Literature Library

Currently indexing 7007 titles

MPA News - Vol. 2, No. 6

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 2, Number 6

Date: December 2000/January 2001

Table of Contents:

  • In Galápagos, Clashes Between Fishers and Managers Jeopardize Conservation Efforts
  • US Creates World's Second Largest MPA
  • Multimedia "Toolkit" Makes Scientific Case for No-Take Reserves
  • Coelacanths Discovered In S. African MPA; Tourism to Follow?

MPA News - Vol. 2, No. 5

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 2, Number 5

Date: November 2000

Table of Contents:

  • MPA Enforcement: Practitioners Employ Mix of High-Tech and Community-Based Strategies
  • US Establishes Center to Coordinate, Implement MPA Science
  • Science Panel Calls for More Reserves as Management Tools
  • US Marine Sanctuaries Law Reauthorized
  • MPA Update: Council Releases Final Report on MPAs in Victoria

MPA News - Vol. 2, No. 4

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 2, Number 4

Date: October 2000

Table of Contents:

  • Communications and MPAs: How Practitioners Are Raising Awareness of MPA Issues
  • New Edition of IUCN "Orange Book" Reflects Changes, Challenges in MPA Field
  • Reader Feedback on the Re-Opening of Closed Areas
  • MPA Update: Race Rocks to Become Canada's First Official MPA

MPA News - Vol. 2, No. 1

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 2, Number 1

Date: July 2000

Table of Contents:

  • International MPA Plans Are Emerging Slowly, Amid Obstacles
  • News Update: Tortugas Planning Process to Wrap Up Public Comments
  • MPA Perspective Are Traditional Models Adequate for Evaluating Prospective MPAs?
  • Letter from the Editor

MPA News - Vol. 1, No. 6

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 1, Number 6

Date: March 2000

Table of Contents:

  • Capacity-Building in MPAs: Practitioners Face Challenges, View Opportunities
  • Clinton Administration Seeks No-Take Status for 20% of US Coral Reefs
  • MPA Perspective Indo-Pacific Should Protect More Reef Fish Spawning Aggregation Sites
    • By Bob Johannes

MPA News - Vol. 1, No. 4

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 1, Number 4

Date: December 1999/January 2000

Table of Contents:

  • How Should We Manage for the Effects of Natural Hazard Events on MPAs?
  • Hurricane Waves Level MPA Noted for Conservation Effectiveness
  • Project Aims to Network North American MPAs
  • MPA Nomenclature: The Thicket of Terms and Definitions Continues to Grow

MPA News - Vol. 1, No. 3

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 1, Number 3

Date: November 1999

Table of Contents:

  • California Passes Law to Network Its MPAs, Create No-Take Reserves
  • More North American Efforts to Network MPAs
  • Special Focus on Consensus-Based Planning (A and B):
    • A. When Are Consensus Processes Appropriate for MPA Management?
    • B. Tips for Better Negotiations
  • Apo Island, Philippines: MPA Success Story in Midst of Management Reform

MPA News - Vol. 1, No. 1

Citation Information: MPA News; Volume 1, Number 1

Date: September 1999 (Premier issue)

Table of Contents:

  • Tortugas Working Group Gets Consensus on Reserve, Is Challenged by Anglers
  • "Learning by Doing," Canada Adds Pilot MPAs and Looks to Zone National Waters
  • Australia Continues MPA Push: Officials Announce Plan for World's Largest No-Take Zone
  • West Hawaii Council Approves Fish Management Areas
  • Welcome to MPA News

Regional Decline of Coral Cover in the Indo-Pacific: Timing, Extent, and Subregional Comparisons

Citation Information: Bruno JF, Selig ER (2007) Regional Decline of Coral Cover in the Indo-Pacific: Timing, Extent, and Subregional Comparisons. PLoS ONE 2(8): e711. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000711

Authors: John F. Bruno, Elizabeth R. Selig



A number of factors have recently caused mass coral mortality events in all of the world's tropical oceans. However, little is known about the timing, rate or spatial variability of the loss of reef-building corals, especially in the Indo-Pacific, which contains 75% of the world's coral reefs.

Methodology/Principle Findings

We compiled and analyzed a coral cover database of 6001 quantitative surveys of 2667 Indo-Pacific coral reefs performed between 1968 and 2004. Surveys conducted during 2003 indicated that coral cover averaged only 22.1% (95% CI: 20.7, 23.4) and just 7 of 390 reefs surveyed that year had coral cover >60%. Estimated yearly coral cover loss based on annually pooled survey data was approximately 1% over the last twenty years and 2% between 1997 and 2003 (or 3,168 km2 per year). The annual loss based on repeated measures regression analysis of a subset of reefs that were monitored for multiple years from 1997 to 2004 was 0.72 % (n = 476 reefs, 95% CI: 0.36, 1.08).


The rate and extent of coral loss in the Indo-Pacific are greater than expected. Coral cover was also surprisingly uniform among subregions and declined decades earlier than previously assumed, even on some of the Pacific's most intensely managed reefs. These results have significant implications for policy makers and resource managers as they search for successful models to reverse coral loss.

Top 10 List: 
Coral Reef Management

Regional Strategy for Marine Protected Areas in West Africa

Date: 2003

Description: The West African Regional MPA Network (RAMPAO) was created in April 2007 and currently includes 15 MPAs, spread among the countries of Mauritania, Senegal, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. According to Charlotte Karibuhoye, MPA program coordinator for Fondation Internationale du Banc d'Arguin, the aim of the network is to ensure, at the scale of the West African marine eco-region, the maintenance of a coherent set of critical habitats. "These habitats are needed for the dynamic functioning of ecological processes, which in turn are necessary for the regeneration of natural resources and conservation of biodiversity for the benefit of society," says Karibuhoye.

EBM in the region is embodied in the Regional Strategy for Marine Protected Areas in West Africa, which states that developing effective conservation "hinges on bringing together local, national and regional strengths." The Strategy explicitly takes on the issue of scale by stating how RAMPAO addresses conservation and management at multiple levels. It states, "Clearly, the sustainability of conservation measures depends both on the effectiveness of on-site management and on the support provided by national-level guidelines, policies and legislation. It is at the national level that a country's environmental priorities are established, and it is at this level that conflicts at the local level may find resolution."

Economic Valuation of Large Marine Ecosystems

Citation Information: IUCN Global Marine Programme, Report from the IUCN workshop, July 29-30, 2007

Description: A new report offers proceedings from a 2007 workshop in Cape Town, South Africa, on the economic valuation of large marine ecosystems (LMEs). Sponsored by IUCN, the workshop gave an overview of economic valuation as a tool in LME management, and profiled several cases of LME valuations worldwide, including for the Benguela Current, Caspian Sea, and Yellow Sea

Integrated Coastal Zone Management - The Global Challenge

Citation Information: Research Publishing Services (December 1, 2008), 800 p.

ISBN: 978-9810589486

Authors: R.R. Krishnamurthy, Bruce C. Glavovic, Andreas Kannen, David R. Green, AL. Ramanathan, Zengcui Han, Stefano Tint, Tundi Agardy

Description: This book presents diverse case studies from around the World, including many Asian countries, Africa, North and South America, Europe, the Middle East, Island Nations, and elsewhere. The book's 39 chapters are organized according to seven interrelated themes including global to local scales of ICZM, human dimensions and social, physical and biological aspects, and key closely linked topics ranging from biodiversity conservation to hazards and risk management, the impact of climate change, and the application of remote sensing and geospatial technologies. The outcome of this compilation is to synthesize recent case study experiences, highlighting the changing global scenario of ICZM, the high demand for coastal resources, current lack of governance, and the need to import and export both techniques and expertise, including the importance of protecting more vulnerable coastal sites from natural calamities. Ultimately, this book provides a means to help address and solve the complexity that exists between coastal systems and anthropogenic activities. The book will be of major interest to all those interested in building more effective coastal management systems and institutions, including coastal managers, scientists, planners, academics, teachers, young researchers, and graduate students.

Increasing Capacity for Stewardship of Oceans and Coasts: A Priority for the 21st Century

Citation Information: The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.;

ISBN: 0-309-11377-6

Date: 2008

Author: Committee on International Capacity-Building for the Protection and Sustainable Use of Oceans and Coasts, Ocean Studies Board, Division of Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council of the National Academies

Description: Ocean and coastal ecosystems are inextricably linked with humans. Nearly 40% of the world’s population is concentrated in the 100-km-wide coastal zone of the continents, and many coastal residents in developing and developed countries depend directly on ocean and coastal ecosystems for their livelihood. Seafood is the primary source of protein for over a billion people, mostly in developing countries. The extraordinary natural productivity of ocean and coastal waters and the strategic benefits of a coastal location for trade, defense, industry, and food production have made oceans and coasts uniquely important.

The needs for the ocean and coastal ecosystems’ goods and services are likely to increase substantially as the human population continues to grow, as more people move to coastal areas, and as people strive to improve their standard of living. As a consequence, the degradation of coastal and marine ecosystems is expected to worsen. That degradation necessitates the building of capacity, especially in developing countries, to ensure the future of ocean and coastal communities, the cultural heritage of indigenous peoples, and ecosystem-based services. Capacity-building for stewardship of the oceans and coasts is a complex multidimensional challenge and needs to be addressed as such. It requires interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches to ensure that stakeholders develop the proper knowledge, skills, and attitudes to be effective stewards of the environment.


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