 and 2019. In total 1304 items with a mass of 268 kg were recovered. Plastic items contributed 84% by number and 80% by mass, with the remainder made up of metal (6% by number; 14% by mass), rubber (4% by number; 3% by mass), fabric, glass and paper (<1% by number; 3% by mass). Mean mass per item was 0.2 kg and rate of accumulation was 3 items km−1 month−1. Accumulation rates were an order of magnitude higher on the western (windward) side of the island (13–17 items km−1 month−1) than the eastern side (1.5 items km−1 month−1). Analyses showed a slight decline in number and slight increase in mean mass of debris items over time at Signy Island. This study highlights the prevalence of anthropogenic marine debris (particularly plastic) in the Southern Ocean. It shows the importance of long-term monitoring efforts in attempting to catalogue marine debris and identify trends, and serves warning of the urgent need for a wider understanding of the extent of marine debris across the whole of the Southern Ocean.

Integrated Marine and Fisheries Center and priority for product intensification in East Sumba, Indonesia

Nababan BO, Christian Y, Afandy A, Damar A. Integrated Marine and Fisheries Center and priority for product intensification in East Sumba, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;414:012014. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012014
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The main composition of fishery's economy in Indonesia is small-scale fishery who rely on traditional capture fisheries management, likewise in East Sumba Regency. However, from the potential side, East Sumba waters have great resources besides capture fisheries. Thus, research is conducted to identify strategic products existing in East Sumba, Indonesia, and to calculate the level of economic impact for the regional economy and labour absorption. The method used in this research is a qualitative descriptive method using multiplier effect analysis and business feasibility analysis. The results of the study show that seaweed, capture fisheries, freshwater farming, salt, artemia, and tourism have the potential as economic prime-mover of small-scale fishery in East Sumba. Seaweed has the highest business feasibility, followed by capture fisheries, and freshwater farming as a third. Meanwhile, salt, artemia cultivation and marine tourism have lower business feasibility and still need further development in the trial phase. With the addition of a formal management institutional mechanism called the Integrated Marine and Fisheries Center (IMFC) by the government all of these resources can be managed integrally and efficiently, with high quality and acceleration so that the regional economy can be leveraged including the welfare of the small-scale fishers.

The establishment of fisheries refugia as a new approach to sustainable management of fisheries in Malaysian waters

Siow R, Nurridan AH, Hadil R, Richard R. The establishment of fisheries refugia as a new approach to sustainable management of fisheries in Malaysian waters. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [Internet]. 2020 ;414:012023. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/414/1/012023
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The marine fisheries resources worldwide are facing depletion but traditional management methods may not be adequate to overcome this problem. A new fishery management approach which focuses on protecting the critical stages in the life cycle of the selected marine species is presented in this paper. The fisheries refugia concept focuses on temporal and a spatially defined marine or coastal area in which specific management measures are implemented to sustain the targeted species. This concept was initiated by SEAFDEC-UNEP-GEF in the South East Asia region and are participated by six member countries namely Malaysia, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines. In Malaysia, two sites were selected for this project which is the lobster refugia (Panulirus spp. and Thenus orientalis) in Tanjung Leman, Johor and the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) refugia at Kuala Baram, Miri, Sarawak. This paper discusses the activities carried out to establish these two refugia. These activities include resource surveys of lobsters and tiger prawns at different life stages (larvae, juvenile and adult) and socio-economic profiling of fishers communities at both sites. Several stakeholder consultation sessions were also held with fishers and local agencies to promote the refugia concept and gather feedbacks on the implementation of the new management approach. Two information centers were set up at Tanjung Leman and Kuala Baram, Miri with the objectives of disseminating information regarding the fisheries refugia project and its benefits to the stakeholders. Likewise, in collaboration with the local television station RTM, two fisheries refugia documentaries were produced and broadcast nationwide. The targeted outcome of this project is to have these two sites gazetted as fisheries refugia so that the wild resources of lobsters and tiger prawns are sustainably managed through spatial and seasonal closure during the critical stages of their life cycle.

Description and characterization of the artisanal elasmobranch fishery on Guatemala’s Caribbean coast

Hacohen-Domené A, Polanco-Vásquez F, Estupiñan-Montaño C, Graham RT. Description and characterization of the artisanal elasmobranch fishery on Guatemala’s Caribbean coast. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0227797. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227797
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Small-scale shark and ray fisheries are conducted throughout Central America’s Caribbean coast. Yet, there is limited information regarding catch composition and diversity of these fisheries, especially in Guatemala. Surveys of catch landings were conducted in two of Guatemala’s primary Caribbean coastal shark and ray fishing communities, El Quetzalito and Livingston, between January 2015 and July 2017. Biological data from 688 landed chondrichthyans were collected, with 31 species (24 sharks, six rays and one chimaera) identified. The four most frequently captured species included Carcharhinus falciformis (30.2%), Sphyrna lewini (12.7%), Hypanus guttatus (12%) and Rhizoprionodon spp. (6.7%). Landed sharks contained most size classes with a high proportion of juveniles of species with low productivity. The large-bodied species C. falciformis and S. lewini were often recorded at sizes below known maturity; 96.6% and 85.1%, of the captured individuals were immature, respectively. This study can serve as a baseline to determine future trends in the elasmobranch fisheries conducted by Guatemala’s Caribbean coastal communities and support assessments on the persistence of the fisheries.

Potential socioeconomic impacts from ocean acidification and climate change effects on Atlantic Canadian fisheries

Wilson TJB, Cooley SR, Tai TC, Cheung WWL, Tyedmers PH. Potential socioeconomic impacts from ocean acidification and climate change effects on Atlantic Canadian fisheries. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0226544. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226544
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Ocean acidification is an emerging consequence of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. The full extent of the biological impacts are currently not entirely defined. However, it is expected that invertebrate species that rely on the mineral calcium carbonate will be directly affected. Despite the limited understanding of the full extent of potential impacts and responses there is a need to identify potential pathways for human societies to be affected by ocean acidification. Research on these social implications is a small but developing field. This research contributes to this field by using an impact assessment framework, informed by a biophysical model of future species distributions, to investigate potential impacts facing Atlantic Canadian society from potential changes in shellfish fisheries driven by ocean acidification and climate change. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are expected to see declines in resource accessibility but are relatively socially insulated from these changes. Conversely, Prince Edward Island, along with Newfoundland and Labrador are more socially vulnerable to potential losses in fisheries, but are expected to experience relatively minor net changes in access.

Extreme mortality and reproductive failure of common murres resulting from the northeast Pacific marine heatwave of 2014-2016

Piatt JF, Parrish JK, Renner HM, Schoen SK, Jones TT, Arimitsu ML, Kuletz KJ, Bodenstein B, García-Reyes M, Duerr RS, et al. Extreme mortality and reproductive failure of common murres resulting from the northeast Pacific marine heatwave of 2014-2016. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0226087. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226087
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

About 62,000 dead or dying common murres (Uria aalge), the trophically dominant fish-eating seabird of the North Pacific, washed ashore between summer 2015 and spring 2016 on beaches from California to Alaska. Most birds were severely emaciated and, so far, no evidence for anything other than starvation was found to explain this mass mortality. Three-quarters of murres were found in the Gulf of Alaska and the remainder along the West Coast. Studies show that only a fraction of birds that die at sea typically wash ashore, and we estimate that total mortality approached 1 million birds. About two-thirds of murres killed were adults, a substantial blow to breeding populations. Additionally, 22 complete reproductive failures were observed at multiple colonies region-wide during (2015) and after (2016–2017) the mass mortality event. Die-offs and breeding failures occur sporadically in murres, but the magnitude, duration and spatial extent of this die-off, associated with multi-colony and multi-year reproductive failures, is unprecedented and astonishing. These events co-occurred with the most powerful marine heatwave on record that persisted through 2014–2016 and created an enormous volume of ocean water (the “Blob”) from California to Alaska with temperatures that exceeded average by 2–3 standard deviations. Other studies indicate that this prolonged heatwave reduced phytoplankton biomass and restructured zooplankton communities in favor of lower-calorie species, while it simultaneously increased metabolically driven food demands of ectothermic forage fish. In response, forage fish quality and quantity diminished. Similarly, large ectothermic groundfish were thought to have increased their demand for forage fish, resulting in greater top-predator demands for diminished forage fish resources. We hypothesize that these bottom-up and top-down forces created an “ectothermic vise” on forage species leading to their system-wide scarcity and resulting in mass mortality of murres and many other fish, bird and mammal species in the region during 2014–2017.

Potential socioeconomic impacts from ocean acidification and climate change effects on Atlantic Canadian fisheries

Wilson TJB, Cooley SR, Tai TC, Cheung WWL, Tyedmers PH. Potential socioeconomic impacts from ocean acidification and climate change effects on Atlantic Canadian fisheries. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2020 ;15(1):e0226544. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226544
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Ocean acidification is an emerging consequence of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. The full extent of the biological impacts are currently not entirely defined. However, it is expected that invertebrate species that rely on the mineral calcium carbonate will be directly affected. Despite the limited understanding of the full extent of potential impacts and responses there is a need to identify potential pathways for human societies to be affected by ocean acidification. Research on these social implications is a small but developing field. This research contributes to this field by using an impact assessment framework, informed by a biophysical model of future species distributions, to investigate potential impacts facing Atlantic Canadian society from potential changes in shellfish fisheries driven by ocean acidification and climate change. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are expected to see declines in resource accessibility but are relatively socially insulated from these changes. Conversely, Prince Edward Island, along with Newfoundland and Labrador are more socially vulnerable to potential losses in fisheries, but are expected to experience relatively minor net changes in access.

Interactions of Marine Protected Species with Artisinal Fishers in the Parque Natural do Sudoeste Aletejano e Costa Vicentina (PNSACV) and Adjacent Classified Areas (SPAs and SACs)

Alexandre TSofia Ferr. Interactions of Marine Protected Species with Artisinal Fishers in the Parque Natural do Sudoeste Aletejano e Costa Vicentina (PNSACV) and Adjacent Classified Areas (SPAs and SACs). UNIVERSIDADE DE LISBOA; 2019.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Thesis

The Natura 2000 Network is the world’s largest coordinated network of protected areas. The PNSACV is part of the 168 protected sites established under the Natura 2000 Network in Portugal. Direct interactions between large marine vertebrates, such as sea turtles, cetaceans and seabirds and the world fisheries are very common and can be a serious threat to many populations. Interviews were conducted between September and December of 2018 to gather information on the fishing fleet operating in the park, the presence of marine protected species (MPS) and the eventual conflicts between the marine life and the fisheries. The majority of the fishers interviewed operating in the park reported to use bottom set nets (38.7%), the rest operated pots and traps (18.7%), longlines (16%) and purse seine (6.7%). From all the fishermen interviewed (n=75), one fifth (20%) reported to operate polyvalent boats. The most sighted species in the PNSACV were the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and the northern gannet (Morus bassanus). All the fishermen interviewed reported to have some kind of interaction with the MPS studied, being the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) reported as the most interactive species. Although interactions do not seem to have a significant economic impact to the fishermen, some relevant bycatch events of some species in specific gears (e.g bottlenose dolphins and northern gannet in bottom set nets, common dolphins and yellow-legged gull in purse seine) were observed. This is a consequence of the obvious overlap between their distribution range and the more frequently used fishing grounds and arises some awareness on continuing efforts to monitor closely the impact of coastal fisheries on the mortality of marine protected species.

Mediterranean marine protected areas have higher biodiversity via increased evenness, not abundance

Blowes SA, Chase JM, Di Franco A, Frid O, Gotelli NJ, Guidetti P, Knight TM, May F, McGlinn DJ, Micheli F, et al. Mediterranean marine protected areas have higher biodiversity via increased evenness, not abundance. Journal of Applied Ecology [Internet]. 2020 . Available from: https://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1365-2664.13549
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article
  1. Protected areas are central to biodiversity conservation. For marine fish, marine protected areas (MPAs) often harbour more individuals, especially of species targeted by fisheries. But precise pathways of biodiversity change remain unclear. For example, how local‐scale responses combine to affect regional biodiversity, important for managing spatial networks of MPAs, is not well known. Protection potentially influences three components of fish assemblages that determine how species accumulate with sampling effort and spatial scale: the total number of individuals, the relative abundance of species and within‐species aggregation. Here, we examined the contributions of each component to species richness changes inside MPAs as a function of spatial scale.
  2. Using standardized underwater visual survey data, we measured the abundance and species richness of reef fishes in 43 protected and 41 fished sites in the Mediterranean Sea.
  3. At both local and regional scales, increased species evenness caused by added common species in MPAs compared to fished sites was the most important proximate driver of higher diversity.
  4. Site‐to‐site variation in the composition (i.e. β‐diversity) of common species was also higher among protected sites, and depended on sensitivity to exploitation. There were more abundant exploited species at regional scales than at local scales, reflecting a tendency for different protected sites to harbour different exploited species. In contrast, fewer abundant unexploited species were found at the regional scale than at the local scale, meaning that relative abundances at the regional scale were less even than at the local scale.
  5. Synthesis and applications. Although marine protected areas (MPAs) are known to strongly influence fish community abundance and biomass, we found that changes to the relative abundance of species (i.e. increased evenness) dominated the biodiversity response to protection. MPAs had more relatively common species, which in turn led to higher diversity for a given sampling effort. Moreover, higher β‐diversity of common species meant that local‐scale responses were magnified at the regional scale due to site‐to‐site variation inside protected areas for exploited species. Regional conservation efforts can be strengthened by examining how multiple components of biodiversity respond to protection across spatial scales.

Multiple conservation designations: what impact on the effectiveness of marine protected areas in the Irish Sea?

Schéré CM, Dawson TP, Schreckenberg K. Multiple conservation designations: what impact on the effectiveness of marine protected areas in the Irish Sea?. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology [Internet]. 2020 :1 - 15. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13504509.2019.1706058
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a conservation tool designed to adequately manage and protect marine resources threatened by human activity by addressing both biological and socioeconomic needs. The Irish Sea is a busy waterway under the jurisdiction of six entities (Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, the Isle of Man, Scotland, England, and Wales). Within this body of water there are almost 200 conservation designations across 111 MPA sites, with many sites having multiple designations (national, EU, and international). Data is lacking on the effectiveness of these protected areas in reaching their conservation objectives due to sites being inadequately monitored. The race to meet the 10% marine protected area target set by the Conservation on Biological Diversity, however, may be compromising effective planning. Do multiple designations ensure better protection of the marine environment, or is the Irish Sea home to paper parks, offering little protection? Metadata compiled from the World Database on Protected Areas and conservation reports from MPA managers were used to investigate this question. The results show a positive correlation between the number of designations of a site and the existence of a publicly available management plan. The presence of a management plan was also linked to whether or not site assessments were conducted by the relevant authorities, and sites having multiple designations was weakly correlated with favourable assessment outcomes. The results of this study highlight the need to better understand the requirements of national, regional and international-level conservation designations and how they interact with each other.

Examining different approaches to managing shipping through a corridors approach: global case studies

Reid M, Dawson J. Examining different approaches to managing shipping through a corridors approach: global case studies. Ottawa: University of Ottawa; 2019.
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Report

Case studies of different approaches to managing shipping reviewed in this report include, 1) the Beaufort Sea Large Ocean Management Area (LOMA), 2) the Bering Strait Two-Way Shipping Routes, 3) the Imappivut Marine Management Plan, 4) the Indigenous Community Boat Volunteer Pilot Program (ICBVPP), 5) the Pacific North Coast Integrated Management Area (PNCIMA), 6) the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Seaway System, 7) the Newfoundland and Labrador (NFL) Port Readiness Program, 8) the Panama Canal, 9) the Torres Strait & Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Region, and 10) the Malacca & Singapore Straits. “Key findings and strengths” as well as “Areas for improvement” for each approach are described using themes that emerged during the literature and information review process, and included: Shipping operations, Marine Safety, Training, Economic opportunities, Marine environment protection, and Technology and information.

Some key findings and strengths that emerged most prominently throughout the analysis of multiple case studies were related to; traffic lanes, voluntary routing measures and shipping corridors; use of aids to navigation; emergency, operational and/or environmental response training; subsistence activities that support local economies; protected and/or significant areas and resources; and use of AIS, GPS, GIS and/or VTS to improve navigational safety and/or support research. Some Areas for improvement that emerged among the examples were related to; outdated infrastructure, and lack of research and Indigenous community involvement; lack of aids to navigation and inadequate boundaries for SAR; outdated response training; poor marketing scheme; and insufficient oil spill response.

From sea monsters to charismatic megafauna: Changes in perception and use of large marine animals

Mazzoldi C, Bearzi G, Brito C, Carvalho I, Desiderà E, Endrizzi L, Freitas L, Giacomello E, Giovos I, Guidetti P, et al. From sea monsters to charismatic megafauna: Changes in perception and use of large marine animals. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(12):e0226810. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226810
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Marine megafauna has always elicited contrasting feelings. In the past, large marine animals were often depicted as fantastic mythological creatures and dangerous monsters, while also arousing human curiosity. Marine megafauna has been a valuable resource to exploit, leading to the collapse of populations and local extinctions. In addition, some species have been perceived as competitors of fishers for marine resources and were often actively culled. Since the 1970s, there has been a change in the perception and use of megafauna. The growth of marine tourism, increasingly oriented towards the observation of wildlife, has driven a shift from extractive to non-extractive use, supporting the conservation of at least some species of marine megafauna. In this paper, we review and compare the changes in the perception and use of three megafaunal groups, cetaceans, elasmobranchs and groupers, with a special focus on European cultures. We highlight the main drivers and the timing of these changes, compare different taxonomic groups and species, and highlight the implications for management and conservation. One of the main drivers of the shift in perception, shared by all the three groups of megafauna, has been a general increase in curiosity towards wildlife, stimulated inter alia by documentaries (from the early 1970s onwards), and also promoted by easy access to scuba diving. At the same time, environmental campaigns have been developed to raise public awareness regarding marine wildlife, especially cetaceans, a process greatly facilitated by the rise of Internet and the World Wide Web. Currently, all the three groups (cetaceans, elasmobranchs and groupers) may represent valuable resources for ecotourism. Strikingly, the economic value of live specimens may exceed their value for human consumption. A further change in perception involving all the three groups is related to a growing understanding and appreciation of their key ecological role. The shift from extractive to non-extractive use has the potential for promoting species conservation and local economic growth. However, the change in use may not benefit the original stakeholders (e.g. fishers or whalers) and there may therefore be a case for providing compensation for disadvantaged stakeholders. Moreover, it is increasingly clear that even non-extractive use may have a negative impact on marine megafauna, therefore regulations are needed.

Foreign Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing in Somali Waters Perpetuates Conflict

Glaser SM, Roberts PM, Hurlburt KJ. Foreign Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing in Somali Waters Perpetuates Conflict. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00704/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Somali waters have high fisheries production potential, but the sustainability of those fisheries is compromised by the presence of foreign fishing vessels, many of them fishing illegally. The Somali domestic fishing sector is small and relatively nascent, but foreign vessels have fished in Somali waters for at least seven decades. Some foreign vessels and their crew have been a direct, physical threat to Somali artisanal fishers. Many foreign vessels directly compete for fish, reducing fish populations and destroying marine habitat through bottom trawling. In this paper, we reconstruct foreign catch in Somali waters from 1981–2014 and classify the health of seventeen commercial fish stocks. Foreign fishing has increased more than twenty-fold since 1981, and the most rapid increase occurred during the 1990s after the collapse of the Federal government and ensuing civil war. We estimate foreign fishing vessels caught 92,500 mt of fish in 2014, almost twice that caught by the Somali domestic fleet. Iran (48%) and Yemen (31%) accounted for the vast majority of foreign fish catch in the most recent year of analysis. Although responsible for only 6% of total foreign catch, trawl vessels disproportionately impact public perception of foreign fishing. We find they trawled over 120,000 km2 of marine seabed in nearshore waters during 2010–2014. Foreign IUU fishing in Somali waters is fueling public anger and perpetuating conflict in five ways: by directly competing with the domestic fishery; through links to piracy; through nearshore illegal and destructive bottom trawling; by contributing to regional political conflict over vessel licensing; and by reducing long-term livelihood security. Significant levels of foreign fishing combined with inconsistent governance means Somalis are not fully benefiting from the exploitation of their marine resources at a local or national level, leading to insecurity at both scales.

Geopolitics and Marine Conservation: Synergies and Conflicts

Mackelworth PCharles, Seker YTeff, Fernández TVega, Marques M, Alves FLopes, D’Anna G, Fa DA, Goldborough D, Kyriazi Z, Pita C, et al. Geopolitics and Marine Conservation: Synergies and Conflicts. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00759/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Transboundary conservation has an important, yet often undervalued, role in the international conservation regime. When applied to the legally ambiguous and interconnected marine environment this is magnified. The lack of clear guidance for transboundary marine conservation from the international conservation community exacerbates this problem, leaving individual initiatives to develop their own governance arrangements. Yet, well-managed transboundary marine protected areas (MPAs) have the potential to contribute significantly to global conservation aims. Conversely, in a period where there is increasing interest in marine resources and space from all sectors, the designation of MPAs can create or amplify a regional conflict. In some instances, states have used MPAs to extend rights over disputed marine resources, restrict the freedom of others and establish sovereignty over maritime space. Six case studies were taken from Europe, North Africa and the Middle East to illustrate how states have interpreted and utilized different legislative mechanisms to either come together or diverge over the governance of marine resources or maritime space. Each of the case studies illustrates how different actors have used the same legislative tools, but with different interpretations and applications, to justify their claims. It is clear that the role of science combined with a deeper engagement with stakeholders can play a critical role in tempering conflict between states. Where states are willing to cooperate, the absence of clear guidelines at the global level means that often ad hoc measures are put into place, with the international frameworks then playing catch up. Balancing different jurisdictional claims with the conservation of the marine environment, whilst considering the increasing special economic interests will become increasingly difficult. Developing a transboundary conservation tool, such as the simple conservation caveats found in the Barcelona Convention and Antarctic Convention, which allow for the establishment of intergovernmental cooperation without prejudicing any outstanding jurisdictional issue, would provide a framework for the development of individual transboundary MPAs.

Emerging Technologies and Coral Reef Conservation: Opportunities, Challenges, and Moving Forward

Madin EMP, Darling ES, Hardt MJ. Emerging Technologies and Coral Reef Conservation: Opportunities, Challenges, and Moving Forward. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00727/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Coral reefs worldwide are declining at an accelerating rate due to multiple types of human impacts. Meanwhile, new technologies with applications in reef science and conservation are emerging at an ever faster rate and are simultaneously becoming cheaper and more accessible. Technology alone cannot save reefs, but it can potentially help scientists and conservation practitioners study, mitigate, and even solve key challenges facing coral reefs. We examine how new and emerging technologies are already being used for coral reef science and conservation. Examples include drones, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), 3D mapping and modeling tools, high resolution and nano satellite imagery, and a suite of monitoring and surveillance tools that are revolutionizing enforcement of sustainable reef fisheries. We argue that emerging technologies can play a pivotal role in tackling many of the critical issues facing coral reef conservation science and practice, but maximizing the impact of these technologies requires addressing several significant barriers. These barriers include lack of awareness of technologies and tools, prohibitive cost, lack of transferability across systems and/or scales, lack of technical expertise, and lack of accessibility. We discuss where analogous challenges have been overcome in another system and identify insights that can provide guidance for wise application of emerging technologies to coral reef science and conservation. Thoughtful consideration of, and adaptation to, these challenges will help us best harness the potential of emerging and future technological innovations to help solve the global coral reef crisis.

GliderTools: A Python Toolbox for Processing Underwater Glider Data

Gregor L, Ryan-Keogh TJ, Nicholson S-A, Plessis Mdu, Giddy I, Swart S. GliderTools: A Python Toolbox for Processing Underwater Glider Data. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00738/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Underwater gliders have become widely used in the last decade. This has led to a proliferation of data and the concomitant development of tools to process the data. These tools are focused primarily on converting the data from its raw form to more accessible formats and often rely on proprietary programing languages. This has left a gap in the processing of glider data for academics, who often need to perform secondary quality control (QC), calibrate, correct, interpolate and visualize data. Here, we present GliderTools, an open-source Python package that addresses these needs of the glider user community. The tool is designed to change the focus from the processing to the data. GliderTools does not aim to replace existing software that converts raw data and performs automatic first-order QC. In this paper, we present a set of tools, that includes secondary cleaning and calibration, calibration procedures for bottle samples, fluorescence quenching correction, photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) corrections and data interpolation in the vertical and horizontal dimensions. Many of these processes have been described in several other studies, but do not exist in a collated package designed for underwater glider data. Importantly, we provide potential users with guidelines on how these tools are used so that they can be easily and rapidly accessible to a wide range of users that span the student to the experienced researcher. We recognize that this package may not be all-encompassing for every user and we thus welcome community contributions and promote GliderTools as a community-driven project for scientists.

Making Lake Erie Smart by Driving Innovations in Technology and Networking

Pearson B, Kearns T, Slawecki T, Stubbs B, Herzog M, Paige K, Fitch D. Making Lake Erie Smart by Driving Innovations in Technology and Networking. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00731/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Tomorrow’s smart lakes and oceans will be able to, among other things, predict changes in the water environment and produce information critical to proper management and planning. Smart Lake Erie – a proof of concept – will integrate data from distributed sensors using resilient networks to feed adaptive, predictive analytics that define and perhaps even perform necessary management actions. This paper presents the Smart Lake Erie pilot as a series of steps that include convening innovation competitions, engaging stakeholders, securing the core observation system, and designing then building a sustainable early warning system for harmful algal blooms. The pilot’s data platform will show what is needed to serve new data contributors, service providers, stakeholders and consumers of the data and information service paradigm. Lessons learned from the early implementation of the pilot will be applicable to the overall Great Lakes region, other regional associations within the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS).

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