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Towards Integrated Island Management – Lessons from Lau, Malaita, for the implementation of a national approach to resource management in Solomon Islands

Citation Information: WorldFish Center Report to SPREP, January 2011

Authors: Hugh Govan, Anne-Maree Schwarz, Delvene Boso

Executive Summary: Solomon Islands has recently developed substantial policy aiming to support inshore fisheries management, conservation, climate change adaptation and ecosystem approaches to resource management. A large body of experience in community based approaches to management has developed but “upscaling” and particularly the implementation of nation-wide approaches has received little attention so far. With the emerging challenges posed by climate change and the need for ecosystem wide and integrated approaches attracting serious donor attention, a national debate on the most effective approaches to implementation is urgently needed. This report discusses potential implementation of “a cost-effective and integrated approach to resource management that is consistent with national policy and needs” based on a review of current policy and institutional structures and examination of a recent case study from Lau, Malaita using stakeholder, transaction and financial cost analyses.

Policy priorities call for an integrated approach to achieving sustainable development goals through bottom-up, people-centred approaches at multiple scales and across all sectors with consideration of ecosystem linkages and the emerging threats posed by climate change. The approach to achieving these targets island-wide is termed in this report Integrated Island Management (IIM).

National and provincial budgets available for implementation of fisheries or environmental managementare low and likely to remain so into the future. Given the widespread assumption that community based approaches will be used for resource management as well as conservation, climate change adaptation and disaster preparedness activities, amongst others, there is an urgent need to find affordable implementation mechanisms. IIM may provide this opportunity.

Best practice guide for watershed management in the Pacific Islands

Citation Information: Coral Reef Initiatives for the PacificCOMPONENT 1A - Project 1A4, Integrated Coastal Managament, COWRIE Project; November 2010

Authors: Andrew Fenemor, Colin Meurk, Grant Hunter, Bill Aalbersberg, Randy Thaman, Marika Tuiwawa, Leigh-Anne Buliruarua, Lex Thomson, Don Miller, Binesh Dayal

Executive Summary: Accelerated erosion of soils associated with a growing population and demand for resources from the land, and disconnection from traditional, conservative land use practices, threatens land and water based livelihoods and communities in many hilly Pacific Island countries such as Fiji and Vanuatu.

This Best Practice Guide for community action and revegetation in Pacific Island hill lands applies Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) principles to promote management practices that reduce accelerated soil erosion, sediment loss and deposition in freshwater and nearshore marine waters and coral reefs. It seeks to support sustainable and productive land use, viable freshwater and marine fisheries, traditional cultural values, biodiversity and associated opportunities such as tourism.

There is a vast literature on IWM (also known as Integrated Catchment Management – ICM) which underpins this Guide. Fundamentally it is about understanding the cascading and linked effects of an event or action in a watershed or catchment, identifying problems or deterioration that affects natural processes, sustainable functioning, and ultimately human welfare, and conceiving measures that avoid, mitigate or remedy those effects throughout the catchment and its receiving waters.

Various case histories define effective measures that have been taken in and around the Pacific. In particular, coordinated community engagement and capacity building, modifying land use (eg timing and location of burning or land clearance and cropping, and avoiding earthworks in sensitive areas), and planting of grasses and trees known to grow fast on eroded ground, all seem to have worked.

Social networks to support learning for improved governance of coastal ecosystems in Solomon Islands

Citation Information: Coral Reef Iniatives for the Pacific, COMPONENT 3E - Project 3E2, Studies of governance for reef fisheries management, March 2011

Author: Pip Cohen

Executive Summary: Coastal ecosystems can be highly biodiverse and provide food and livelihoods for millions of people, particularly in developing countries (Moberg and Folke 1999; Roberts, McClean et al. 2002). Meeting conservation and fisheries goals within coastal ecosystems and for human populations is an ongoing challenge. Adaptive co‐management is now a mainstream approach for meeting the challenge of biodiversity conservation and fisheries management within coastal ecosystems and is proliferating in the developing world (Govan 2009; Weeks, Russ et al. 2010). Adaptive comanagement refers to flexible community‐based systems of resource management tailored to specific places and situations and supported by, and working with, various organizations at different levels (Olsson, Folke et al. 2004) and where the arrangement involves significant participation of resource users in decision making (Berkes and Turner 2006). In Solomon Islands locally managed marine areas (LMMAs) have arisen from adaptive co‐management arrangements supported by a number of partner non‐government or government agencies.

Comparison of Approaches to Management of Large Marine Areas

Citation Information: Bensted-Smith, R. and Kirkman, H. 2010 “Comparison of Approaches to Management of Large Marine Areas”. 144 pp. Publ. Fauna & Flora International, Cambridge, UK and Conservation International, Washington DC.

Description: Five years ago, CI – with support from numerous partners – started work in three main Seascapes. CI recently commissioned this independent analysis to help us understand the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches to managing large-scale marine areas.

This intriguing report identifies ways organizations can work together and learn from each others' experiences by providing interesting regional case studies for support.

Although the report was commissioned by CI, the views expressed are those of the authors. The authors particularly commend the remarkable delivery of outcomes in the Seascapes, and praise their emphasis on “the development of sustainable, multi-level governance”, while warning against the model “reverting to a narrower focus on MPAs” and noting the need to address local ownership of resources.

We encourage readers to explore our findings, provide feedback and join the debate.

Community-Based Management of Coastal Ecosystems

Citation Information: West Coast Ecosystem-Based Management Network, May 2010

Description: The West Coast EBM Network’s member projects have begun to implement ecosystem-based approaches to management in real-world settings and have learned valuable lessons through their experiences. The following pages provide a unique glimpse into the efforts of these projects and share the stories of communities that have decided to take a proactive approach to managing their coastal areas. This guide was developed to share these lessons and strategies, and to highlight those that are working in hopes of continuing to improve marine and coastal management on the West Coast of the U.S., throughout the country and around the world.

Science dimensions of an Ecosystem Approach to Management of Biotic Ocean Resources (SEAMBOR)

Citation Information: April 2010; Marine Board-ESF Position Paper 14

Editor: Jake Rice

Description: The report “Science dimensions of an Ecosystem Approach to Management of Biotic Ocean Resources” offers independent scientific input to current policy discussions about the marine environment such as the new EC Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Within the European Integrated Maritime Policy, the Directive aims to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) of all European seas by 2020. To maintain an ecosystem in a healthy, productive and resilient condition, the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM) concept considers the entire ecosystem in an integrated way, bringing in natural sciences, socio-economics and governance, whereas conventional approaches have focused on a single species, activity or concern. The report provides the scientific knowledge to build up and bring EAM to fruition.

Invasive Species, Climate Change and Ecosystem-Based Adaptation: Addressing Multiple Drivers of Global Change

Citation Information: Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP), Washington, DC, US, and Nairobi, Kenya; September 2010

Authors: Stanley W. Burgiel and Adrianna A. Muir

Description: Two of the greatest threats to the natural world - invasive species and climate change – when combined, not only have devastating impacts on the environment but can also cost countries ten per cent of their Gross Domestic Product. In a report, released this week in Nagoya, Japan, scientists are urging countries to take immediate action against the ‘deadly duo’.

A study by the Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) supported by its partners, CABI, IUCN and TNC, and funded by the World Bank, identifies how invasive species and climate change are linked and looks at what needs to be done to lessen their impact. The report, Invasive Species, Climate Change and Ecosystem-Based Adaptation: Addressing Multiple Drivers of Global Change urges governments to integrate the prevention and management of invasive species into how they respond to climate changes. From a policy perspective, invasive species and climate change have largely been kept separate.

A Framework for Social Adaptation to Climate Change - Sustaining Tropical Coastal Communities and Industries

Citation Information: IUCN Climate Change and Coral Reefs Working Group; June 2010

Authors: N.A. Marshall, P.A. Marshall, J. Tamelander, D. Obura, D. Malleret-King and J.E. Cinner

Description: The estimated 500 million people who depend on coral reefs worldwide regularly contend with change. Whether it is the shifting demands of a global marketplace, political upheaval at the national level, shortage of local supplies such as fuel, or fickle weather, the resilience of reefdependent people is often put to the test. Despite this hard-earned resilience, coastal communities and reef-based industries are going to be challenged like never before as climate change exerts a multi-faceted influence.

Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef: A globally significant demonstration of the benefits of networks of marine reserves

Citation Information: Marine Reserves Special Feature: Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef: A globally significant demonstration of the benefits of networks of marine reserves; PNAS 2010: 0909335107v1-200909335.

Authors: Laurence J. McCook; Tony Ayling; Mike Cappo; J. Howard Choat; Richard D. Evans; Debora M. De Freitas; Michelle Heupel; Terry P. Hughes; Geoffrey P. Jones; Bruce Mapstone; Helene Marsh; Morena Mills; Fergus J. Molloy; C. Roland Pitcher; Robert L. Pressey; Garry R. Russ; Stephen Sutton; Hugh Sweatman; Renae Tobin; David R. Wachenfeld; David H. Williamson

Abstract: The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) provides a globally significant demonstration of the effectiveness of large-scale networks of marine reserves in contributing to integrated, adaptive management. Comprehensive review of available evidence shows major, rapid benefits of no-take areas for targeted fish and sharks, in both reef and nonreef habitats, with potential benefits for fisheries as well as biodiversity conservation. Large, mobile species like sharks benefit less than smaller, site-attached fish. Critically, reserves also appear to benefit overall ecosystem health and resilience: outbreaks of coral-eating, crown-of-thorns starfish appear less frequent on no-take reefs, which consequently have higher abundance of coral, the very foundation of reef ecosystems. Effective marine reserves require regular review of compliance: fish abundances in no-entry zones suggest that even no-take zones may be significantly depleted due to poaching. Spatial analyses comparing zoning with seabed biodiversity or dugong distributions illustrate significant benefits from application of best-practice conservation principles in data-poor situations. Increases in the marine reserve network in 2004 affected fishers, but preliminary economic analysis suggests considerable net benefits, in terms of protecting environmental and tourism values. Relative to the revenue generated by reef tourism, current expenditure on protection is minor. Recent implementation of an Outlook Report provides regular, formal review of environmental condition and management and links to policy responses, key aspects of adaptive management. Given the major threat posed by climate change, the expanded network of marine reserves provides a critical and cost-effective contribution to enhancing the resilience of the Great Barrier Reef.

The State of Marine and Coastal Adaptation in North America: A Synthesis of Emerging Ideas

Citation Information: January 2011; EcoAdapt, PO Box 11195, Bainbridge Island, WA 98110

Authors: Rachel M. Gregg, Lara J. Hansen, Kirsten M. Feifel, Jessica L. Hitt, Jessi M. Kershner, Alex Score, and Jennie R. Hoffman

Abstract: Climate change is now widely acknowledged as a global problem that threatens the success of marine and coastal conservation, management, and policy. Mitigation and adaptation are the two approaches commonly used to address actual and projected climate change impacts. Mitigation applies to efforts to decrease the rate and extent of climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions or the enhancement of carbon uptake and storage; adaptation deals with minimizing the negative effects or exploiting potential opportunities of climate change. Because the benefits of mitigation are not immediate and because we are already committed to a certain amount of climate change, adaptation has been increasingly viewed as an essential component of an effective climate change response strategy. The field of adaptation is developing rapidly but in an ad hoc fashion, and organizations and governments are often challenged to make sense of the dispersed information that is available.

The intent of this report is to provide a brief overview of key climate change impacts on the natural and built environments in marine and coastal North America and a review of adaptation options available to and in use by marine and coastal managers. This report presents the results of EcoAdapt’s efforts to survey, inventory, and assess adaptation projects from different regions, jurisdictions, and scales throughout North America’s marine and coastal environments.

Economic Values of Coral Reefs, Mangroves, and Seagrasses: A Global Compilation

Citation Information: Conservation International. 2008. Economic Values of Coral Reefs, Mangroves, and Seagrasses: A Global Compilation. Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA.

Description: This booklet compiles the results of a wide variety of economic valuation studies on coral reef and related ecosystems around the world, with a focus on the following ecosystem goods and services: tourism, fisheries, coastal protection, biodiversity, and carbon sequestration.

Socioeconomic Conditions Along the World’s Tropical Coasts: 2008

Citation Information: 2008, Science and Knowledge Division, Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, USA

Authors: Christy Loper, Robert Pomeroy, Vineeta Hoon, Patrick McConney, Maria Pena, Arie Sanders, Gaya Sriskanthan, Sheila Vergara, Michael Pido, Ron Vave, Caroline Vieux, Innocent Wanyonyi

Summary: The world’s tropical coasts are home to over two billion people, many of whom live in poverty and depend on coastal resources such as coral reef fish for their livelihood, sustenance, and cultural traditions. This report synthesizes data from individual socioeconomic assessments to quantify and qualify regional and global dependence on coral reef resources, perceptions of resource conditions, threats to marine and coastal resources, and support for marine management strategies such as marine protected areas. Data are included from 49 studies, representing close to 14,000 household surveys conducted in hundreds of communities in 27 countries. This information provides evidence of the need to conserve global coral reef resources to ensure food security and contribute to poverty alleviation.

It is clear that declining quality of coral reefs negatively impacts those communities dependent on coral reefs for food, income, and revenue from tourism. However, new coral reef conservation initiatives such as the Micronesia Challenge, the Caribbean Challenge, the Coral Triangle Initiative, and the Indian Ocean Challenge will provide the opportunity to understand better the impacts of developing marine protected areas (MPAs) on livelihoods of people, both positively and negatively. Predominantly MPAs have been shown to bring positive consequences for the livelihoods of local people in the long-term, however it should be recognized that there are often negative impacts on some sectors of the local populations in the short term. These include the loss of access rights to habitual fishing grounds or increased risk of peril of travelling further to access alternative fishing grounds. Socioeconomic monitoring is needed to understand and mitigate negative impacts where needed, such as provision of alternative livelihoods.

Marine Managed Areas: What, Why, and Where

Citation Information: 2010, Science and Knowledge Division, Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, USA

Lead Authors: Michael Orbach and Leah Bunce Karrer

Summary: One approach to the development of better coastal and marine policy and management is the concept of marine managed areas (MMAs). A MMA is an area of ocean, or a combination of land and ocean, where all human activities are managed toward common goals. MMAs are a form of ecosystem-based management, where all elements—biophysical, human, and institutional—of a particular system are considered together. There are several overarching principles under which MMAs should be developed:

  • All human uses and their subsequent impacts on the defined area should be considered and their management integrated.
  • Policy and management should be based on the best natural and social science available.
  • All stakeholders in the defined area should be consulted and fully involved in the policy and management development and implementation processes concerning the MMA’s conditions and uses.

When such principles are fully implemented, the uses of the resources and habitats and the resulting benefits both to the environment and to humans can be optimized.

Marine Managed Areas: What, Why, and Where is a reader-friendly, richly illustrated 16-page booklet that defines MMAs and discusses the challenges of implementation. Based on 5 years of natural and social science research in 23 countries, it is intended to advance discussions among government agencies, non-government organizations, user groups, and other stakeholders about how and why to implement integrated management for the ocean. Marine Managed Areas: What, Why, and Where is a publication of the Science-to-Action partnership, which includes more than 75 organizations led by Conservation International’s Marine Management Area Science Program.

People and Oceans: Managing Marine Areas for Human Well-being

Citation Information: 2010, Science and Knowledge Division, Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Lead Authors: Giselle Samonte; Leah Bunce Karrer; Michael Orbach

Summary: Although much research has been done on the ecological benefits and challenges of marine resource management, comparatively little insight has been gained into the benefits and challenges of the human well-being aspects. This document addresses this gap by building on existing knowledge and synthesizing over 20 social science studies conducted over the past five years in 19 countries, involving over 35 scientists, and drawing on experiences in 52 marine managed areas (MMAs) worldwide.

This booklet demonstrates an awakening within the conservation community that the human relationship with coastal and ocean environments must be evaluated in cultural, social, and economic—as well as ecological—dimensions. The major insights from this booklet include:

Living with the Sea

Citation Information: 2010, Science and Knowledge Division, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA

Lead Authors: Les Kaufman and John Tschirky

Summary: Establishment of marine managed areas (MMAs) is a long-term investment in secure and sustainable ecosystems—secure for the people that depend on them for sustenance and livelihoods, sustainable in terms of the longterm persistence of habitats and species present. The goal of MMAs is to operate over timescales of multiple generations and deliver returns of increased diversity and abundance of native organisms and ecosystem resilience, as the expected return of ecosystem health and robustness can take decades.

Creating MMAs in many different places throughout the world provides discovery of both local knowledge and global generalizations. This knowledge forms a powerful management tool that can be tailored to specific locations.

This document draws on MMA experiences worldwide by synthesizing results from over 25 natural science studies conducted over the past five years in 18 tropical countries in 48 MMAs. The analysis focuses on the role of MMAs in maintaining healthy oceans, showing that MMAs can be used to enhance fisheries outside their borders and safeguard threatened species. Conserving multiple habitats using MMAs can also protect diverse livelihoods and increase fisheries yields. Local protection of marine resources through the MMA process can provide strong local benefits to species, habitats, and people. Local protection buffers against global climate change impacts while maintaining the richness of marine life. Finally, MMAs benefit by using new scientific approaches and engaging citizen scientists.

Living with the Sea is a reader-friendly, richly illustrated 20-page booklet that examines the role of marine managed areas in restoring and sustaining healthy oceans, particularly the importance of local management efforts. Based on 5 years of natural and social science research in 23 countries, it is intended to advance discussions among government agencies, non-government organizations, user groups, and other stakeholders about how and why to implement integrated management for the ocean. Living with the Sea is a publication of the Science-to-Action partnership, which includes more than 75 organizations led by Conservation International’s Marine Management Area Science Program.

Coral Health Index: Measuring Coral Community Health

Citation Information: 2011, Science and Knowledge Division, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA.

Authors: Les Kaufman, David Obura, Forest Rohwer, Enric Sala, Stuart Sandin, John Tschirky

Description: Effective local management of coral reefs has a direct effect on reducing threats and improving overall coral community health. Careful zoning and effective enforcement of resource use within a marine managed area reduces impacts of overfishing, allowing populations of grazing fish to rejuvenate and maintain healthy ecosystem functioning. Coastal land management to reduce deforestation and land-based pollution, and planning for sustainable coastal development can ensure that nutrient and sediment loads to the reef environment are kept low, maintaining a vibrant coral reef community.

Coral reefs that are healthy have greater resilience and ability to recover from chronic and acute stress. Global-scale stresses associated with climate change include elevated sea surface temperatures, ocean acidification, sea level rise, and increasing storm intensity. Adaptive management of coral reef communities will be most effective if a reliable annual indicator of community health is available to resource managers and policymakers. The Coral Health Index (CHI) is such a tool.

Governing Marine Protected Areas: Getting the Balance Right - Volume 2 - Case Study Reports

Citation Information: Day J (2011) Great Barrier Reef Marine Park – governance analysis. Pages 1-18 in PJS Jones, W Qiu and EM De Santo (Eds) Governing Marine Protected Areas: getting the balance right - Volume 2. Technical Report to Marine & Coastal Ecosystems Branch, UNEP, Nairobi.

Authors: Jon Day

Description: Whilst there is currently a range of guidance available on how to manage marine protected areas (MPAs), there is less guidance available that considers MPAs from a governance perspective. This perspective poses a key question – how do we combine top-down, bottom-up and market approaches for reaching and implementing decisions in order to achieve effective and equitable MPAs? It is widely accepted that all three approaches are important, but how might they be combined in different MPA contexts?

To tackle this question a new partnership amongst a group of governance experts, led by Dr Peter JS Jones (Dept of Geography, University College London), and MPA planners and managers has been initiated to analyse MPA case studies and develop guidance on governing MPAs in seas under national jurisdiction. 20 MPA case study from around the world have been brought together in the preliminary phase and subjected to detailed analysis employing a new governance analysis framework, ‘deconstructing’ the complexities of MPA governance employing 40 incentives from five categories. The report below describes the findings of this work. It is intended to provide a foundation for further discussion and learning, employing the governance analysis framework in different contexts, and to provide a preliminary resource for MPA managers to consider how different incentives might be combined to support the governance of their MPA.

Note: The main report may be downloaded at: /literature-library/1392618602

Case Studies of Three Economic Incentive Approaches in Marine Conservation

Authors: Eduard Niesten and Heidi Gjertsen

Description: This document contains summaries of case studies of three different approaches to providing marine resource users with incentives for conservation: buyouts, conservation agreements, and alternative livelihoods. These case studies informed the volume entitled Economic Incentives for Marine Conservation (Niesten and Gjertsen, 2010), available at /literature-library/1390131007. Please see this companion volume for definitions of the three approaches and guidance on project design informed by analysis of the case studies.

Economic Incentives for Marine Conservation

Citation Information: Niesten, E. and H. Gjertsen. 2010. Economic Incentives for Marine Conservation. Science and Knowledge Division, Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Description: This 40-page guidebook provides recommendations on how to select and implement incentive-based solutions: buyouts, conservation agreements, and alternative livelihoods. Case studies for this document may be found at: /literature-library/1391947207

The Ecosystem Approach to Marine Planning and Management

Citation Information: Routledge, February 28, 2011; 230 pages

ISBN: 9781849711838

Editors: Sue Kidd, Andy Plater and Chris Frid

Description: The marine environment is one of our most precious yet fragile natural resources. It provides a wide range of essential goods and services, including food, regulation of climate and nutrient cycling, as well as a setting for transport, recreation and tourism. This environment is however extremely complex and very sensitive to development pressures and other forms of human influence. Planning and management of the sea are similarly complicated, reflecting intricate legal, institutional and ownerships patterns. This creates a situation where marine ecosystems are vulnerable to over-exploitation or neglect.

The Ecosystem Approach to Marine Planning and Management describes how growing concern about the state of our seas is resulting in the development of new approaches to marine planning and management. For example, the United Nations Environment Programme has called for the widespread introduction of Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), and the European Union has recently been consulting on a new European Maritime Policy designed to stimulate economic growth but at the same time protect the resource base. Within the United Kingdom, the 2010 Marine Act draws upon the experience of town and country planning and brings into being a new system of Marine Spatial Planning. The authors show that a common feature of all these developments is an appreciation that more integrated forms of planning and management are required for our seas and that new arrangements must draw together understanding from natural science, social science and many other perspectives. Adopting such a trans-disciplinary and holistic (or 'ecosystems') approach, the book distils the expertise of these different disciplines and seeks to promote a broader understanding of the origins and practicalities of new approaches to marine planning and management.

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