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Currently indexing 6699 titles

Governing Marine Protected Areas: Getting the Balance Right - Volume 2 - Case Study Reports

Citation Information: Day J (2011) Great Barrier Reef Marine Park – governance analysis. Pages 1-18 in PJS Jones, W Qiu and EM De Santo (Eds) Governing Marine Protected Areas: getting the balance right - Volume 2. Technical Report to Marine & Coastal Ecosystems Branch, UNEP, Nairobi.

Authors: Jon Day

Description: Whilst there is currently a range of guidance available on how to manage marine protected areas (MPAs), there is less guidance available that considers MPAs from a governance perspective. This perspective poses a key question – how do we combine top-down, bottom-up and market approaches for reaching and implementing decisions in order to achieve effective and equitable MPAs? It is widely accepted that all three approaches are important, but how might they be combined in different MPA contexts?

To tackle this question a new partnership amongst a group of governance experts, led by Dr Peter JS Jones (Dept of Geography, University College London), and MPA planners and managers has been initiated to analyse MPA case studies and develop guidance on governing MPAs in seas under national jurisdiction. 20 MPA case study from around the world have been brought together in the preliminary phase and subjected to detailed analysis employing a new governance analysis framework, ‘deconstructing’ the complexities of MPA governance employing 40 incentives from five categories. The report below describes the findings of this work. It is intended to provide a foundation for further discussion and learning, employing the governance analysis framework in different contexts, and to provide a preliminary resource for MPA managers to consider how different incentives might be combined to support the governance of their MPA.

Note: The main report may be downloaded at: /literature-library/1392618602

Case Studies of Three Economic Incentive Approaches in Marine Conservation

Authors: Eduard Niesten and Heidi Gjertsen

Description: This document contains summaries of case studies of three different approaches to providing marine resource users with incentives for conservation: buyouts, conservation agreements, and alternative livelihoods. These case studies informed the volume entitled Economic Incentives for Marine Conservation (Niesten and Gjertsen, 2010), available at /literature-library/1390131007. Please see this companion volume for definitions of the three approaches and guidance on project design informed by analysis of the case studies.

Economic Incentives for Marine Conservation

Citation Information: Niesten, E. and H. Gjertsen. 2010. Economic Incentives for Marine Conservation. Science and Knowledge Division, Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Description: This 40-page guidebook provides recommendations on how to select and implement incentive-based solutions: buyouts, conservation agreements, and alternative livelihoods. Case studies for this document may be found at: /literature-library/1391947207

The Ecosystem Approach to Marine Planning and Management

Citation Information: Routledge, February 28, 2011; 230 pages

ISBN: 9781849711838

Editors: Sue Kidd, Andy Plater and Chris Frid

Description: The marine environment is one of our most precious yet fragile natural resources. It provides a wide range of essential goods and services, including food, regulation of climate and nutrient cycling, as well as a setting for transport, recreation and tourism. This environment is however extremely complex and very sensitive to development pressures and other forms of human influence. Planning and management of the sea are similarly complicated, reflecting intricate legal, institutional and ownerships patterns. This creates a situation where marine ecosystems are vulnerable to over-exploitation or neglect.

The Ecosystem Approach to Marine Planning and Management describes how growing concern about the state of our seas is resulting in the development of new approaches to marine planning and management. For example, the United Nations Environment Programme has called for the widespread introduction of Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), and the European Union has recently been consulting on a new European Maritime Policy designed to stimulate economic growth but at the same time protect the resource base. Within the United Kingdom, the 2010 Marine Act draws upon the experience of town and country planning and brings into being a new system of Marine Spatial Planning. The authors show that a common feature of all these developments is an appreciation that more integrated forms of planning and management are required for our seas and that new arrangements must draw together understanding from natural science, social science and many other perspectives. Adopting such a trans-disciplinary and holistic (or 'ecosystems') approach, the book distils the expertise of these different disciplines and seeks to promote a broader understanding of the origins and practicalities of new approaches to marine planning and management.

Governing Marine Protected Areas: Getting the Balance Right

Citation Information: Jones, PJS, Qiu W, and De Santo EM (2011): Governing Marine Protected Areas - Getting the Balance Right. Technical Report, United Nations Environment Programme

Authors: Peter Jones; Wanfei Qiu; Elizabeth De Santo

Description: Whilst there is currently a range of guidance available on how to manage marine protected areas (MPAs), there is less guidance available that considers MPAs from a governance perspective. This perspective poses a key question – how do we combine top-down, bottom-up and market approaches for reaching and implementing decisions in order to achieve effective and equitable MPAs? It is widely accepted that all three approaches are important, but how might they be combined in different MPA contexts?

To tackle this question a new partnership amongst a group of governance experts, led by Dr Peter JS Jones (Dept of Geography, University College London), and MPA planners and managers has been initiated to analyse MPA case studies and develop guidance on governing MPAs in seas under national jurisdiction. 20 MPA case study from around the world have been brought together in the preliminary phase and subjected to detailed analysis employing a new governance analysis framework, ‘deconstructing’ the complexities of MPA governance employing 40 incentives from five categories. The report below describes the findings of this work. It is intended to provide a foundation for further discussion and learning, employing the governance analysis framework in different contexts, and to provide a preliminary resource for MPA managers to consider how different incentives might be combined to support the governance of their MPA.

Note: The case study report may be downloaded at: /literature-library/1390737608

The Shared Future: A Report of the Aspen Institute Commission on Arctic Climate Change

Citation Information: The Aspen Institute, 2011.

Description: The Aspen Institute and the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation are pleased to release the final report and recommendations of the Aspen Institute Commission on Arctic Climate Change, entitled “The Shared Future: A Report of the Aspen Institute Commission on Arctic Climate Change.” The report and recommendations promote an important new perspective on the level of international cooperation and stewardship that will be necessary to manage the Arctic marine environment in anticipation of the climate change impacts it faces.

Getting Agencies to Work Together: The Practice and Theory of Managerial Craftsmanship

Citation Information: Brookings Institution Press, Dec 1, 1998 - 348 pages

Author: Eugene Bardach

Description: Collaboration between government agencies, an old joke goes, is an unnatural act committed by nonconsenting adults. Eugene Bardach argues that today's opinion climate favoring more results-oriented government makes collaboration a lot more natural--though it is still far from easy. In this book, Bardach diagnoses the difficulties, explains how they are sometimes overcome, and offers practical ideas for public managers, advocates, and others interested in developing interagency collaborative networks.Bardach provides examples from diverse policy areas, including children, youth, and family services; welfare-to-work; antipollution enforcement; fire prevention; and ecosystem management.

Science for Nature Conservation and Management: the Wadden Sea Ecosystem and EU Directives

Citation Information: Marencic, H., Eskildsen, K., Farke, H. and Hedtkamp, S., (Eds.), 2010. Science for Nature Conservation and Management: the Wadden Sea Ecosystem and EU Directives. Proceedings of the 12th International Scientific Wadden Sea Symposium in Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 30 March - 3 April 2009. Wadden Sea Ecosystem No. 26. Common Wadden Sea Secretariat, Wilhelmshaven, Germany

Abstract: Nature conservation and management in the Wadden Sea should, as formulated in the trilateral Guiding Principle, aim “to achieve, as far as possible, a natural and sustainable ecosystem in which natural processes proceed in an undisturbed way”. Much has already been achieved in recent decades but the Wadden Sea is still facing issues of concern such as retarded recovery of biological diversity, the loss of salt marshes, and ongoing contamination with new chemical substances. There is also the need to develop strategies to deal with the consequences of global developments such as climate change and invasive alien species. Finally, in terms of policy and management, there is an increasingly complex system of international, European and national legal instruments and agreements which can both lead to confusion and/or work at cross-purposes. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a better integration in research, monitoring and management with timely involvement and participation of all stakeholders (researchers from various disciplines, government agencies, NGOs and other sectors). A similar holistic and integrative approach should be applied when exploring possibilities for EU-funding.

The Twelfth International Scientific Wadden Sea Symposium discussed these issues under the title ‘Science for Nature Conservation and Management’. Given that the trilateral Wadden Sea Cooperation serves as an example in the wider European or even global context, the symposium considered the following recommendations to be of strategic importance for the three Wadden Governments.

The Wadden Sea Quality Status Report - Synthesis Report 2010

Citation Information: Wim J. Wolff, Jan P. Bakker, Karsten Laursen, Karsten Reise, 2010. Wadden Sea Ecosystem No. 29. Common Wadden Sea Secretariat, Wilhelmshaven, Germany

Abstract: Along the North Sea shore, the largest coherent tidal flat area of the temperate world has evolved. Sediment supply from the sea has sufficiently balanced a slow sea-level rise in the last 8,000 years to maintain a coastal configuration of a seaward sandy barrier, extensive tidal flats and episodically flooded marshes. The Wadden Sea is unique in that it consists of vast (4,700 km2) bare sand and mud flats, emerging twice daily at low tide. Oceanic waters dominate river influence, and dynamic sandy shoals and dune islands provide a partial shelter against waves and winds of a rough sea. In the course of a year, the Wadden Sea is visited by an unparalleled 10-12 million birds for foraging and resting on their East Atlantic flyway. Food provision in the form of tidal flat fauna is 10-20 times higher than in adjacent deeper waters. When the tide is in, the flats serve as a rich nursery for shrimp and fish. The Wadden Sea constitutes a gigantic biological filter between land and sea. This filter is primarily composed (1) of extensive beds of molluscan suspension feeders which filter the local tidal volume about twice a month, (2) of sediment kept permeable by bioturbating lugworms, and (3) of marsh vegetation which functions as a filter during episodic storm surges when waters are loaded with re-suspended fine particles. An impressive number of about 10,000 species of plants, fungi and animals thrive in the Wadden Sea. After a long phase of overexploitation, protection measures have triggered spectacular recoveries in breeding birds and seals. Large-scale land claims have ceased and the Wadden Sea is today highly rated for its serene beauty. Global warming with an accelerating sea-level rise, however, may threaten the sandy barrier and the extent of the tidal flats.

Towards Marine Ecosystem-based Management in the Wider Caribbean

Citation Information: 15,6 x 23,4 cm, 428 pages, paperback, 2011, English

ISBN: 978 90 8964 242 4

Authors: Lucia Fanning, Robin Mahon, Patrick McConney

Description: An approach that encompasses the human and natural dimensions of ecosystems is one that the Wider Caribbean Region knows it must adopt and implement, in order to ensure the sustainable use of the region’s shared marine resources. This volume contributes towards that vision, bringing together the collective knowledge and experience of scholars and practitioners within the Wider Caribbean to begin the process of assembling a road map towards marine ecosystem based management (EBM) for the region. It also serves a broader purpose of providing stakeholders and policy actors in each of the world's sixty-four Large Marine Ecosystems, with a comparative example of the challenges and information needs required to implement principled ocean governance generally and marine EBM in particular, at multiple levels. Additionally, the volume serves to supplement the training of graduate level students in the marine sciences by enhancing interdisciplinary understanding of challenges in implementing marine EBM.

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Strategic Advice on Designing and Implementing Coastal and Marine Spatial Plans

Citation Information: 5/2/2011; Report to the NOAA Science Advisory Board From the Ecosystem Science and Management Working Group

Executive Summary: Marine spatial planning is developing rapidly in many regions and countries in response to increases in ocean uses and user conflicts, growing environmental degradation and loss of ecosystem services, and awareness of the shortcomings of single-sector management. Marine spatial planning attempts to reduce spatial use conflicts and environmental stressors by comprehensively planning for multiple uses and objectives in an ecosystem- and place-based manner (Beck et al. 2009, CEQ 2010).

In July 2010 President Obama issued an executive order adopting the recommendations of the U.S. Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force; Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) is a priority objective (CEQ 2010). In response to the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force’s final recommendations, NOAA has created a CMSP program. The NOAA CSMP program will develop regional and national workshops, establish nine regional planning bodies to facilitate regional plans, and develop a strategic action plan.

To advise NOAA in the development of CMSP, a working group of NOAAs Science Advisory Board formed a CMSP-focused subcommittee to review and assess a representative set of 17 MSP examples from around the world (including plans and national frameworks). Our aim was to offer findings and recommendations from these efforts to assist NOAA (and the NOC) in the development of CMSP regionally and nationally. We developed a survey for these planning efforts and evaluated them based on published literature, interviews with plan leaders, and experiences from our direct involvement in planning efforts. We also examined the broader body of published works on MSP in the evaluation of evidence, findings and recommendations. Our review, findings and recommendations are focused on seven key categories central to the development of CMSP: (i) objectives, (ii) scope, (iii) authority, (iv) participants, (v) data, (vi) decision support and (vii) measures. Across these categories, we identified 23 recommendations for NOAAs consideration.

Science-to-Action Guidebook

Citation Information: Karrer L, Beldia II P, Dennison B, Dominici A, Dutra G, English C, Gunawan T, Hastings J, Katz L, Kelty R, McField M, Nunez E, Obura D, Ortiz F, Quesada M, Sivo L, and Stone G (2011) Science-to-Action Guidebook. Science and Knowledge Division, Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Description: The Science-to-Action Guidebook includes two "guides" in one publication. One guide is intended for scientists, and the other for decision-makers. The downloadable PDF version begins with the decision-maker's guide. To read the scientist's guide, go to the last page of the PDF and then read backwards page by page. The two documents culminate in a summary centerfold.

Recognizing the importance of informed decisions and the differences between the scientific and decision-making processes, this guidebook provides practical tips on how to best bring these worlds together. In doing so, this guidebook emphasizes the roles of facilitating, synthesizing, translating, and communicating science to inform conservation action. The guidebook consists of two sections called "A Decision-maker's Guide to Using Science" and "A Scientist's Guide to Influencing Decision-making". It is geared toward the perspective of scientists and decision-makers working in tropical developing nations and focusing on marine resource management issues. However, the concepts are applicable to a broad range of scientists and decision-makers worldwide.

Decision Guide: Selecting Decision Support Tools for Marine Spatial Planning

Citation Information: Center for Ocean Solutions. 2011. Decision Guide: Selecting Decision Support Tools for Marine Spatial Planning. The Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University, California.

Description: In this Decision Guide, the term marine spatial planning is used, but emphasis is placed on the systematic and spatial nature of these approaches rather than the name itself. The systematic component provides a framework for more comprehensive, flexible, well-governed, and science-based planning processes, while the spatial component adds a place-based focus to planning processes. The goals of these approaches are to promote efficient use of marine space and resources, while reducing use-use and use-ecosystem conflicts. To achieve these goals, resource planners and managers (hereafter referred to as practitioners) need spatially-explicit tools that can help (1) incorporate data from ecological, economic, and social systems; (2) transparently assess management alternatives and trade-offs; (3) involve stakeholders; and (4) evaluate progress towards management objectives. This Decision Guide, produced by the Center for Ocean Solutions (COS) and Pacific Marine Analysis & Research Association (PacMARA), is intended to assist practitioners in selecting appropriate decision support tools that can help them conduct marine spatial planning in their own jurisdictions.

View the accompanying webinar at: /webinars/2011/decision-guide-selecting-decision-support-tools-marine-spatial-planning

Study on the Economic Effects of Maritime Spatial Planning - Case Studies

Citation Information: April 2010; Policy Research Corporation; Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, MARE.E.1 Maritime Policy Baltic and North Sea, European Commission, B-1049 Brussels

Description: Case studies associated with the report, "Study on the Economic Effects of Maritime Spatial Planning - Final Report"

Study on the Economic Effects of Maritime Spatial Planning - Final Report

Citation Information: April 2010; Policy Research Corporation; Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, MARE.E.1 Maritime Policy Baltic and North Sea, European Commission, B-1049 Brussels

ISBN: 978-92-79-19791-8

DOI: 10.2771/85535

Description: Maritime Spatial Planning (hereafter MSP) is a tool for improved decision-making, providing a framework for arbitrating between competing human activities and managing their impact on the marine environment. Authorities and other stakeholders expect that MSP will bring substantial benefits to maritime economies and the marine environment in Europe.

In this regard, the question is what kind of benefits will result from MSP and how large will these benefits be. This study aims to provide greater insight into MSP’s economic effects, i.e. the effects of MSP for the maritime economy and stakeholders directly related to the maritime economy. Factors such as employment and environmental effects are not included in this study.

Unlike cost benefit analyses, the report is mostly limited to a qualitative assessment of the benefits associated with MSP, although it also includes a methodology which has been applied to provide an indication of the quantitative effects of MSP. These quantitative effects need to be interpreted with great care; they provide insights on a macro-economic level, but are based on assumptions and require additional studies on a case-by-case basis in order to be able to draw more accurate conclusions.

Catchment Management and Coral Reef Conservation: a practical guide for coastal resource managers to reduce damage from catchment areas based on best practice case studies

Citation Information: 2011; Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre Townsville, Australia, 120 P.

Authors: Wilkinson, C. and J. Brodie 

Abstract: This book aims to help people manage coral reefs and other coastal ecosystems; especially to solve problems that flow from nearby catchment (watershed) areas. Such catchment areas may be adjacent to the coral reef, or include areas a long way away and outside the jurisdiction and control of the coastal manager. This book introduces ways to reduce some of that damage through cooperation with people and industries upstream, based on the experiences of many coastal managers around the world. A catchment area is defined as all the land that channels rainwater and groundwater into a river or stream, that then delivers water to coastal areas, in this case areas that contain coral reefs. The term catchment is often interchangeable with watershed, which is particularly used in the USA and nearby countries. However, watershed is also used to describe the boundary line between two catchment areas i.e. a line drawn across the tops of hills or mountains. In the distant past, many coral reefs developed downstream of catchment areas and were able to cope with low levels of sediment and nutrient flows, but recent increases in human populations and  development near the coast are delivering large increases in sediment and nutrient pollution that is damaging coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds. Catchments deliver the following things to the coast:

Examples of Ecosystem-Based Management in National Marine Sanctuaries: Moving from Theory to Practice

Citation Information: May 2010; U.S. Department of Commerce; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; National Ocean Service; Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management; Office of National Marine Sanctuaries

Editors: James Lindholm and Robert Pavia

Authors: Leslie Abramson; Catherine Benson; Kimo Carvalho; Chelsea Combest-Friedman; Jen Dupont; Katherine Emery; Erik Franklin; Heather Havens; Jennifer Johnson; Jeremy Kerr; Emily Klein; Ashley Knight; Jamie Mooney; Alesia Read; Sarah Teck

Description: In the fall of 2008, graduate students from eight universities-California State University Monterey Bay, University of California Santa Barbara, University of Connecticut, University of Hawai'i, University of Michigan, University of New Hampshire, University of South Florida, University of Washington-participated in a "Distributed Graduate Seminar" (DGS) at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) at the University of California Santa Barbara. The goal of the semester-long seminar was to examine the role of the Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS) in implementing ecosystem-based management (EBM) at the sites that make up the National Marine Sanctuary system. Each university collaborated with one or more Sanctuaries to conduct a case study based on a core set of questions regarding EBM.

The products of these case studies encompassed a wide-range of topics, including detailed summaries of existing management strategies and original quantitative analyses and tools for implementing EBM within sanctuary boundaries. The Sanctuary Program's important role as a facilitator of management action was an emergent property of the case studies. They also found that facilitating management actions and engagement of partners is effectively used by sanctuaries and more common than regulatory actions. In April 2009, NCEAS hosted a "Synthesis Working Group" that brought together representative graduate students and faculty from seven of the eight universities and ONMS staff to examine their case studies and share findings and establish commonalities amongst all Sanctuaries. The following is a synthesis produced at the April meeting of the Seminar case study materials.

Payments for Ecosystem Services: Getting Started in Coastal and Marine Ecosystems - A Primer

Date: February 2010

Abstract: Healthy and robust marine ecosystems provide the underpinnings for profitable industries and support coastal communities throughout the world. In addition, oceans play crucial roles in regulating the atmosphere and modulating weather, storing carbon, cycling nutrients, and providing other ecosystem services. Coastal areas provide essential resources, buffer land from storms, and provide living space for almost half of the global population. Yet today many of these ecosystems and the services they provide are under threat.

This primer is designed to provide you with a solid understanding of what payments for ecosystem services (PES) are and how PES deals work in the marine environment. Specifically, it describes:

  • the opportunities and risks of PES schemes, to enable accurate feasibility assessments for applying these new market-based mechanisms;
  • steps to developing PES projects;
  • considerations of PES for poverty reduction; and
  • resources for additional reference and reading.

It is intended for an audience interested in exploring the potential of PES — either as prospective PES sellers themselves or as staff of organizations that work directly with coastal communities or coastal and marine resource owners who may be interested in PES.

The Little Biodiversity Finance Book - 3rd Edition (2012)

Citation Information: Parker, C., Cranford, M., Oakes, N., Leggett, M. ed., 2012. The Little Biodiversity Finance Book, Global Canopy Programme; Oxford.

Description: The aim of the Little Biodiversity Finance Book is to help key stakeholders including governments, NGOs, the private sector, indigenous peoples and local communities to compare existing and future options for biodiversity finance in a clear and consistent way. To do so, this publication introduces an overarching framework that organises financial mechanisms under three main headings: revenue generation, delivery and institutional arrangements. These modules can be thought of as independent building blocks that can be arranged in a ‘mix and match’ approach, choosing the most suitable options from each module to create a more effective, efficient, and equitable financial system.

Getting Closer to EBM: Evaluation of the Packard Foundation EBM Initiative - Executive Summary

Citation Information: ARCeconomics, Inc.; April 2009

Description: At the end of 2003, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation’s board launched a strategy for the Science subprogram, with a long term goal “to create, and ensure the use of, the knowledge, tools, and skills needed to manage coastal-marine systems sustainably” (Gold, Rhemus and Leape, 2003).

The Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) Initiative for Sustainable Coastal and Marine Systems was the primary vehicle for this strategy, and its 5-year objectives included creating a scientifically credible knowledge framework for EBM; developing tools to allow scientists to do the analyses and assessments that underpin EBM; and promoting significant conservation advances in California, the Gulf of California, and the Western Pacific. Through the spring of 2008, the EBM Initiative made 85 grants totaling over $24 million.
The rationales behind the initiative were the demonstrated shortcomings of existing approaches for coastal marine conservation and the strengthening call for a new management approach articulated by two prominent national studies, the Pew Oceans Commission and the U.S. Ocean Commission (Pew, 2003; U.S. Commission, 2004). The Pew report concluded that “To govern the oceans for the long-term public good, we need to manage with the entire ecosystem in mind“(Pew 2003, p. 26).

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