Literature Library

Currently indexing 8127 titles

The development of world oceans & coasts and concepts of sustainability

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 42, November 2013, Pages 157–165

Authors: T.A. Stojanovic, C.J.Q. Farmer

Abstract: The current phase of technological development and expansion in the world economy is leading to greater human activity and development offshore. Some have described this as the colonisation of the oceans, one phase in the wider history of world industrialisation. This study empirically tests notions of ‘industrialisation’ and ‘colonisation’ in the oceans for the first time. It finds that human activity in the oceans has increased by multiple factors in the most recent long term wave of economic development. The methods include the combined use of Raster and R! to overcome methodological challenges to analyse large spatial datasets which map the footprint of human activity. In response to increasing human activity in the oceans, nations and supranational institutions are developing new governance regimes. These regimes are characterised by policy integration and a commitment to sustainability. Sustainable development is a central tenet of most national and international policies for the world's oceans. An analysis of sustainable development terminology within coastal and ocean policy is provided for seven major maritime governance regimes: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, EU, South Africa, UK and the US. The results show that sustainability is highly differentiated in the context of ‘the blue planet’ (oceans and coasts). The diverse interpretations of sustainability present an impasse to measuring progress in the field. Therefore the paper concludes by offering a framework for explanation and interpretation of sustainable development, by linking it to foundational assumptions held by systems of thought or philosophical traditions.

Assessment of coastal protection as an ecosystem service in Europe

Citation Information: Ecological Indicators, Volume 30, July 2013, Pages 205–217

Authors: Camino Liquete, Grazia Zulian, Irene Delgado, Adolf Stips, Joachim Maes

Abstract: Mapping and assessment of ecosystem services is essential to provide scientific support to global and EU biodiversity policy. Coastal protection has been mostly analysed in the frame of coastal vulnerability studies or in local, habitat-specific assessments. This paper provides a conceptual and methodological approach to assess coastal protection as an ecosystem service at different spatial–temporal scales, and applies it to the entire EU coastal zone. The assessment of coastal protection incorporates 14 biophysical and socio-economic variables from both terrestrial and marine datasets. Those variables define three indicators: coastal protection capacity, coastal exposure and human demand for protection. A questionnaire filled by coastal researchers helped assign ranks to categorical parameters and weights to the individual variables. The three indicators are then framed into the ecosystem services cascade model to estimate how coastal ecosystems provide protection, in particular describing the service function, flow and benefit. The results are comparative and aim to support integrated land and marine spatial planning. The main drivers of change for the provision of coastal protection come from the widespread anthropogenic pressures in the European coastal zone, for which a short quantitative analysis is provided.

Community-based management of near-shore fisheries in Vanuatu: What works?

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Volume 42, November 2013, Pages 167–176

Authors: Marc Léopold, Jennifer Beckensteiner, Jeremie Kaltavara, Jason Raubani, Sophie Caillon

Abstract: In the Pacific, coastal communities have compensated for chronically low capacity of governments to manage fisheries by implementing local regulations in their marine tenure areas. In order to investigate the performance of community-based fisheries management (CBFM) in Vanuatu, trajectories and factors of change in CBFM systems since the 1990s were analysed. Focal group interviews were conducted in seven villages on Efaté island in 2011 and supplemented by a review of supporting literature. Results reveal the increasing and excessive reliance of CBFM systems on external agencies that promoted overly complex management plans. Examination of trends in CBFM systems shows that community and national fishing rules that were highly acceptable by local societies were more likely to be enforced in the long run. In particular, the establishment of marine reserves was the most widespread and best enforced community rule for the purposes of conservation, ecotourism, and/or fisheries. Overall, the results challenge the current effectiveness of CBFM in achieving sustainability of reef fisheries in Vanuatu, and highlight the over-reliance on small marine reserves as a management tool. Community initiatives must be strengthened by new specific national regulations governing subsistence and commercial reef fisheries as part of a multi-scale co-management approach.

Wave energy resources: Wave climate and exploitation

Citation Information: Renewable Energy, Volume 57, September 2013, Pages 594–605

Authors: Jesus Portilla, Jeison Sosa, Luigi Cavaleri

Abstract: In identifying the most convenient zones for harvesting wave energy, it is natural to be attracted by the areas where we find the highest mean energy values. The obvious examples are the storm belts. A more careful analysis reveals that for practical use other factors need to be taken into account. Some of the main ones are the energy spread in frequency and direction, and its seasonality, without discussing the cost of the structure basically related to the conditions to be withstood. This reveals that other areas, in particular the equatorial ones, can be conveniently used, and be possibly advantageous from various points of view. Based on the results of the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis and of altimeter data, we have carried out a comparative analysis between two locations with opposite characteristics, in the North Atlantic and in the Equatorial Pacific respectively. The quantified results confirm that less energetic, but more regular and less extreme, areas have a potential comparable to that of the classically considered storm belts.

Small-Scale Habitat Structure Modulates the Effects of No-Take Marine Reserves for Coral Reef Macroinvertebrates

Citation Information: Dumas P, Jimenez H, Peignon C, Wantiez L, Adjeroud M (2013) Small-Scale Habitat Structure Modulates the Effects of No-Take Marine Reserves for Coral Reef Macroinvertebrates. PLoS ONE 8(3): e58998. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058998

Abstract: No-take marine reserves are one of the oldest and most versatile tools used across the Pacific for the conservation of reef resources, in particular for invertebrates traditionally targeted by local fishers. Assessing their actual efficiency is still a challenge in complex ecosystems such as coral reefs, where reserve effects are likely to be obscured by high levels of environmental variability. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential interference of small-scale habitat structure on the efficiency of reserves. The spatial distribution of widely harvested macroinvertebrates was surveyed in a large set of protected vs. unprotected stations from eleven reefs located in New Caledonia. Abundance, density and individual size data were collected along random, small-scale (20×1 m) transects. Fine habitat typology was derived with a quantitative photographic method using 17 local habitat variables. Marine reserves substantially augmented the local density, size structure and biomass of the target species. Density of Trochus niloticus and Tridacna maxima doubled globally inside the reserve network; average size was greater by 10 to 20% for T. niloticus. We demonstrated that the apparent success of protection could be obscured by marked variations in population structure occurring over short distances, resulting from small-scale heterogeneity in the reef habitat. The efficiency of reserves appeared to be modulated by the availability of suitable habitats at the decimetric scale (“microhabitats”) for the considered sessile/low-mobile macroinvertebrate species. Incorporating microhabitat distribution could significantly enhance the efficiency of habitat surrogacy, a valuable approach in the case of conservation targets focusing on endangered or emblematic macroinvertebrate or relatively sedentary fish species

Synthesis of Knowledge on Marine Biodiversity in European Seas: From Census to Sustainable Management

Citation Information: Narayanaswamy BE, Coll M, Danovaro R, Davidson K, Ojaveer H, et al. (2013) Synthesis of Knowledge on Marine Biodiversity in European Seas: From Census to Sustainable Management. PLoS ONE 8(3): e58909. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058909

Abstract: The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (2000–2010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within contrasting habitats, together with investigations in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning links and identification of separate and synergistic/cumulative human-induced impacts on biodiversity.

Using Species-Area Relationships to Inform Baseline Conservation Targets for the Deep North East Atlantic

Citation Information: Foster NL, Foggo A, Howell KL (2013) Using Species-Area Relationships to Inform Baseline Conservation Targets for the Deep North East Atlantic. PLoS ONE 8(3): e58941. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058941

Abstract: Demands on the resources of the deep-sea have increased in recent years. Consequently, the need to create and implement a comprehensive network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to help manage and protect these resources has become a global political priority. Efforts are currently underway to implement MPA networks in the deep North East Atlantic. To ensure these networks are effective, it is essential that baseline information be available to inform the conservation planning process. Using empirical data, we calculated conservation targets for sessile benthic invertebrates in the deep North East Atlantic for consideration during the planning process. We assessed Species-Area Relationships across two depth bands (200–1100 m and 1100–1800 m) and nine substrata. Conservation targets were predicted for each substratum within each depth band using z-values obtained from fitting a power model to the Species-Area Relationships of observed and estimated species richness (Chao1). Results suggest an MPA network incorporating 10% of the North East Atlantic’s deep-sea area would protect approximately 58% and 49% of sessile benthic species for the depth bands 200–1100 m and 1100–1800 m, respectively. Species richness was shown to vary with substratum type indicating that, along with depth, substratum information needs to be incorporated into the conservation planning process to ensure the most effective MPA network is implemented in the deep North East Atlantic.

Assessing the Risk of Ships Striking Large Whales in Marine Spatial Planning

Citation Information: Conservation Biology; Volume 27, Issue 2, pages 292–302, April 2013


Abstract: Marine spatial planning provides a comprehensive framework for managing multiple uses of the marine environment and has the potential to minimize environmental impacts and reduce conflicts among users. Spatially explicit assessments of the risks to key marine species from human activities are a requirement of marine spatial planning. We assessed the risk of ships striking humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), blue (Balaenoptera musculus), and fin (Balaenoptera physalus) whales in alternative shipping routes derived from patterns of shipping traffic off Southern California (U.S.A.). Specifically, we developed whale-habitat models and assumed ship-strike risk for the alternative shipping routes was proportional to the number of whales predicted by the models to occur within each route. This definition of risk assumes all ships travel within a single route. We also calculated risk assuming ships travel via multiple routes. We estimated the potential for conflict between shipping and other uses (military training and fishing) due to overlap with the routes. We also estimated the overlap between shipping routes and protected areas. The route with the lowest risk for humpback whales had the highest risk for fin whales and vice versa. Risk to both species may be ameliorated by creating a new route south of the northern Channel Islands and spreading traffic between this new route and the existing route in the Santa Barbara Channel. Creating a longer route may reduce the overlap between shipping and other uses by concentrating shipping traffic. Blue whales are distributed more evenly across our study area than humpback and fin whales; thus, risk could not be ameliorated by concentrating shipping traffic in any of the routes we considered. Reducing ship-strike risk for blue whales may be necessary because our estimate of the potential number of strikes suggests that they are likely to exceed allowable levels of anthropogenic impacts established under U.S. laws.

Spatial indicators of fishing pressure: Preliminary analyses and possible developments

Citation Information: Ecological Indicators, Volume 26, March 2013, Pages 141–153

Authors: T. Russo, A. Parisi, S. Cataudella

Abstract: Ecological indicators of fishing pressure in space are an important part of the Data Collection Framework (DCF) established by the European Commission in its attempt to apply an ecosystem approach to fisheries. These indicators are devised to use the information provided by the Vessel Monitoring System, a mandatory tool for EU fishing vessels which allows to record fishing activity in space and time. This study reports and analyzes trends of DCF fishing pressure indicators in the years 2007–2010 for the Italian trawlers in seven Mediterranean geographic sub-areas and the related trends of landing per unit effort. In addition, new versions of these indicators are developed and their performances compared to the DCF ones by a simulation approach. The rationale for these new version of indicators is based on: (i) the development of a formal definition of “fishing ground”, allowing for innovative statistical analyses of fishing patterns in space and time; (ii) the revision of issues affecting DCF indicators. Results provide: (i) the first extensive documentation of space use by fisheries through time; (ii) evidences of subtle yet significant changes in fishing pattern which, in agreement to other studies, indirectly support a decline of fisheries resources in the Mediterranean; (iii) improved versions of DCF fishing pressure indicators, obtained via the identification and analysis of fishing grounds and the assessment of aggregation by Gini's G index. The latter point could mark an important progress in order to overcome some critical weakness evidenced by DCF indicators. Moreover, the statistical identification and analysis of fishing grounds could represent a valuable insight in quantitative investigations of fisheries impacts and effects, even beyond indicators computation.

Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Establishing a Framework for Maritime Spatial Planning and Integrated Coastal Management

Citation Information: European Commission, Brussels, 12.3.2013; COM(2013) 133 final; 2013/0074 (COD)

Description: The Commission launched on 12 March 2013 a new joint initiative on integrated coastal management and maritime spatial planning.

The proposal, which takes the form of a draft Directive, aims to establish a framework for maritime spatial planning and integrated coastal management in EU Member States with a view to promote the sustainable growth of maritime and coastal activities and the sustainable use of coastal and marine resources.

The proposal will require Member States to map human activities at sea and identify their most effective future spatial development in maritime spatial plans and to coordinate relevant policies affecting coastal areas in integrated coastal management strategies. To ensure the sustainability and environmental health of the various uses in marine and coastal areas, maritime spatial planning and coastal management will have to employ an approach that respects the limits of ecosystems. This approach includes the assessment of plans and strategies in accordance with the provisions of Directive 2001/42/EC on strategic environmental assessment and will ensure that economic activities factor in the protection of natural resources at an early stage as well as risks related to climate change and natural hazards to which coastal areas are extremely vulnerable. This has economic benefits as natural resources are often an essential basis for activities such as fishing and aquaculture, which rely on clean seas.

Marine and coastal ecosystem-based risk management handbook

Citation Information: Cormier, R., et al. 2013. Marine and coastal ecosystem-based risk management handbook. ICES Cooperative Research Report No. 317. 60 pp.

Description: Elements of risk management are found in a variety of risk assessment and management frameworks or guidelines. In some cases, planning processes rely upon risk assessment frameworks to ascertain risk without a clear sense of the ecosystem management context. The results of such risk assessments are, based on perceived management needs, sometimes misaligned with or irrelevant to the context of ecosystem management.

Risk assessment frameworks also typically focus on the characterization of the likelihood and magnitude of ecological impacts. They seldom ascertain socio-economic consequences in relation to both the communities of interest that depend on the ecosystem management outcomes being achieved and the regulatory or policy repercussions reliant on the governance structures needed to achieve such outcomes. Few frameworks provide the evaluation step needed to determine what level of management should be considered in light of a gap analysis of existing legislation and policy.

The International Standard Organization ISO 31000:2009 standard does provide a comprehensive structure as well as the tools and definitions usable within the context of an ecosystem approach to management. It establishes the ecosystem basis for management and can integrate the precautionary approach for management scenarios in light of uncertainty as well as adhere to adaptive management principles as stipulated by the need for monitoring and review.

In this handbook, the ISO 31010 standard for risk management and risk assessment techniques is used as the basis for the development and implementation of an ecosystem approach to management. The document aims at providing basic project planning blocks for any ecosystem-based management initiative, such as integrated coastal and oceans management or marine spatial planning. It does not extensively debate the pros and cons of various risk assessment and management frameworks.

The CRR report is written in the style of a normative text as would typically be found in an international standard, and the text uses relevant ISO standards and definitions as well as providing key references, further reading titles, and quality assurance checklists to assist practitioners involved in such initiatives.

Elevated CO2 Affects Predator-Prey Interactions through Altered Performance

Citation Information: Allan BJM, Domenici P, McCormick MI, Watson S-A, Munday PL (2013) Elevated CO2 Affects Predator-Prey Interactions through Altered Performance. PLoS ONE 8(3): e58520. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058520

Abstract: Recent research has shown that exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) affects how fishes perceive their environment, affecting behavioral and cognitive processes leading to increased prey mortality. However, it is unclear if increased mortality results from changes in the dynamics of predator-prey interactions or due to prey increasing activity levels. Here we demonstrate that ocean pCO2 projected to occur by 2100 significantly effects the interactions of a predator-prey pair of common reef fish: the planktivorous damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis and the piscivorous dottyback Pseudochromis fuscus. Prey exposed to elevated CO2 (880 µatm) or a present-day control (440 µatm) interacted with similarly exposed predators in a cross-factored design. Predators had the lowest capture success when exposed to elevated CO2 and interacting with prey exposed to present-day CO2. Prey exposed to elevated CO2 had reduced escape distances and longer reaction distances compared to prey exposed to present-day CO2 conditions, but this was dependent on whether the prey was paired with a CO2 exposed predator or not. This suggests that the dynamics of predator-prey interactions under future CO2 environments will depend on the extent to which the interacting species are affected and can adapt to the adverse effects of elevated CO2.

Report of the FAO Workshop for the Development of a Global Database for Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems

Citation Information: Report of the FAO Workshop for the Development of a Global Database for Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems. Rome, 7–9 December 2011. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report. No. 1018. Rome, FAO. 41 pp.

Abstract: The Workshop for the Development of a Global Database for Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs), which was held at the headquarters of the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) in Rome, Italy from 7 to 9 December 2011.

The Workshop was organized in response to the need for implementation and development of a Global Database for VMEs. The main objectives of the workshop were to i) determine what types of data and information need to be collated to be most useful in facilitating decision-making for regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements RFMO/As and states (and industry) in relation to management of impacts on VMEs; and ii) to determine a development strategy for options for developing the FAO VME database based on stakeholder input.

The workshop was attended by a range of stakeholders, participating in their personal capacity, including representatives of regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements (RFMO/As), intergovernmetnal and non-governmental orgranizations and scientific institutes.

Participants discussed five different topical areas 1) overview of RFMO/As VME-related activities, 2) overview of industry perspectives and inputs, 3) experience in VME-related databases and 4) tools and frameworks for the database, and 5) VME database options, priorities and a roadmap. Break-out group discussions pertaining to industry, management and science issues, and addressing database requirements are included under the relevant sections. Main conclusions where agreed upon which pave the way for the development of the VME database.

Report of the fourth FAO Expert Advisory Panel for the Assessment of Proposals to Amend Appendices I and II of CITES Concerning Commercially-exploited Aquatic Species

Citation Information: Report of the fourth FAO Expert Advisory Panel for the Assessment of Proposals to Amend Appendices I and II of CITES Concerning Commercially-exploited Aquatic Species, Rome, 3–8 December 2012. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report. No. 1032. Rome, FAO. 161 pp.

A spatially explicit risk approach to support marine spatial planning in the German EEZ

Citation Information: Marine Environmental Research, Available online 13 March 2013

Authors: Antje Gimpel, Vanessa Stelzenmüller, Roland Cormier, Jens Floeter, Axel Temming

Abstract: An ecosystem approach to marine spatial planning (MSP) promotes sustainable development by organizing human activities in a geospatial and temporal context.1. This study develops and tests a spatially explicit risk assessment to support MSP. Using the German exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the North Sea as a case study area, current and future spatial management scenarios are assessed.2. Different tools are linked in order to carry out a comprehensive spatial risk assessment of current and future spatial management scenarios for ecologic and economic ecosystem components, i.e. Pleuronectes platessa nursery grounds. With the identification of key inputs and outputs the suitability of each tool is tested.3. Here, the procedure as well as the main findings of the spatially explicit risk approach are summarised to demonstrate the applicability of the framework and the need for an ecosystem approach to risk management techniques using geo-spatial tools.

Fostering Learning through Collaboration: Knowledge Acquisition and Belief Change in Marine Aquaculture Partnerships

Citation Information: J Public Adm Res Theory (2014) 24 (3): 591-622. doi: 10.1093/jopart/mut011

Authors: William D. Leach, Christopher M. Weible, Scott R. Vince, Saba N. Siddiki and John C. Calanni

Abstract: One of the challenges of collaborative governance is fostering learning among diverse stakeholders who have very different views on disputed topics of science and policy. Collaborative partnerships are often touted as a type of decision-making forum that generates more learning than typically occurs in more adversarial forums. This study develops and tests hypotheses from the collaborative learning literature, using survey data from 121 participants in 10 partnerships that focus on marine aquaculture in the United States. As one of the fastest growing natural resource-based industries, aquaculture is also one of the most controversial. We find that two types of learning—belief change and knowledge acquisition—are fairly common in the studied partnerships, occurring for 56%–87% of participants. Regression models indicate that new knowledge is correlated with traits of the partnership, including procedural fairness, trustworthiness of other participants, level of scientific certainty, and diverse participation as well as with traits of the individual learner, including norms of consensus and scientific or technical competence. Contrary to expectations, knowledge acquisition is greater when the available science is uncertain and when stakeholders have lower technical competence. Our findings also challenge the idea that new information mainly reinforces existing beliefs. Instead we find that new knowledge acquired through the collaborative process primes participants to change their opinions on scientific or policy issues.

Unbalanced governance: The Cres-Lošinj special marine reserve, a missed conservation opportunity

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Available online 1 February 2013

Authors: P. Mackelworth, D. Holcer, C.M. Fortuna

Abstract: Croatia sits on the border of the European Union both politically and geographically. Political change towards a liberal democracy has taken time and many aspects of such a system, such as nature protection, have been slow in evolving. Marine conservation is not a priority in the country despite recognition that the islands, coast and adjacent marine area are of particular importance for foreign revenue. Tourism is the major driver of the local economy of these coastal regions and is heavily concentrated in the summer months of July and August. Coordinated management of natural coastal and marine resources with sustainable exploitation is urgently required in the tourism hotspots of the region. The Cres-Lošinj Special Marine Reserve (CLSMR) was designated in 2006 with the specific aim to conserve a local dolphin population and sustainably manage the use of the natural resources of the Cres-Lošinj archipelago. The archipelago is a nationally important region for tourism. Between July 2006 and July 2009 the CLSMR was the largest marine protected area (MPA) in the Adriatic Sea. The CLSMR represented Croatian commitments to many of the international environmental agreements signed by the government. However local development commitments made by the sitting political party was in direct conflict with the objectives of the MPA. As a result support for the concept was undermined and, coupled with State paralysis, the imbalance between local development and international commitments led to a proposed downgrading of the MPA and subsequent degazettement.

Governing wide coastal-marine protected territories: A governance analysis of the Baleia Franca Environmental Protection Area in South Brazil

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Available online 28 February 2013

Authors: Heitor Schulz Macedo, Melissa Vivacqua, Helio Castro Lima Rodrigues, Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger

Abstract: This is a governance analysis of a large coastal-marine protected area encompassing over 156,000 ha and including nine coastal cities in south Brazil – Baleia Franca Environmental Protection Area (BFEPA). While the governance focus of BFEPA has been on participative incentives, progress has been challenging given the enormous size of the area protected and because more bottom–up processes continuously clash with top–down higher-level decisions in the country. It is argued that while current interpretative incentives should be maintained and strengthened, economic and legal incentives should be where more substantial progress has to be made. While major expectation for innovation and change is currently placed in the on-going formulation of a participative Management Plan, entrenched views on development, planning and governing must be challenged. This is not an easy task considering it opposes the prevailing economic development rationale in Brazil.

Chumbe Island Coral Park - governance analysis

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Available online 23 January 2013

Authors: Lina M. Nordlund, Ulrike Kloiber, Eleanor Carter, Sibylle Riedmiller

Abstract: Chumbe Island Coral Park Ltd (CHICOP), established in 1991 as the first managed marine park in Tanzania, has become an international test case for sustainable private marine conservation funded by ecotourism. The experiences, problems and achievements of CHICOP are described, in particular drivers and incentives for committed on-site MPA management in the legal and institutional environment of Zanzibar. The employment of local fishers as park rangers proved cost-effective and facilitated partnership with local fishing communities, as did Environmental Education (EE) programs for local schools and communities. Risks for private investors remain high though due to limited long-term security of tenure of leases and contracts.

Private ownership of underwater lands in Great South Bay, New York: A case study in degradation, restoration and protection

Citation Information: Marine Policy, Available online 17 January 2013​

Authors: Carl LoBue, Jay Udelhoven

Abstract: In 2002 and 2004, The Nature Conservancy became the owner of underwater lands totaling 22% of the Great South Bay, Long Island, New York. A legacy of unsustainable shellfish harvesting, shoreline development, and water pollution degraded the area. Dense human population and cumulative impacts of human uses continue to affect the site. Since acquiring the property, the Conservancy has worked with local communities and governments to implement shellfish and seagrass restoration projects within and outside of what is now the Great South Bay Marine Conservation Area. The Conservancy has also worked with stakeholders to address and improve environmental conditions within the watershed of Great South Bay. Several types of protected area governance incentives have been employed at the site, including economic (financing and staffing for restoration), knowledge (outreach regarding restored habitats), legal (private rights and enforcement) and participative (transparent and inclusive decision-making). Strengthening legal and regulatory policies that provide formal government support for the site would improve the likelihood of long-term success. While concerns about private protected areas exist, the Conservancy's Great South Bay Marine Conservation Area is one of several examples around the world of successful protection of the marine environment by a private entity.


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