Literature Library

Currently indexing 10497 titles

Marine Waters Planning and Management Act

Citation Information: Substitute Senate Bill 6350; Chapter 145, Laws of 2010; 61st Legislature; 2010 Regular Session

Effective Date: 06/10/10

Description: The state of Washington in the northwestern continental US has passed a law calling for development and implementation of a marine spatial plan for its state waters, which extend 3 nm from shore. The planning process will be led by an interagency team whose goals will include reducing conflicts between user groups, aligning existing management plans, and improving management of the state's marine resources. The law aligns with federal and regional efforts to advance ocean planning. A similar planning approach for federal waters was initiated last year by US President Barack Obama.

The new Washington law leaves to the discretion of the state director of fish and wildlife what fisheries management provisions will be included in the marine spatial plan. Other activities such as energy production, habitat protection, and regulating other uses that may affect fish populations are considerations that will be included in the plan. "Fisheries management is a particularly sensitive issue in our state with the co-management role of [Native American] tribes and the intense interest among recreational and commercial fishers in any plan provision that may have implications for fisheries management," says state Senator Kevin Ranker, who sponsored the bill. "Management of fisheries generally refers to regulating the time, place, and manner of the harvest of fish. For these activities, it is appropriate to think of the Department of Fish and Wildlife director as responsible for deciding what elements go into the plan."

Marine (Scotland) Bill - Policy Memorandum

Citation Information: Scottish Parliamentary Corporate Body, 2009

Description: This document relates to the Marine (Scotland) Bill introduced in the Scottish Parliament on 29 April 2009. It has been prepared by the Scottish Government to satisfy Rule 9.3.3(c) of the Parliament’s Standing Orders. The contents are entirely the responsibility of the Scottish Government and have not been endorsed by the Parliament. Explanatory Notes and other accompanying documents are published separately as SP Bill 25–EN.

Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Marine Spatial Plan Framework & Regional Locational Guidance for Marine Energy

Citation Information: Marine Scotland, The Scottish Government, AECOM, METOC

Description: The Marine (Scotland) Act 2010 will bring into force a new statutory marine planning system to manage the increasing, and often conflicting, demands on Scottish seas. For the first time, a National Marine Plan will give greater clarity to decision making in the marine environment, reduce uncertainty for marine developers and encourage economic investment.

We are developing a marine spatial plan for the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters area. This area has been chosen because of its high level of wave and tidal resources, which has recently led to the world’s first commercial leases for the development of wave and tidal power to be issued. Developing this marine plan will help inform development of the National Marine Plan.

Marine renewables are an essential component of ensuring that the Scottish Government achieves its stated target of meeting 50% of Scottish demand for electricity from renewable sources by 2020. We are committed to ensuring that renewable energy is developed in a sustainable and considerate manner; one which lessens or negates any impacts on environmental or social and economic areas.

This document sets out a framework for the future development of the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters marine spatial plan. It contains a summary of existing information on different uses of the seas, shows how these different uses may impact on each other and makes recommendations for future research to ensure that the plan is properly underpinned by relevant and good quality information. It sets out how the plan will be developed.

This document also sets out draft Regional Locational Guidance for the development of wave and tidal resources.

We will not hold a formal consultation on this document. Rather, we will discuss it with key stakeholders.

There will be a full, formal consultation on the draft of the plan, at a later date.

A Comparison of the UK and the Scottish Marine Bills

Citation Information: SPICe Briefing, 09/59,

Date: 7 September 2009

Author: Wendy Kenyon

Description: This briefing summarises the provisions of the UK Marine and Coastal Access Bill which was introduced to the House of Lords on 4 December 2008. It considers the main implications the Bill has for Scotland. The Marine (Scotland) Bill is at Stage 1 in the Scottish Parliament. The briefing looks at the main differences between the two Bills.

A Community-Based Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management: Guidelines for Pacific Island Countries

Citation Information: Secretariat of the Pacific Community; Noumea, New Caledonia, 2010

ISBN: 978-982-00-0407-8

Summary: These guidelines have been produced to describe how an EAF can be merged with community-based fisheries management (CBFM) in PICs.

This merger of approaches is referred to in these guidelines as the community-based ecosystem approach to fisheries management (CEAFM), and represents a combination of three different perspectives; namely, fisheries management, ecosystem management and community-based management. CEAFM is the management of fisheries, within an ecosystem context, by local communities working with government and other partners.

The main requirement for such a merger is the involvement of a broader range of stakeholders and access to the expertise and experience of several government agencies in addition to a fisheries agency. CEAFM is not seen as a replacement for current fisheries management but an extension that combines a high degree of community and other stakeholder participation to minimise the impacts of fishing and other activities on ecosystems. In addition to fishing activities, coastal ecosystems in many PICs are affected by excessive shoreline development and by coastal waters that contain high levels of nutrients and silt.

CEAFM aims to involve the participation of community stakeholders to ensure that future generations of Pacific Island people will continue to have access to the benefits associated with sustainable fisheries and healthy ecosystems.

Towards an Ecologically Coherent Network of Well-Managed Marine Protected Areas

Citation Information: HELCOM 2010. Towards an ecologically coherent network of well-managed Marine Protected Areas Ð Implementation report on the status and ecological coherence of the HELCOM BSPA network: Executive Summary. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 124A.

Authors: Dieter Boedeker, Hanna PaulomŠki, Susanne Ranft

Description: Over the past six years, the percentage of the Baltic Sea that is inside marine protected areas has risen dramatically, according to a new report from the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM), the international body that coordinates protection of the Baltic Sea environment. Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPAs) designated under the Helsinki Convention now cover 10.3% of the sea - up from 3.9% in 2004. When combined with marine areas protected under the EU Natura 2000 network, the total area protected is 12%.

There are 10 contracting states to the Helsinki Convention: Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and Sweden, as well as the European Community. The report analyzes how much marine area each contracting state has protected in BSPAs, ranging from the highest percentage (Germany, 29.7%) to the lowest (Latvia, 3.0%). Only four states are over 10%: Germany, Poland (24.3%), Denmark (22.1%), and Estonia (16.5%).

The report also assesses the ecological coherence of the BSPA network, including how well it meets criteria for adequacy, representativity, replication, and connectivity. Based on these analyses, the publication concludes, "If the aim is to provide more comprehensive protection to the entire range of biodiversity in the basin, the network of BSPAs should be expanded to at least twice its present size.

International Governance and Regulation of the Marine Arctic

Citation Information: World Wildlife Fund

ISBN: 978-2-940443-03-1

Date: 2009

Authors: Timo Koivurova and Erik J. Molenaar

Description: The current regulatory and governance regime for protecting the Arctic marine environment is inadequate and new measures must be adopted, according to a new series of reports from WWF. The reports point out that current Arctic governance is based on assumptions the region would remain ice-covered and therefore essentially closed to fishing, petroleum exploration/development, and shipping. Such assumptions are no longer true due to climate change in the region, and the loopholes this has created could allow irreparable damage to the marine environment and indigenous populations.

The reports, compiled by WWF in a single volume, describe current governance gaps for the Arctic and propose a new legally binding instrument for governing the region's waters, based on a revised Arctic Council. "The instrument should have an overarching character, which is at a minimum conducive to integrated, cross-sectoral ecosystem-based oceans management and whose primary body could also be mandated to pursue that objective," state the authors.

The Fifth International Fishers Forum on Marine Spatial Planning and Bycatch Mitigation - Taipei Declaration

Citation Information: The Fifth International Fishers Forum on Marine Spatial Planning and Bycatch Mitigation; August 3-5, 2010; Taipei, Taiwan

Description: Attendees of the Fifth International Fishers Forum - held 3-5 August, 2010, in Taipei, Taiwan - agreed to a declaration that recognizes the important role of marine spatial planning in resource conservation and calls for participation of the commercial fishing industry in spatial planning efforts. Approximately 300 people representing fishing industry, governments, academia, and conservation organizations participated in the conference.

Principles and Practice of Ecosystem-Based Management: A guide for conservation practitioners in the tropical western pacific

Citation Information: Wildlife Conservation Society

ISBN: 978-982-9120-02-1

Date: 2010

Authors: Pepe Clarke and Stacy Jupiter

Executive Summary: Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is an integrated approach that considers interactions between humans and the environment. The goal of EBM is to sustainably manage natural resources and biodiversity by maintaining ecosystem processes, functions and services.

This guide seeks to inform and influence conservation practice in the tropical Western Pacific and to share lessons from the region with conservation practitioners around the world, particularly in developing nations where EBM approaches used in industrialised countries may not be feasible or appropriate. EBM can be applied at a range of scales and context at any stage in the planning process for site-based projects to national policies and programmes.

Chapters 1–2 provide an introduction to the key principles of EBM and outline the distinctive features of the Western Pacific. EBM is an approach that emphasises: connectivity between biological and social systems; consequences of human actions within ecosystems; protection and restoration of ecosystem structure, function and key processes; and integration of biological, socioeconomic and governance perspectives. Its application in the tropical Western Pacific must be tailored to meet the needs and characteristics of its peoples and ecosystems, which include: high biodiversity and endemism; strong links between terrestrial, freshwater and marine system through small water catchments; heavy reliance on marine resources; high population growth and increasing market access; moderate to high levels of poverty; limited government capacity for effective resource management; traditional tenure and management systems; strong role and rapid growth of community-based management; and strong vulnerability to ecosystem degradation. EBM approaches provide a cost effective strategy for reducing vulnerability to climate change impacts and increasing resilience, while maintaining ecosystem services and sustainable livelihoods in the face of climate change

Statement on Canada's Arctic Foreign Policy: Exercising Sovereignty and Promoting Canada's NORTHERN STRATEGY Abroad

Citation Information: Government of Canada

Date: 2010

Description: With 40% of our landmass in the territories, 162,000 kilometres of Arctic coastline and 25% of the global Arctic – Canada is undeniably an Arctic nation. The Government is firmly exercising our sovereignty over our Arctic lands and waters – sovereignty that is long-standing, well-established and based on historic title, international law and the presence of Inuit and other Aboriginal peoples for thousands of years.

At the same time, international interest in the Arctic region is growing, in part as a result of possibilities for resource development, climate change and new or longer access to transportation routes. Canada is demonstrating effective stewardship and leadership internationally, to promote a stable, rules-based Arctic region where the rights of sovereign states are respected in accordance with international law and diplomacy.

Canada has long been working with its international Arctic neighbours in areas such as search and rescue, icebreaker operations, fish and wildlife conservation, transportation, research, energy and environment. The Government will continue to strengthen this cooperation, while advancing our priorities for the Arctic region.

5 Easy Pieces: The Impact of Fisheries on Marine Ecosystems

Citation Information: Island Press; July 28, 2010

ISBN: 978-1597267199

Author: Daniel Pauly

Description: 5 Easy Pieces features five contributions, originally published in Nature and Science, demonstrating the massive impacts of modern industrial fisheries on marine ecosystems. Initially published over an eight-year period, from 1995 to 2003, these articles illustrate a transition in scientific thought—from the initially-contested realization that the crisis of fisheries and their underlying ocean ecosystems was, in fact, global to its broad acceptance by mainstream scientific and public opinion.

Daniel Pauly, a well-known fisheries expert who was a co-author of all five articles, presents each original article here and surrounds it with a rich array of contemporary comments, many of which led Pauly and his colleagues to further study. In addition, Pauly documents how popular media reported on the articles and their findings. By doing so, he demonstrates how science evolves. In one chapter, for example, the popular media pick up a contribution and use Pauly’s conclusions to contextualize current political disputes; in another, what might be seen as nitpicking by fellow scientists leads Pauly and his colleagues to strengthen their case that commercial fishing is endangering the global marine ecosystem. This structure also allows readers to see how scientists’ interactions with the popular media can shape the reception of their own, sometimes controversial, scientific studies.

In an epilog, Pauly reflects on the ways that scientific consensus emerges from discussions both within and outside the scientific community.

Marine Ecosystems and Global Change

Citation Information: Oxford University Press, March 2010

ISBN: 978-0-19-955802-5

Editors: Manuel Barange, John G. Field, Roger P. Harris, Eileen E. Hofmann, R. Ian Perry and Francisco Werner

Description: Global environmental change (including climate change, biodiversity loss, changes in hydrological and biogeochemical cycles, and intensive exploitation of natural resources) is having significant impacts on the world's oceans. This handbook advances knowledge of the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems, and their past, present, and future responses to physical and anthropogenic forcing. It illustrates how climate and humans impact marine ecosystems, providing a comprehensive review of the physical and ecological processes that structure marine ecosystems as well as the observation, experimentation, and modelling approaches required for their study. Recognizing the interactive roles played by humans in using marine resources and in responding to global changes in marine systems, the book includes chapters on the human dimensions of marine ecosystem changes and on effective management approaches in this era of rapid change. A final section reviews the state of the art in predicting the responses of marine ecosystems to future global change scenarios with the intention of informing both future research agendas and marine management policy.

Marine Ecosystems and Global Change provides a detailed synthesis of the work conducted under the auspices of the Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) program. This research spans two decades, and represents the largest, multi-disciplinary, international effort focused on understanding the impacts of external forcing on the structure and dynamics of global marine ecosystems.

The Guld of Maine in Context - State of the Gulf of Maine Report

Citation Information: Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment

ISBN: 0-9791540-3-0

Date: June 2010

Author: Colleen Thompson

Description: The Gulf of Maine is a dynamic, changing ecosystem. Bordered by the northeastern United States and the Canadian Maritime Provinces, the Gulf of Maine is one of the largest semi-enclosed coastal seas in North America. It is recognized as one of the world’s richest marine ecosystems with various marine and estuarine habitats, such as salt marshes, seagrass beds, tidal mud flats, underwater rocky outcrops, and kelp beds.Over 10 million people live in the Gulf of Maine watershed. Along its western and northern shores lie the cities and towns of coastal Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The Gulf has supported a long tradition of fishing, marine transportation, coastal development, and recreation, and continues to be a valuable resource for the people who live and work in the region.

The State of the Gulf of Maine Report is a modular, living document made up of a context document and a series of theme or issue papers. The context document, The Gulf of Maine in Context, provides an introduction to the natural and socio-economic environment of the Gulf of Maine. It provides an overview of the Gulf of Maine, particularly for those readers who are not familiar with the region.

Reef Restoration Concepts and Guidelines: Making sensible management choices in the face of uncertainty

Citation Information: Edwards, A.J., Gomez, E.D. (2007). Reef Restoration Concepts and Guidelines: making sensible management choices in the face of uncertainty. Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Programme: St Lucia, Australia. iv + 38 pp.

ISBN: 978-1-921317-00-2

Description: New guidelines from the CRTR Program provide coastal managers, decision-makers, technical advisors and others with an overview of research exploring successful and unsuccessful coral reef restoration approaches from around the world.

Coral Disease - guidelines for assessment, monitoring and management

Citation Information: Coral Reef Targeted Research and Capacity Building for Management Program, c/- Centre for Marine Studies, Gerhmann Building, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld 4072, Australia

ISBN: 978-1-9213-17-01-9

Authors: Laurie J. Raymundo, Courtney S. Couch, Andrew W. Bruckner, C. Drew Harvell, Thierry M. Work, Ernesto Weil, Cheryl M. Woodley, Eric Jordan-Dahlgren, Bette L. Willis, Yui Sato, Greta S. Aeby

Editors: Laurie J. Raymundo, Courtney S. Couch and C. Drew Harvell

Description: Designed for reef managers by international experts on coral disease, the Handbook outlines procedures for describing indicators, measuring impacts, monitoring outbreaks, assessing causes, and managing reefs to minimize losses due to disease. This handbook helps managers not only to document and manage disease on their reefs, but also enables them to contribute to our scientific understanding of this grave and increasing threat.

The Science of No-Take Fishery Reserves: A Guide for Managers

Citation Information: Van Lavieren, Hanneke, 2009. The science of No-take Fishery Reserves. A guide for managers. UNU-INWEH, CRTR Brochure

Description: This resource examines the science underlying the use of no-take fishery reserves as a management tool for coastal fisheries, with a focus on connectivity. It considers benefits of NTRs, optimal size, knowledge gaps and socio-economic factors. 

Based on the article, Critical science gaps impede use of no-take fishery reserves

Critical science gaps impede use of no-take fishery reserves

Citation Information: Trends in Ecology & Evolution; Volume 20, Issue 2, February 2005; Pages 74-80

Authors: Peter F. Sale, Robert K. Cowen, Bret S. Danilowicz, Geoffrey P. Jones, Jacob P. Kritzer, Kenyon C. Lindeman, Serge Planes, Nicholas V.C. Polunin, Garry R. Russ, Yvonne J. Sadovy, Robert S. Steneck

Abstract: As well as serving valuable biodiversity conservation roles, functioning no-take fishery reserves protect a portion of the fishery stock as insurance against future overfishing. So long as there is adequate compliance by the fishing community, it is likely that they will also sustain and even enhance fishery yields in the surrounding area. However, there are significant gaps in scientific knowledge that must be filled if no-take reserves are to be used effectively as fishery management tools. Unfortunately, these gaps are being glossed over by some uncritical advocacy. Here, we review the science, identify the most crucial gaps, and suggest ways to fill them, so that a promising management tool can help meet the growing challenges faced by coastal marine fisheries.

Reef Rehabilitation Manual

Citation Information: Edwards, A.J. (ed.) (2010). Reef Rehabilitation Manual. Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program: St Lucia, Australia. ii + 166 pp.

Description: This manual captures the learnings of worldwide research into reef rehabilitation and seeks to reduce the proportion of reef rehabilitation projects that fail. It provides detailed hands-on advice, based on lessons-learnt from previous experience, on how to carry out coral reef rehabilitation in a responsible and cost-effective manner. Additional information and case studies can be viewed here.

Preserving Reef Connectivity: A Handbook for Marine Protected Area Managers

Citation Information: P.F. Sale, H. Van Lavieren, M.C. Ablan Lagman, J. Atema, M. Butler, C. Fauvelot, J.D. Hogan, G.P. Jones, K.C. Lindeman, C.B. Paris, R. Steneck and H.L. Stewart. 2010. Preserving Reef Connectivity: A Handbook for Marine Protected Area Managers. Connectivity Working Group, Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program, UNU-INWEH.

ISBN: 978-1-9213-17-06-4

Description: This document aims to help managers of coastal areas, in particular those of coastal marine protected areas (MPAs), understand and apply the concept of connectivity in their work. Connectivity issues relate to the movement in marine environments of water – and with it sediments, nutrients and pollutants – and of marine organisms. This makes it an important element to consider when contemplating the effective design of MPAs and MPA networks and most other aspects of coastal management.

Directory of Remote Sensing Applications for Coral Reef Management

Citation Information: CRTR Remote Sensing Working Group

ISBN: 978-1-921317-08-8

Date: August 2010

Authors: Tyler Christensen, Peter Mumby, Iliana Chollett, John Hedley, Sonia Bejarano, William Skirving, and Alan Strong.

Description: This directory aims to help reef managers make better use of remotely-sensed data. It details opportunities provided by remote sensing, the limitations of different methods, and considerations for implementation.


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