Literature Library

Currently indexing 10051 titles

Understanding the barriers to reconciling marine mammal-fishery conflicts: A case study in British Columbia

Reidy RD. Understanding the barriers to reconciling marine mammal-fishery conflicts: A case study in British Columbia. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;108:103635. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X18307255
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

 

Fishery and wildlife managers face important challenges in reconciling recovery of historically over-harvested or extirpated populations of marine mammals with effective fisheries management. For example, the reestablishment of sea otters in British Columbia (B.C.) has had repercussions that led to one of the more interesting resource management problems involving commercial fisheries in Canada. As a case study, this paper reviews the history of sea otter exploitation and reintroduction in B.C., and discusses the nature and context of the problem today. Fisheries and marine mammals in Canada continue to be managed under overlapping legislative mandates and often with quite different goals. The case study highlights persistent social and institutional constraints on reconciling marine mammal-fishery conflicts. To reduce tensions and uncertainty, Fisheries and Oceans Canada should prioritize intensive marine mammal sampling programs for non-endangered species to disentangle fishing and predation effects, and fully implement Species At Risk Act and Fisheries Act measures to reduce uncertainty among increasingly diverse stakeholders.

An Overview of Global Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) with a Special Reference to Malaysia

Masud MMehedi, Masud MMehedi. An Overview of Global Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) with a Special Reference to Malaysia. In: Singapore: Springer Singapore; 2019. pp. 7 - 26. Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-13-9730-1_2
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $29.95
Type: Book Chapter

Marine protected areas (MPAs) make a significant contribution to the protection of marine communities through the provision of sustainable livelihoods, financial benefits related to fisheries and tourism, as well as the restoration of ocean productivity and the prevention of further degradation. Due to the inefficient management of MPAs, however, the marine ecosystem has been greatly affected by the substantial reduction in fish biomass, resulting in loss of biodiversity and extinction of species in MPAs. Malaysia, one of the top 12 megadiverse countries in the world, places great importance on the conservation and sustainable use of its rich natural heritage. In Malaysia, the concept of MPAs was introduced in the 1980s to raise public awareness on declining fisheries resources and ecosystem degradation. These MPAs have been established to address the threats to marine, coastal, and island ecosystems. The development of MPAs around the world, and particularly in Malaysia, is an essential geo-ecological element, not only for biodiversity, but also for society and the economy. There are four categories of MPAs in Malaysia: marine parks, no-take zones, wildlife sanctuaries, and turtle sanctuaries. For a better understanding of MPAs in Malaysia, it is relevant to provide a global overview before focusing on the Malaysian context.

Climate vulnerability assessment for Pacific salmon and steelhead in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

Crozier LG, McClure MM, Beechie T, Bograd SJ, Boughton DA, Carr M, Cooney TD, Dunham JB, Greene CM, Haltuch MA, et al. Climate vulnerability assessment for Pacific salmon and steelhead in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem Dias JMiguel. PLOS ONE [Internet]. 2019 ;14(7):e0217711. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0217711
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Major ecological realignments are already occurring in response to climate change. To be successful, conservation strategies now need to account for geographical patterns in traits sensitive to climate change, as well as climate threats to species-level diversity. As part of an effort to provide such information, we conducted a climate vulnerability assessment that included all anadromous Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) population units listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Using an expert-based scoring system, we ranked 20 attributes for the 28 listed units and 5 additional units. Attributes captured biological sensitivity, or the strength of linkages between each listing unit and the present climate; climate exposure, or the magnitude of projected change in local environmental conditions; and adaptive capacity, or the ability to modify phenotypes to cope with new climatic conditions. Each listing unit was then assigned one of four vulnerability categories. Units ranked most vulnerable overall were Chinook (Otshawytscha) in the California Central Valley, coho (Okisutch) in California and southern Oregon, sockeye (Onerka) in the Snake River Basin, and spring-run Chinook in the interior Columbia and Willamette River Basins. We identified units with similar vulnerability profiles using a hierarchical cluster analysis. Life history characteristics, especially freshwater and estuary residence times, interplayed with gradations in exposure from south to north and from coastal to interior regions to generate landscape-level patterns within each species. Nearly all listing units faced high exposures to projected increases in stream temperature, sea surface temperature, and ocean acidification, but other aspects of exposure peaked in particular regions. Anthropogenic factors, especially migration barriers, habitat degradation, and hatchery influence, have reduced the adaptive capacity of most steelhead and salmon populations. Enhancing adaptive capacity is essential to mitigate for the increasing threat of climate change. Collectively, these results provide a framework to support recovery planning that considers climate impacts on the majority of West Coast anadromous salmonids.

Major Challenges to Conservation of Marine Resources and Sustainable Coastal Community Development in Malaysia

Masud MMehedi, Masud MMehedi. Major Challenges to Conservation of Marine Resources and Sustainable Coastal Community Development in Malaysia. In: Singapore: Springer Singapore; 2019. pp. 79 - 100. Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-13-9730-1_6
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $29.95
Type: Book Chapter

Marine protected areas (MPAs) in Malaysia are greatly constrained by a host of problems and challenges such as ineffective management, poor institutional capacity, limited enforcement, absence of awareness, and poor socioeconomic status (SES) which influence the conservation of marine resources. Environmental degradation is another issue, including anthropogenic activities, overexploitation of marine resources, water quality deterioration, massive waste generation, and climate changes. These are the main impediments to sustainable economic growth, social development, and conservation of natural resources. This chapter details the major hurdles to sustainable community development within MPAs in Malaysia. It would help policymakers resolve the problems associated with marine park management and take appropriate steps to preserve, conserve, and protect marine resources for sustainable community development.

Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Resources in Malaysia

Masud MMehedi, Masud MMehedi. Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Resources in Malaysia. Singapore: Springer Singapore; 2019 pp. 27 - 43. Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-13-9730-1_3
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $29.95
Type: Book

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are management tools to conserve, preserve, and protect marine biodiversity, cultural heritage, and sustainable production of fisheries. Simultaneously, MPAs have the potential to ensure competent management of marine ecosystems. To stimulate the conservation and sustainable use of marine resources, global policymakers have introduced the 14th sustainable development goal (SDG-14). The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) focuses on increasing the current size of global MPAs. They have set targets to increase the size of global MPAs to 10% by 2020 and at least 30% by 2030 to accomplish SDG-14. This chapter discusses an overview of SDG-14, CBD initiatives, the Coral Triangle Initiative by six Coral Triangle countries, and challenges to achieve SDG-14 by 2030.

Marine protected area strategies: issues, divergences and the search for middle ground

Jones PJS. Marine protected area strategies: issues, divergences and the search for middle ground. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries [Internet]. 2001 ;11(3):197 - 216. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1020327007975
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $39.95
Type: Journal Article

There has been a dramatic increase in recentyears in the number of papers, reports, etc.,which have been published concerning MarineProtected Areas (MPAs). This overview of theobjectives, selection, design and management ofMPAs aims to provide a basis for discussionregarding possible ways forward by identifyingemerging issues, convergences and divergences. Whilst the attributes of the marine environmentmay limit the effectiveness of site-specificinitiatives such as MPAs, it is argued that itwould be defeatist in the extreme to abandonMPAs in the face of these limitations. Ten keyobjectives for MPAs are discussed, includingthat of harvest refugia, and it is argued thatwhilst these objectives may be justifiable froma preservationist perspective, they may beobjected to from a resource exploitationperspective. MPAs generate both internal(between uses) and basic (between use andconservation) conflicts, and it is argued thatthese conflicts may be exacerbated whenscientific arguments for MPAs are motivated bypreservationist concerns. It is reported thata minority of MPAs are achieving theirmanagement objectives, and that for themajority insufficient information was availablefor such effectiveness evaluations. Structureand process-oriented perspectives on marineconservation are discussed. It is argued thatthere are two divergent stances concerningoptimal MPA management approaches: top-down,characterized as being government-led andscience-based, with a greater emphasis onset-aside; and bottom-up, characterized asbeing community-based and science-guided, witha greater emphasis on multiple-use. Given thedivergent values of different stakeholders, thehigh degree of scientific uncertainty, and thehigh marine resource management decisionstakes, it is concluded that a key challenge isto adopt a "middle-ground" approach whichcombines top-down and bottom-up approaches, andwhich is consistent with the post-normalscientific approach.

Long-term impacts of rising sea temperature and sea level on shallow water coral communities over a ~40 year period

Brown BE, Dunne RP, Somerfield PJ, Edwards AJ, Simons WJF, Phongsuwan N, Putchim L, Anderson L, Naeije MC. Long-term impacts of rising sea temperature and sea level on shallow water coral communities over a ~40 year period. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2019 ;9(1). Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-45188-x
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Effects of combined rising sea temperature and increasing sea level on coral reefs, both factors associated with global warming, have rarely been addressed. In this ~40 y study of shallow reefs in the eastern Indian Ocean, we show that a rising relative sea level, currently estimated at ~11 mm y−1, has not only promoted coral cover but also has potential to limit damaging effects of thermally-induced bleaching. In 2010 the region experienced the most severe bleaching on record with corals subject to sea temperatures of >31 °C for 7 weeks. While the reef flats studied have a common aspect and are dominated by a similar suite of coral species, there was considerable spatial variation in their bleaching response which corresponded with reef-flat depth. Greatest loss of coral cover and community structure disruption occurred on the shallowest reef flats. Damage was less severe on the deepest reef flat where corals were subject to less aerial exposure, rapid flushing and longer submergence in turbid waters. Recovery of the most damaged sites took only ~8 y. While future trajectories of these resilient reefs will depend on sea-level anomalies, and frequency of extreme bleaching the positive role of rising sea level should not be under-estimated.

Viewpoint – Ocean plastic pollution: A convenient but distracting truth?

Stafford R, Jones PJS. Viewpoint – Ocean plastic pollution: A convenient but distracting truth?. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;103:187 - 191. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X1830681X
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

Ocean plastic is a contemporary focal point of concern for the marine environment. However, we argue there are bigger issues to address, including climate change and overfishing. Plastic has become a focus in the media and public domains partly through the draw of simple lifestyle changes, such as reusable water bottles, and partly through the potential to provide ‘quick fix’ technological solutions to plastic pollution, such as large scale marine clean-up operations and new ‘biodegradable’ plastic substitutes. As such, ocean plastic can provide a convenient truth that distracts us from the need for more radical changes to our behavioural, political and economic systems, addressing which will help address larger marine environmental issues, as well as the cause of plastic pollution, i.e. over-consumption.

We should not separate out environmental issues, but the current approach to plastic pollution can be a distraction from meaningful action. A response to Avery-Gomm et al.

Stafford R, Jones PJS. We should not separate out environmental issues, but the current approach to plastic pollution can be a distraction from meaningful action. A response to Avery-Gomm et al. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;107:103585. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19304178
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $35.95
Type: Journal Article

We agree with Avery-Gomm et al. that we should not separate out environmental issues. We also agree with them over the relative threat of plastic to our oceans. However, recent evidence on the ‘spillover effect’ of pro-environmental behaviours and on public attitudes to threats to areas such as the Great Barrier Reef suggest common consumerist and political approaches to tackle plastic pollution can cause a distraction from issues caused by climate change and biodiversity loss. We reiterate that we need political changes to address overconsumption in order to make real progress on all environmental issues.

Mesopelagic Sound Scattering Layers of the High Arctic: Seasonal Variations in Biomass, Species Assemblage, and Trophic Relationships

Geoffroy M, Daase M, Cusa M, Darnis G, Graeve M, Hernández NSantana, Berge J, Renaud PE, Cottier F, Falk-Petersen S. Mesopelagic Sound Scattering Layers of the High Arctic: Seasonal Variations in Biomass, Species Assemblage, and Trophic Relationships. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00364/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Mesopelagic sound scattering layers (SSL) are ubiquitous in all oceans. Pelagic organisms within the SSL play important roles as prey for higher trophic levels and in climate regulation through the biological carbon pump. Yet, the biomass and species composition of SSL in the Arctic Ocean remain poorly documented, particularly in winter. A multifrequency echosounder detected a SSL north of Svalbard, from 79.8 to 81.4°N, in January 2016, August 2016, and January 2017. Midwater trawl sampling confirmed that the SSL comprised zooplankton and pelagic fish of boreal and Arctic origins. Arctic cod dominated the fish assemblage in August and juvenile beaked redfish in January. The macrozooplankton community mainly comprised the medusa Cyanea capillata, the amphipod Themisto libellula, and the euphausiids Meganyctiphanes norvegica in August and Thysanoessa inermis in January. The SSL was located in the Atlantic Water mass, between 200–700 m in August and between 50–500 m in January. In January, the SSL was shallower and weaker above the deeper basin, where less Atlantic Water penetrated. The energy content available in the form of lipids within the SSL was significantly higher in summer than winter. The biomass within the SSL was >12-fold higher in summer, and the diversity of fish was slightly higher than in winter (12 vs. 9 species). We suggest that these differences are mainly related to life history and ontogenetic changes resulting in a descent toward the seafloor, outside the mesopelagic layer, in winter. In addition, some fish species of boreal origin, such as the spotted barracudina, did not seem to survive the polar night when advected from the Atlantic into the Arctic. Others, mainly juvenile beaked redfish, were abundant in both summer and winter, implying that the species can survive the polar night and possibly extend its range into the high Arctic. Fatty-acid trophic markers revealed that Arctic cod mainly fed on calanoid copepods while juvenile beaked redfish targeted krill (Thysanoessa spp.). The relatively high biomass of Arctic cod in August and of redfish in January thus suggests a shift within the SSL, from a Calanus-based food web in summer to a krill-based food web during winter.

The brighter side of climate change: How local oceanography amplified a lobster boom in the Gulf of Maine

Goode AG, Steneck RS, Wahle RA, Brady DC. The brighter side of climate change: How local oceanography amplified a lobster boom in the Gulf of Maine. Global Change Biology [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gcb.14778
Freely available?: 
No
Summary available?: 
No
Approximate cost to purchase or rent this item from the publisher: 
US $42.00
Type: Journal Article

Ocean warming can drive poleward shifts of commercially important species with potentially significant economic impacts. Nowhere are those impacts greater than in the Gulf of Maine where North America's most valuable marine species, the American lobster (Homarus americanus Milne Edwards), has thrived for decades. However, concerns are growing as monitored shallow water young‐of‐year lobsters decline and landings shift to the northeast that the regional maritime economies will suffer. We examine how the interplay of ocean warming, tidal mixing, and larval behavior results in a brighter side of climate change. Since the 1980s lobster stocks have increased fivefold. We suggest this increase resulted from a complex interplay between lobster larvae settlement behavior, climate change, and local oceanographic conditions. Specifically, postlarval sounding behavior is confined to a thermal envelope above 12°C and below 20°C. Summer thermally‐stratified surface water in southwestern regions have historically been well within the settlement thermal envelope. Although surface layers are warming fastest in this region, the steep depth‐wise temperature gradient caused thermally‐suitable areas for larval settlement to expand only modestly. This contrasts with the northeast where strong tidal mixing prevents thermal stratification and recent ocean warming has made an expansive area of seabed more favorable for larval settlement. Recent declines in lobster settlement densities observed at shallow monitoring sites correlate with the expanded area of thermally‐suitable habitat associated with warmer summers. This leads us to hypothesize that the expanded area of suitable habitat may help explain strong lobster population increases in this region over the last decade and offset potential future declines. It also suggests that the fate of fisheries in a changing climate requires understanding local interaction between life‐stage‐specific biological thresholds and finer scale oceanographic processes.

Evidence and patterns of tuna spawning inside a large no-take Marine Protected Area

Hernández CM, Witting J, Willis C, Thorrold SR, Llopiz JK, Rotjan RD. Evidence and patterns of tuna spawning inside a large no-take Marine Protected Area. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2019 ;9(1). Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-47161-0
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA), one of the world’s largest marine protected areas, represents 11% of the exclusive economic zone of the Republic of Kiribati, which earns much of its GDP by selling tuna fishing licenses to foreign nations. We have determined that PIPA is a spawning area for skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), bigeye (Thunnus obesus), and yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) tunas. Our approach included sampling larvae on cruises in 2015–2017 and using a biological-physical model to estimate spawning locations for collected larvae. Temperature and chlorophyll conditions varied markedly due to observed ENSO states: El Niño (2015) and neutral (2016–2017). However, larval tuna distributions were similar amongst years. Generally, skipjack larvae were patchy and more abundant near PIPA’s northeast corner, while Thunnus larvae exhibited lower and more even abundances. Genetic barcoding confirmed the presence of bigeye (Thunnus obesus) and yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) tuna larvae. Model simulations indicated that most of the larvae collected inside PIPA in 2015 were spawned inside, while stronger currents in 2016 moved more larvae across PIPA’s boundaries. Larval distributions and relative spawning output simulations indicated that both focal taxa spawned inside PIPA in all 3 study years, demonstrating that PIPA is protecting viable tuna spawning habitat.

Herbivorous fish rise as a destructive fishing practice falls in an Indonesian marine national park

Bejarano S, Pardede S, Campbell SJ, Hoey AS, Ferse SCA. Herbivorous fish rise as a destructive fishing practice falls in an Indonesian marine national park. Ecological Applications [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/eap.1981?sid=nlm%3Apubmed
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Securing ecosystem functions is challenging, yet common priority in conservation efforts. While marine parks aim to meet this challenge by regulating fishing through zoning plans, their effectiveness hinges on compliance levels and may respond to changes in fishing practices. Here we use a speciose assemblage of nominally herbivorous reef fish in Karimunjawa National Park (zoned since 1989) to investigate whether areas subject to a restrictive management regime sustained higher biomass over seven years compared to areas where moderate and permissive regulations apply. Using a trait‐based approach we characterise the functional space of the entire species pool and ask whether changes in biomass translate into changes in functional structure. We track changes in predator biomass, benthic community structure, and fishing practices that could influence herbivore trajectories. Overall herbivore biomass doubled in 2012 compared to 2006‐2009, and remained high in 2013 across all management regimes. We found no evidence that this biomass build‐up resulted from predator depletion or increased food availability but suggest it emerged in response to a park‐wide cessation of fishing with large drive nets known as muroami. The biomass increase was accompanied by a modest increase in taxonomic richness and a slight decrease in community‐scale rarity that did not alter functional redundancy levels. Subtle changes in both functional specialisation and identity of assemblages emerged as generalist species with low intrinsic vulnerability to fishing recovered sooner than more vulnerable specialists. While this implies a recovery of mechanisms responsible for the grazing of algal turfs and detritus, restoring other facets of herbivory (e.g. macroalgal consumption) may require more time. An increase in the cost‐benefit ratio per journey of muroami fishing facilitated a ban on muroami nets that met minimal resistance. Similar windows of opportunity may emerge elsewhere in which gear‐based regulations can supplement zoning plans, especially when compliance is low. This does not advocate for implementing such regulations once a fishery has become unprofitable. Rather, it underlines their importance for breaking the cycle of resource depletion and low compliance to zoning, thus alleviating the resulting threats to food security and ecosystem integrity.

Food web and fisheries in the future Baltic Sea

Bauer B, Gustafsson BG, Hyytiäinen K, Meier HEMarkus, Müller-Karulis B, Saraiva S, Tomczak MT. Food web and fisheries in the future Baltic Sea. Ambio [Internet]. 2019 . Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13280-019-01229-3
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

We developed numerical simulations of potential future ecological states of the Baltic Sea ecosystem at the end of century under five scenarios. We used a spatial food web (Ecospace) model, forced by a physical–biogeochemical model. The scenarios are built on consistent storylines that describe plausible developments of climatic and socioeconomic factors in the Baltic Sea region. Modelled species diversity and fish catches are driven by climate- and nutrient load-related changes in habitat quality and by fisheries management strategies. Our results suggest that a scenario including low greenhouse gas concentrations and nutrient pollution and ecologically focused fisheries management results in high biodiversity and catch value. On the other hand, scenarios envisioning increasing societal inequality or economic growth based on fossil fuels, high greenhouse gas emissions and high nutrient loads result in decreased habitat quality and diminished biodiversity. Under the latter scenarios catches are high but they predominantly consist of lower-valued fish.

An Integrated All-Atlantic Ocean Observing System in 2030

deYoung B, Visbeck M, Filho MCunha de A, Baringer MO’Neil, Black CA, Buch E, Canonico G, Coelho P, Duha JT, Edwards M, et al. An Integrated All-Atlantic Ocean Observing System in 2030. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00428/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

The ocean plays a vital role in the global climate system and biosphere, providing crucial resources for humanity including water, food, energy, and raw materials. There is a compelling need to develop an integrated basin-scale ocean observing system to support of ocean management. We articulate a vision for basin-scale ocean observing – A comprehensive All-Atlantic Ocean Observing Systems that benefits all of us living, working and relying on the ocean. Until now, basin-scale ocean observation has been conducted through loosely-aligned arrangements of national and international efforts. The All-Atlantic Ocean Observing System (AtlantOS) is an integrated concept for a forward-looking framework and basin-scale partnership to establish a comprehensive ocean observing system for the Atlantic Ocean as a whole. The system will be sustainable, multi-disciplinary, multi-thematic, efficient, and fit-for-purpose. Platforms, networks, and systems do already exist that operate at various maturity levels. AtlantOS will go beyond the status quo by bringing together the observing communities and countries of the Atlantic basin, providing the opportunity to join and support the system. AtlantOS will build upon the coordinated work of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), two international bodies that support and coordinate global ocean observing. AtlantOS will complement those efforts and offers a new approach to organizing ocean observing at the basin-scale. AtlantOS will focus not only on the physics but also the biology, ecology and biogeochemistry of the ocean and seafloor and will enhance new partnerships among governments, science, civil society and the private sector.

Collaborative Science to Enhance Coastal Resilience and Adaptation

C. Nichols R, Wright LD, Bainbridge SJ, Cosby A, Hénaff A, Loftis JD, Cocquempot L, Katragadda S, Mendez GR, Letortu P, et al. Collaborative Science to Enhance Coastal Resilience and Adaptation. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00404/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Impacts from natural and anthropogenic coastal hazards are substantial and increasing significantly with climate change. Coasts and coastal communities are increasingly at risk. In addition to short-term events, long-term changes, including rising sea levels, increasing storm intensity, and consequent severe compound flooding events are degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening coastal dwellers. Consequently, people living near the coast require environmental intelligence in the form of reliable short-term and long-term predictions in order to anticipate, prepare for, adapt to, resist, and recover from hazards. Risk-informed decision making is crucial, but for the resulting information to be actionable, it must be effectively and promptly communicated to planners, decision makers and emergency managers in readily understood terms and formats. The information, critical to forecasts of extreme weather and flooding, as well as long-term projections of future risks, must involve synergistic interplay between observations and models. In addition to serving data for assimilation into models, the observations are also essential for objective validation of models via hind casts. Linked observing and modeling programs that involve stakeholder input and integrate engineering, environmental, and community vulnerability are needed to evaluate conditions prior to and following severe storm events, to update baselines, and to plan for future changes over the long term. In contrast to most deep-sea phenomena, coastal vulnerabilities are locally and regionally specific and prioritization of the most important observational data and model predictions must rely heavily on input from local and regional communities and decision makers. Innovative technologies and nature-based solutions are already helping to reduce vulnerability from coastal hazards in some localities but more focus on local circumstances, as opposed to global solutions, is needed. Agile and spatially distributed response capabilities will assist operational organizations in predicting, preparing for and mitigating potential community-wide disasters. This white paper outlines the rationale, synthesizes recent literature and summarizes some data-driven approaches to coastal resilience.

Present-Day Distribution and Potential Spread of the Invasive Green Alga Avrainvillea amadelpha Around the Main Hawaiian Islands

Veazey L, Williams O, Wade R, Toonen R, Spalding HL. Present-Day Distribution and Potential Spread of the Invasive Green Alga Avrainvillea amadelpha Around the Main Hawaiian Islands. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00402/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Algal assemblages are critical components of marine ecosystems from the intertidal to mesophotic depths; they act as primary producers, nutrient cyclers, and substrate providers. Coral reef ecosystems can be disrupted by stressors such as storm events, effluent inundation, sudden temperature shifts, and non-native invaders. Avrainvillea amadelpha is an invasive green alga that was first recorded in the main Hawaiian Islands on the west shore of Oahu and has continued to be of concern due to its extreme competitiveness with native algae and seagrasses. It has spread rapidly across the island of Oahu, decreasing the biodiversity of the benthos from shorelines to ∼90 m depth. We employed a boosted regression tree modeling framework to identify highly vulnerable regions prone to invasion. Our model indicated that regions exposed to minimal bottom currents and at least five degree heating weeks are particularly susceptible to A. amadelpha colonization. Additionally, we extrapolated our model to the main Hawaiian Islands and forecasted how a 25% increase in statewide annual maximum degree heating weeks may change habitat suitability for A. amadelpha. Across all islands, we identified particularly vulnerable “hotspot” regions of concern for resource managers and conservationists. This manuscript demonstrates the utility of this approach for identifying priority regions for invasive species management in the face of a changing climate.

ROV Observations on Reproduction by Deep-Sea Cephalopods in the Central Pacific Ocean

Vecchione M. ROV Observations on Reproduction by Deep-Sea Cephalopods in the Central Pacific Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00403/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

Telepresence-enabled operations by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) allow many researchers a unique perspective on morphology, behavior, and small-scale distributions of deep-sea animals. I present some examples of cephalopod natural history from recent ROV dives in the central Pacific Ocean. These examples include clues to reproductive behavior of deep-sea squids and cirrate “dumbo” octopods. During March 7–12, 2017, the ROV Deep Discoverer (D2) operating from NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer recorded high-definition video of several squid in the genus Chiroteuthis. These included a mature male, a mature female, and a moribund squid identifiable as C. picteti. The female had obviously mated, with spermatangia implanted in many locations, and was holding in its arms another squid that appeared to be another Chiroteuthis. Considered together, these observations may indicate a deep-sea spawning aggregation and, possibly, sexual cannibalism. Another series of observations by D2 revealed eggs of cirrate octopods attached to octocorals. The remarkable thing about these observations was that in two of them (March 18 and May 4) the egg chorion had swollen and burst the external egg capsule. This may explain how the hatching embryo is able to escape from the tough protective coating secreted by the oviducal gland of cirrates but not secreted by the better-known incirrate octopods.

Evaluating Ocean Literacy of Elementary School Students: Preliminary Results of a Cross-Cultural Study in the Mediterranean Region

Mogias A, Boubonari T, Realdon G, Previati M, Mokos M, Koulouri P, Cheimonopoulou MTh. Evaluating Ocean Literacy of Elementary School Students: Preliminary Results of a Cross-Cultural Study in the Mediterranean Region. Frontiers in Marine Science [Internet]. 2019 ;6. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2019.00396/full
Freely available?: 
Yes
Summary available?: 
No
Type: Journal Article

A good understanding of the role and function of the ocean seems to be of paramount importance in recent years, constituting the basic tool for the promotion of healthy and sustainable marine environment, and a target area of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In this study, the content knowledge of elementary school students (grades 3–6) in regards to ocean sciences issues was examined. A structured questionnaire was administered to 1004 students participating in a cross-cultural study from three Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, and Greece). The results of the study indicated a rather moderate level of knowledge in the total sample, while slight differences were recorded among the three countries revealing common knowledge gains and misconceptions. Rasch analysis was applied to further evaluate the validity of the results, while the influence of certain demographics on students’ knowledge level was also investigated. This study concludes with a discussion of the implications on national curriculum development in elementary education level, in order to promote ocean literacy and to ensure protection and conservation of the Mediterranean Sea.

Stakeholder Participation Assessment Framework (SPAF): A theory-based strategy to plan and evaluate marine spatial planning participatory processes

Quesada-Silva M, Iglesias-Campos A, Turra A, de Vivero JLSuárez. Stakeholder Participation Assessment Framework (SPAF): A theory-based strategy to plan and evaluate marine spatial planning participatory processes. Marine Policy [Internet]. 2019 ;108:103619. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X19302258
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Type: Journal Article

Although stakeholder participation is transversal to other steps of the Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) process, its recognition and adoption is context dependent. Considering that MSP plans need to be periodically evaluated, not only in relation to their outputs and outcomes, but also through an analysis of the processes used to achieve the results, criteria to evaluate participation throughout the whole process are needed. However, a robust and comprehensive assessment framework focused specifically on participation is not available up to date. Therefore, this study proposed an assessment for such operational analysis in order to support assessment of consequences related to the participatory strategy chosen (e.g., increased social acceptance). A Stakeholder Participation Assessment Framework (SPAF) was developed and divided in two phases: Phase I based on key theoretical aspects ‘whywhowhen and how to engage stakeholders’, as well as on criteria for costs (these five criteria were divided in 15 sub-criteria, and instructions based on social science knowledge to analyse each one were given); and Phase II in which a list of questions about participatory consequences can be addressed based on specific criteria of the first phase and stakeholders' feedback. SPAF can be used not only to evaluate MSP planning cycles but also to plan meaningful participatory processes; therefore, contributing to strengthen MSP processes and to promote more horizontal and integrated ocean governance approaches.

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