Literature Library

Currently indexing 10165 titles

Incidental seabird mortality and discarded catches from trawling off far southern Chile (39–57°S)

Adasme LM, Canales CM, Adasme NA. Incidental seabird mortality and discarded catches from trawling off far southern Chile (39–57°S). ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article-abstract/76/4/848/5307404?redirectedFrom=fulltext
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $45.00
Type: Journal Article

In world fisheries, incidental non target species mortality have turned in a permanent debate issue. Although many studies have dealt with these interactions from a descriptive overview, there is little information based on fishing operations data. One of the most important species that have awakened scientific concern are seabird, being southern Chile one of the areas with the highest levels in this kind of interactions. In order to improve our understanding on these relationships, we analyze records of fishing hauls of industrial trawlers off the coast of Chile between 39 and 57°S. The results showed that incidental seabird mortality appears to be affected mainly by the collisions with net monitoring systems (net-sonde cable), the duration of fishing hauls, the year period, and the fishing zones, these last related to the breeding period and areas of albatross colonies. We indirectly address a probable relationship between seabird mortality and fishing discards, and some hypothesis are proposed to explain the results. Finally, we demonstrated that longer fishing hauls are less efficient for fishing, beside to a high seabird mortality. Our findings suggest mitigation actions that would harmonize fishing activity with the ecosystem, in particular, for trawl fishing management and operations off far southern Chile.

Recycled electronic plastic and marine litter

Shaw EJ, Turner A. Recycled electronic plastic and marine litter. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2019 ;694:133644. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719335697
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

Black consumer plastics are often contaminated with hazardous chemicals because of technological constraints on sorting dark plastic during recycling of municipal waste coupled with the convenience of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) as a secondary source of black plastic. In this study, samples of beached plastic litter (n = 524) from southwest England were categorised according to origin, appearance and colour (black versus non-black) before being analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry for elements that are characteristic of EEE. The small number of items of WEEE retrieved (n = 36) were largely restricted to wiring insulation and constructed of lead-stabilised polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Among the remaining samples, Br, Cd, Cr and Pb were commonly detected in all categories of black plastics (n = 264) with maximum concentrations of 43,400 mg kg−1, 2080 mg kg−1, 662 mg kg−1 and 23,800 mg kg−1, respectively. Moreover, concentrations of Br were significantly correlated with concentrations of the flame retardant synergist, Sb (n = 22), and 35 samples were potentially non-compliant with regard to limits defined by the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive. For plastics of other colours (n = 224), Br and Pb were detected in fewer samples and Br was co-associated with Sb in only two cases, with occasional high concentrations Cd, Cr and Pb largely attributed to the historical use of cadmium sulphide and lead chromate pigments. An avian physiologically-based extraction test applied to selected samples cut to mm-dimensions revealed bioaccessibilities ranging from <0.1% for Cr in a green fragment to about 2.4% (or about 580 mg kg−1) for Pb in black PVC. The recycling of WEEE into consumer, industrial and marine (e.g. fishing) plastics that are mainly coloured black appears to be an important vehicle for the introduction of hazardous chemicals into the environment and a source of their exposure to wildlife.

Microplastics in special protected areas for migratory birds in the Bay of Biscay

Masiá P, Ardura A, Garcia-Vazquez E. Microplastics in special protected areas for migratory birds in the Bay of Biscay. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2019 ;146:993 - 1001. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X19306058
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Plastic pollution is a major ecological catastrophe that endangers vulnerable species. Small plastic fragments and filaments enter the food web in the ocean threatening marine species health. Here microplastics between 0.5 and 5 mm were quantified from eight beaches of southwest Bay of Biscay (Spain) within Natura-2000 Special Protection Areas for birds. Sand samples were taken using a randomized quadrat-based protocol. Between 145 and 382 particles per kg of dry sand were found, which is relatively high in comparison with other European beaches. Microfibers were more abundant than microplastics. PERMANOVA revealed a significant effect of the beach location (inside versus outside the estuary). Open beaches contained a higher microplastic density than sheltered ones suggesting that many beached microplastics come from the ocean. Birds are at risk in the studied protected spaces as revealed from high concentrations of fibres in depositions of European shag and gulls.

Property, power and planning: Attitudes to spatial enclosure in Scottish seas

Weir S, Kerr S. Property, power and planning: Attitudes to spatial enclosure in Scottish seas. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;108:103633. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19301319
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

This research reveals attitudes towards enclosure and privatisation of ocean space. The development of spatially distributed industries like marine renewables and aquaculture, the need for marine conservation, and the ongoing emphasis on spatial aspects of marine planning, have resulted in increasing encroachment into the marine environment. The study, situated in Scotland, investigates the attitudes of stakeholders who are affecting, or being affected by, these processes. The attitude analysis, done by Q methodology, highlights potentially conflicting priorities and processes. Five unique factors emerged. These are expressed as: free seas, the ‘greater good’, mitigating losses, local powers, and the status quo. The topography of views revealed demonstrates clear tensions between key players in Scotland's marine planning landscape, and calls into question the processes for effective collaborative working for sustainable and conflict-free development at sea. The paper concludes with an appeal for changes in rights to be accounted for in decision making processes, accompanied by better dissemination of information regarding rights at sea, governance and the future of the blue economy.

Ocean currents predict fine-scale genetic structure and source-sink dynamics in a marine invertebrate coastal fishery

Silva CNS, Macdonald HS, Hadfield MG, Cryer M, Gardner JPA. Ocean currents predict fine-scale genetic structure and source-sink dynamics in a marine invertebrate coastal fishery. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article-abstract/76/4/1007/5303700?redirectedFrom=fulltext
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $45.00
Type: Journal Article

Estimates of connectivity are vital for understanding population dynamics and for the design of spatial management areas. However, this is still a major challenge in the marine environment because the relative contributions of factors influencing connectivity amongst subpopulations are difficult to assess. This study combined population genetics with hydrodynamic modelling (Regional Ocean Modeling System, ROMS) to assess spatial and temporal exchange of individuals among subpopulations of the New Zealand scallop, Pecten novaezelandiae, within the Coromandel fishery area open to commercial fishing. Significant genetic differentiation was revealed among subpopulations with variable levels of recruitment. Connectivity, as assessed by ROMS, was a significant explanatory variable of genetic differentiation when accounting for the spatial dependency between locations. Although additional research is needed before source-sink population dynamics can be confidently used in management, these results imply that higher yields could be available from this fishery at lower risk of over-exploitation if the fishing of each subpopulation could be tailored to its contribution to recruitment, perhaps using subpopulation catch limits. This study highlights inter-annual patterns of connectivity, the importance of combining different methods for a better prediction of population dynamics, and how such an approach may contribute to management of living marine resources.

Seascape context modifies how fish respond to restored oyster reef structures

Gilby BL, Olds AD, Henderson CJ, Ortodossi NL, Connolly RM, Schlacher TA. Seascape context modifies how fish respond to restored oyster reef structures Grabowski J. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article-abstract/76/4/1131/5333156?redirectedFrom=fulltext
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $45.00
Type: Journal Article

The seascape context of coastal ecosystems plays a pivotal role in shaping patterns in fish recruitment, abundance, and diversity. It might also be a principal determinant in structuring the recruitment of fish assemblages to restored habitats, but the trajectories of these relationships require further testing. In this study, we surveyed fish assemblages from 14 restored oyster reefs and 14 control sites in the Noosa River, Queensland, Australia, that differed in the presence or absence of seagrass within 500 m, over four periods using baited cameras. Fish assemblages at oyster reefs differed from those at control sites, with higher species richness (1.4 times) and more individuals of taxa that are harvested by fishers (1.8 times). The presence or absence of seagrass nearby affected the abundance of a key harvestable fish species (yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis) on oyster reefs, but not the overall composition of fish assemblages, species richness, or the total abundance of harvestable fishes overall. These findings highlight the importance of considering species-specific patterns in seascape utilization when selecting restoration sites and setting restoration goals, and suggest that the effects of restoration on fish assemblages might be optimized by focusing efforts in prime positions in coastal seascapes.

Coping with abrupt environmental change: the impact of the coastal El Niño 2017 on artisanal fisheries and mariculture in North Peru

Kluger LClara, Kochalski S, Aguirre-Velarde A, Vivar I, Wolff M. Coping with abrupt environmental change: the impact of the coastal El Niño 2017 on artisanal fisheries and mariculture in North Peru. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2018 . Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article/76/4/1122/5230896
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

In February and March 2017, a coastal El Niño caused extraordinary heavy rains and a rise in water temperatures along the coast of northern Peru. In this work, we document the impacts of this phenomenon on the artisanal fisheries and the scallop aquaculture sector, both of which represent important socio-economic activities for the province of Sechura. Despite the perceived absence of effective disaster management and rehabilitation policies, resource users opted for a wide range of different adaptation strategies and are currently striving towards recovery. One year after the event, the artisanal fisheries fleet has returned to operating almost on a normal scale, while the aquaculture sector is still drastically impacted, with many people continuing to work in different economic sectors and even in other regions of the country. Recovery of the social-ecological system of Sechura likely depends on the occurrence of scallop seed and the financial capacity of small-scale producers to reinitiate scallop cultures. Long-term consequences of this coastal El Niño are yet to be studied, though the need to develop trans-local and trans-sectoral management strategies for coping with disturbance events of this scale is emphasized.

Citizen science in hydrological monitoring and ecosystem services management: State of the art and future prospects

Njue N, J. Kroese S, Gräf J, Jacobs SR, Weeser B, Breuer L, Rufino MC. Citizen science in hydrological monitoring and ecosystem services management: State of the art and future prospects. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2019 ;693:133531. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719334515
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Hydrological monitoring is essential to guide evidence-based decision making necessary for sustainable water resource management and governance. Limited hydrometric datasets and the pressure on long-term hydrological monitoring networks make it paramount to explore alternative methods for data collection. This is particularly the case for low-income countries, where data scarcity is more pronounced, and where conventional monitoring methods are expensive and logistically challenging. Citizen science in hydrological research has recently gained popularity and crowdsourced monitoring is a promising cost-effective approach for data collection. Citizen science also has the potential to enhance knowledge co-creation and science-based evidence that underpins the governance and management of water resources. This paper provides a comprehensive review on citizen science and crowdsourced data collection within the context of hydrology, based on a synthesis of 71 articles from 2001 to 2018. Application of citizen science in hydrology is increasing in number and breadth, generating a plethora of scientific data. Citizen science approaches differ in scale, scope and degree of citizen involvement. Most of the programs are found in North America and Europe. Participation mostly comprises a contributory citizen science model, which engages citizens in data collection. In order to leverage the full potential of citizen science in knowledge co-generation, future citizen science projects in hydrology could benefit from more co-created types of projects that establish strong ties between research and public engagement, thereby enhancing the long-term sustainability of monitoring networks.

Remote reefs and seamounts are the last refuges for marine predators across the Indo-Pacific

Letessier TB, Mouillot D, Bouchet PJ, Vigliola L, Fernandes MC, Thompson C, Boussarie G, Turner J, Juhel J-B, Maire E, et al. Remote reefs and seamounts are the last refuges for marine predators across the Indo-Pacific Moritz C. PLOS Biology [Internet]. 2019 ;17(8):e3000366. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.3000366
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Since the 1950s, industrial fisheries have expanded globally, as fishing vessels are required to travel further afield for fishing opportunities. Technological advancements and fishery subsidies have granted ever-increasing access to populations of sharks, tunas, billfishes, and other predators. Wilderness refuges, defined here as areas beyond the detectable range of human influence, are therefore increasingly rare. In order to achieve marine resources sustainability, large no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) with pelagic components are being implemented. However, such conservation efforts require knowledge of the critical habitats for predators, both across shallow reefs and the deeper ocean. Here, we fill this gap in knowledge across the Indo-Pacific by using 1,041 midwater baited videos to survey sharks and other pelagic predators such as rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulata), mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), and black marlin (Istiompax indica). We modeled three key predator community attributes: vertebrate species richness, mean maximum body size, and shark abundance as a function of geomorphology, environmental conditions, and human pressures. All attributes were primarily driven by geomorphology (35%−62% variance explained) and environmental conditions (14%−49%). While human pressures had no influence on species richness, both body size and shark abundance responded strongly to distance to human markets (12%−20%). Refuges were identified at more than 1,250 km from human markets for body size and for shark abundance. These refuges were identified as remote and shallow seabed features, such as seamounts, submerged banks, and reefs. Worryingly, hotpots of large individuals and of shark abundance are presently under-represented within no-take MPAs that aim to effectively protect marine predators, such as the British Indian Ocean Territory. Population recovery of predators is unlikely to occur without strategic placement and effective enforcement of large no-take MPAs in both coastal and remote locations.

Improving compliance of recreational fishers with Rockfish Conservation Areas: community–academic partnership to achieve and evaluate conservation

Ban NC, Kushneryk K, Falk J, Vachon A, Sleigh L. Improving compliance of recreational fishers with Rockfish Conservation Areas: community–academic partnership to achieve and evaluate conservation Yates K. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/icesjms/fsz134/5543080
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $45.00
Type: Journal Article

Compliance is a key factor in ensuring success of marine conservation. We describe a community–academic partnership that seeks to reduce non-compliance of recreational fishers with Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCAs) around Galiano Island in British Columbia, Canada. Previous work showed mostly unintentional non-compliance by recreational fishers. From 2015 to 2018 we developed and implemented outreach and public education activities. We distributed information at community events, and installed 46 metal signs with maps of nearby RCAs at marinas, ferry terminals, and boat launches. During the summers of 2015, 2017, and 2018, we interviewed 86 recreational fishers to gauge their compliance with RCAs. Compared with a baseline in 2014, there was a reduction of 22% (from 25 to 3%) of people who unintentionally fished in RCAs with prohibited gears. In 2018, 67% of participants had seen our outreach materials. We used trail cameras overlooking RCAs to assess non-compliance in six locations on Galiano Island. Illegal fishing incidents within RCAs declined from 42% of days monitored in 2014 to 14% in 2018. Although our outreach efforts were limited in scale and scope, they appear to be making a difference. Our activities and findings can provide guidance for other regions seeking to improve compliance by recreational fishers.

A CFD study on the performance of a passive ocean plastic collector under rough sea conditions

Shaw H-J, Chen W-L, Li Y-H. A CFD study on the performance of a passive ocean plastic collector under rough sea conditions. Ocean Engineering [Internet]. 2019 ;188:106243. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0029801819304214
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

In this study, a commercial CFD code, STARCCM+, is used to analyze the performance of a passive ocean plastic collector under rough sea conditions. The CFD code was first validated by comparing with data from a scaled model experiment conducted in the towing water tank in National Cheng Kung University, and it was proven to return accurate catch rate. Then thirty-eight test cases were setup to investigate the effects of four different parameters, namely, ocean current speed, wave height, wave length, and plastic density, on the plastic collector's catch rate, which is the percentage of incoming plastic debris intercepted by the plastic collector. It was found that the parameters of wave length and plastic density posed very little effect on catch rate. In contrast, the effects of the other two parameters were significant. Two important thresholds were found, and they were ocean current speed of 2.5 ms−1 and wave height of 0.4 m. The catch rate remained at high level until these thresholds were reached. The information found in this study is invaluable for the design of a practical passive ocean plastic collector.

Disentangling the response of fishes to recreational fishing over 30 years within a fringing coral reef reserve network

Cresswell AK, Langlois TJ, Wilson SK, Claudet J, Thomson DP, Renton M, Fulton CJ, Fisher R, Vanderklift MA, Babcock RC, et al. Disentangling the response of fishes to recreational fishing over 30 years within a fringing coral reef reserve network. Biological Conservation [Internet]. 2019 ;237:514 - 524. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006320718317464
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Few studies assess the effects of recreational fishing in isolation from commercial fishing. We used meta-analysis to synthesise 4444 samples from 30 years (1987–2017) of fish surveys inside and outside a large network of highly protected reserves in the Ningaloo Marine Park, Western Australia, where the major fishing activity is recreational. Data were collected by different agencies, using varied survey designs and sampling methods. We contrasted the relative abundance and biomass of target and non-target fish groups between fished and reserve locations. We considered the influence of, and possible interactions between, seven additional variables: age and size of reserve, one of two reserve network configurations, reef habitat type, recreational fishing activity, shore-based fishing regulations and survey method. Taxa responded differently: the abundance and biomass inside reserves relative to outside was higher for targeted lethrinids, while other targeted (and non-targeted) fish groups were indistinguishable. Reef habitat was important for explaining lethrinid response to protection, and this factor interacted with reserve size, such that larger reserves were demonstrably more effective in the back reef and lagoon habitats. There was little evidence of changes in relative abundance and biomass of fishes with reserve age, or after rezoning and expansion of the reserve network. Our study demonstrates the complexities in quantifying fishing effects, highlighting some of the key factors and interactions that likely underlie the varied results in reserve assessments that should be considered in future reserve design and assessment.

A review on the environmental impacts of shipping on aquatic and nearshore ecosystems

Jägerbrand AK, Brutemark A, Svedén JBarthel, Gren I-M. A review on the environmental impacts of shipping on aquatic and nearshore ecosystems. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. In Press :133637. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719335624
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $41.95
Type: Journal Article

There are several environmental and ecological effects of shipping. However, these are rarely assessed in total in the scientific literature. Thus, the aim of this study was to summarize the different impacts of water-based transport on aquatic and nearshore ecosystems and to identify knowledge gaps and areas for future research. The review identified several environmental and ecological consequences within the main impact categories of water discharges, physical impacts, and air emissions. However, although quantitative data on these consequences are generally scarce the shipping contribution to acidification by SOx- and NOx-emissions has been quantified to some extent. There are several knowledge gaps regarding the ecological consequences of, for example, the increasing amount of chemicals transported on water, the spread of non-indigenous species coupled with climate change, and physical impacts such as shipping noise and artificial light. The whole plethora of environmental consequences, as well as potential synergistic effects, should be seriously considered in transport planning.

Reconciling economic impacts and stakeholder perception: A management challenge in Florida Gulf Coast fisheries

Seeteram N, Bhat M, Pierce B, Cavasos K, Die D. Reconciling economic impacts and stakeholder perception: A management challenge in Florida Gulf Coast fisheries. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;108:103628. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18305530
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

As global fisheries management shifts towards ecosystem-based management, responsible organizations and governments must also address the socio-economic impacts of this shift. This study evaluates potential impacts of such management shift with a case study of Pulley Ridge (PR), an ecologically rich area in the Gulf of Mexico, on fishermen and economies of Florida's Gulf Coast. We developed an input-output model to estimate direct, backward-linkage, forward-linkage, and induced consumption effects of various management scenarios on the region's economy. We also solicited input on the proposed management changes from Florida saltwater fishing license holders using an online survey. Although gear restrictions may affect harvest of the region's two most lucrative fish types, snappers and groupers, the proposed changes would impact only a small fraction of the fishing industry and the regional economy. Results suggest economic impacts to affected counties and the overall Gulf Coast fishery from management changes would be limited, i.e., less than 3% reductions in income, taxes and employment. Nonetheless, almost 90% of survey respondents indicated the proposed management changes would affect their business either “Significantly” or “Very Significantly”. Results suggest developing broad based support for changes affecting the commercial fishing sector may require stakeholder negotiation along with convincing evidence that the proposed changes will improve regional fishery production in the near term.

Integrating property rights into fisheries management: The case of Belize's journey to managed access

Wade E, Spalding AK, Biedenweg K. Integrating property rights into fisheries management: The case of Belize's journey to managed access. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;108:103631. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18304858
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Small-scale fisheries are facing increasing pressures due to overexploitation of resources, resulting in decreased fish stocks, biodiversity loss, and degradation of marine ecosystems. The unregulated open access conditions of these systems are considered a main driver of this context, leading to increasing calls for fisheries reform over the past decade. Belize is no exception, recently introducing a rights-based fisheries territorial system (Managed Access Program – MAP) aimed at incentivizing fisher ownership and stewardship of regions to promote sustainability. The implementation of managed access brings with it an interaction of actors and issues at the local and regional scale that raises questions about the feasibility and potential success of the program. In this paper, using a combination of literature review and semi-structured interviews with 54 fishers and 25 policymakers across Belize's fisheries sector, we provide a policy analysis of the MAP and review initial responses. We found the new system to be primarily a re-packaging of traditional fishing areas with unenforced regulations. Responses from stakeholders were varied around the implementation of the MAP, with the majority of references being negative in tone. While the introduction of MAP in Belize seeks to provide solutions to Belize's fisheries sector, questions remain around the ability of the MAP to meet its objectives.

Estimating the benefits of restoration And preservation scenarios of marine biodiversity: An application of the contingent valuation method

Tonin S. Estimating the benefits of restoration And preservation scenarios of marine biodiversity: An application of the contingent valuation method. Environmental Science & Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;100:172 - 182. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901118311146
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Marine biodiversity provides valuable benefits for human beings. Some of these benefits, such as the provision of food, are easily recognized, while some, such as climate regulation, are less well-known. People lack direct experience of the economic value of marine biodiversity, since no relevant market exists. This study reports the results of a contingent valuation study to estimate people’s willingness to pay (WTP) for biodiversity restoration and conservation scenarios in some unique coralligenous habitats in the North Adriatic Sea, Italy.

Coralligenous habitat constitutes one of the most important ‘hot spots’ of species diversity in the Mediterranean, notoriously affected by a loss of biodiversity as a consequence of human activities, such as over-fishing and pollution, sediment deposition, recreational fishing, trawling, and diving. A major threat is the increasing frequency of abandoned, lost, or otherwise discarded fishing gear at sea.

A sample of 4000 Italian people was surveyed, and the results show that people’s WTP for interventions aimed at improving biodiversity through the removal and restoration operations in the area is distinctly higher than is the WTP for the preservation and prevention of further biodiversity loss. The findings suggest that respondents perceive prevention and control activities as being embedded in restoration, the benefits of which can be seen within a certain time frame. Positive and significant determinants of respondents’ WTP are family income, knowledge of biodiversity in coralligenous habitat, previous cognizance and awareness of marine biodiversity issues, environmental friendly behavior, and concern for environmental quality.

Abundance and characteristics of microplastics in commercial marine fish from Malaysia

Karbalaei S, Golieskardi A, Hamzah HBinti, Abdulwahid S, Hanachi P, Walker TR, Karami A. Abundance and characteristics of microplastics in commercial marine fish from Malaysia. Marine Pollution Bulletin [Internet]. 2019 ;148:5 - 15. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X19306204
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

Plastic debris is widespread and ubiquitous in the marine environment and ingestion of plastic debris by marine organisms is well-documented. Viscera and gills of 110 individual marine fish from 11 commercial fish species collected from the marine fish market were examined for presence of plastic debris. Isolated particles were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, and elemental analysis was assessed using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Nine (of 11) species contained plastic debris. Out of 56 isolated particles, 76.8% were plastic polymers, 5.4% were pigments, and 17.8% were unidentified. Extracted plastic particle sizes ranged from 200 to 34,900 μm (mean = 2600 μm ±7.0 SD). Hazardous material was undetected using inorganic elemental analysis of extracted plastic debris and pigment particles. The highest number of ingested microplastics was measured in Eleutheronema tridactylumand Clarias gariepinus, suggesting their potential as indicator species to monitor and study trends of ingested marine litter.

The Active Reef Restoration Toolbox is a Vehicle for Coral Resilience and Adaptation in a Changing World

Rinkevich . The Active Reef Restoration Toolbox is a Vehicle for Coral Resilience and Adaptation in a Changing World. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering [Internet]. 2019 ;7(7):201. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/2077-1312/7/7/201
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The accelerating marks of climate change on coral-reef ecosystems, combined with the recognition that traditional management measures are not efficient enough to cope with climate change tempo and human footprints, have raised a need for new approaches to reef restoration. The most widely used approach is the “coral gardening” tenet; an active reef restoration tactic based on principles, concepts, and theories used in silviculture. During the relatively short period since its inception, the gardening approach has been tested globally in a wide range of reef sites, and on about 100 coral species, utilizing hundreds of thousands of nursery-raised coral colonies. While still lacking credibility for simulating restoration scenarios under forecasted climate change impacts, and with a limited adaptation toolkit used in the gardening approach, it is still deficient. Therefore, novel restoration avenues have recently been suggested and devised, and some have already been tested, primarily in the laboratory. Here, I describe seven classes of such novel avenues and tools, which include the improved gardening methodologies, ecological engineering approaches, assisted migration/colonization, assisted genetics/evolution, assisted microbiome, coral epigenetics, and coral chimerism. These are further classified into three operation levels, each dependent on the success of the former level. Altogether, the seven approaches and the three operation levels represent a unified active reef restoration toolbox, under the umbrella of the gardening tenet, focusing on the enhancement of coral resilience and adaptation in a changing world. 

First attempts towards the restoration of gorgonian populations on the Mediterranean continental shelf

Montseny M, Linares C, Viladrich N, Olariaga A, Carreras M, Palomeras N, Gracias N, Istenič K, Garcia R, Ambroso S, et al. First attempts towards the restoration of gorgonian populations on the Mediterranean continental shelf. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems [Internet]. 2019 ;29(8):1278 - 1284. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/aqc.3118
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $42.00
Type: Journal Article
  1. In the Mediterranean Sea, gorgonians are among the main habitat‐forming species of benthic communities on the continental shelf and slope, playing an important ecological role in coral gardens.
  2. In areas where bottom trawling is restricted, gorgonians represent one of the main components of trammel net bycatch. Since gorgonians are long‐lived and slow‐growing species, impacts derived from fishing activities can have far‐reaching and long‐lasting effects, jeopardizing their long‐term viability. Thus, mitigation and ecological restoration initiatives focusing on gorgonian populations on the continental shelf are necessary to enhance and speed up their natural recovery.
  3. Bycatch gorgonians from artisanal fishermen were transplanted into artificial structures, which were then deployed at 85 m depth on the outer continental shelf of the marine protected area of Cap de Creus (north‐west Mediterranean Sea, Spain). After 1 year, high survival rates of transplanted colonies (87.5%) were recorded with a hybrid remotely operated vehicle.
  4. This pilot study shows, for the first time, the survival potential of bycatch gorgonians once returned to their habitat on the continental shelf, and suggests the potential success of future scaled‐up restoration activities.

Considerations for maximizing the adaptive potential of restored coral populations in the western Atlantic

Baums IB, Baker AC, Davies SW, Grottoli AG, Kenkel CD, Kitchen SA, Kuffner IB, LaJeunesse TC, Matz MV, Miller MW, et al. Considerations for maximizing the adaptive potential of restored coral populations in the western Atlantic. Ecological Applications [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/eap.1978?casa_token=jpiZfIIXy-4AAAAA:pXxNJhLdK6n_ZxOekdqYCN5HISrp9q_y0nWPAdeMQb997kogW0XyoIdPYEw4xHgN2T0VCGnSp64ic60
Freely available?: 
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Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $42.00
Type: Journal Article

Active coral restoration typically involves two interventions: crossing gametes to facilitate sexual larval propagation; and fragmenting, growing, and outplanting adult colonies to enhance asexual propagation. From an evolutionary perspective, the goal of these efforts is to establish self‐sustaining, sexually reproducing coral populations that have sufficient genetic and phenotypic variation to adapt to changing environments. Here, we provide concrete guidelines to help restoration practitioners meet this goal for most Caribbean species of interest. To enable the persistence of coral populations exposed to severe selection pressure from many stressors, a mixed provenance strategy is suggested: genetically unique colonies (genets) should be sourced both locally as well as from more distant, environmentally distinct sites. Sourcing 3‐4 genets per reef along environmental gradients should be sufficient to capture a majority of intraspecies genetic diversity. It is best for practitioners to propagate genets with one or more phenotypic traits that are predicted to be valuable in the future, such as low partial mortality, high would healing rate, high skeletal growth rate, bleaching resilience, infectious disease resilience, and high sexual reproductive output. Some effort should also be reserved for underperforming genets because colonies that grow poorly in nurseries sometimes thrive once returned to the reef and may harbor genetic variants with as yet unrecognized value. Outplants should be clustered in groups of 4‐6 genets to enable successful fertilization upon maturation. Current evidence indicates that translocating genets among distant reefs is unlikely to be problematic from a population genetic perspective but will likely provide substantial adaptive benefits. Similarly, inbreeding depression is not a concern given that current practices only raise first‐generation offspring. Thus, proceeding with the proposed management strategies even in the absence of a detailed population genetic analysis of the focal species at sites targeted for restoration is the best course of action. These basic guidelines should help maximize the adaptive potential of reef‐building corals facing a rapidly changing environment.

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